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New York

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Lucas Dutra

on 1 November 2015

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Transcript of New York

The legendary 1960s struggle between city planner Robert Moses against neighborhood activist Jane Jacobs. Moses wanted to make the city easily navigable by car. During his reign, he displaced half a million people with highways. But the powerful planner met his match when he proposed an expressway through Lower Manhattan. Though she had little institutional support, Jacobs built a citizen coalition that ultimately defeated Moses. Jacobs disagreed with Le Corbusier's vision of an ideal city, explaining that it was so orderly and visible, but cities don't work that way.
As a result, New York became one of the few american cities where one does not need a car to move around. The metro system is one of the best in the world, working during the whole day. As a result, 75% of New Yorkers commute by subway. The opposite example is Los Angeles, a city built for the cars and where the traffic is a constant nowadays.

Source: The Atlantic City Lab: Robert Moses Vs. Jane Jacobs: The Opera
6. Sources
GARVIN, Alexander. (1995). The American City: What Works, What Doesn't. Quebecor/Kingsport Press. New York, NY.

BOYER, Christine. (1983). Dreaming the Rational City: The Myth of American City Planning. Edwards Brothers, Inc. Massachusetts, USA

HARDINGHAUS, Matthias. (2004). Zur amerikanischen Entwicklung der Stadt: Ein Beitrag zur Kulturgenese des City-Suburb-Phänomens unter besonderer Berücksichtigung protestantisch-calvinistischer Leitbilder. Peter Lang Verlag. Frankfurt am Main.

NISSEN, Sylke. (2012). Die regierbare Stadt. Metropolenpolitik als Konstruktion lösbarer Probleme. New York, London und Berlin im Vergleich. Westdeutscher Verlag. Wiesbaden.

MIDDLETON, Richard. (1996). Colonial America. Blackwell Publishers Ltd. Oxford.

DIAMOND,Henry L.Noonan , Patrick F. (1996). Land Use in America. Island Press. Washington DC.

CULLINGWORTH, Barry. (1997). Planning in the USA: policies, issues and processes. Routledge. New York, NY.

DOMOSH, Mona. (1996). Invented Cities: The Creation of Landscape in Nineteenth-Century New York and Boston. Yale University. Hong Kong.
Setbacks
Empire State Building, Manhattan.
Source: Eric Mayville
Chrysler Building, Manhattan.
Source: Kris Banning
1916 Zoning Resolution
The Resolution required setbacks in new buildings, and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below. The Art Deco style of the Chrysler Building (1930) and Empire State Building (1931), with their conical tops and steel spires, reflected the zoning requirements. These two buildings were constructed during the great construction boom of the 1920's, and they helped to employ many workers after the Great Depression caused by the Wall Street Crash of 1929.
The Equitable Building is a 40-story office building in New York City, located in Lower Manhattan
Source: www.memory.gov
New York City 1916 Zoning Resolution
- 1880's New Yorkers' protest

- Expanding financial center, mass immigration and improving construction techniques

- The Equitable Building controversy

- Stop massive buildings from preventing light and air to the streets below

- Land uses, height and setback controls

- Pioneering Concept
Seagram Building and Plaza
Source: Alexander Garvin
Tendencies and Zoning Today
3.4 - 1961 Zoning Resolution
By mid-century, many of the underlying planning principles of the 1916 document no longer stood the test of time. If, for example, the city had been built out at the density envisioned in 1916, it could have contained over 55 million people, far beyond its realistic capacity. New theories were capturing the imaginations of planners. Le Corbusier’s “tower-in-the-park” model was influencing urban designers of the time and the concept of incentive zoning - trading additional floor area for public amenities - began to take hold. The last, still vacant areas on the city’s edges needed to be developed at densities that recognized the new, automobile-oriented lifestyle. Also, demands to make zoning approvals simpler, swifter and more comprehensible were a constant.
Eventually, it was evident that the original 1916 framework needed to be completely reconsidered. After lengthy study and public debate, the current Zoning Resolution was enacted and took effect in 1961. The 1961 Zoning Resolution was a product of its time. It coordinated use and bulk regulations, incorporated parking requirements and emphasized the creation of open space. It introduced incentive zoning by adding a bonus of extra floor space to encourage developers of office buildings and apartment towers to
incorporate plazas into their projects, providing additional space, light and air for pedestrians, particularly in dense built-up areas, like Lower Manhattan.
In the city’s business districts, it accommodated a new type of high-rise office building with large, open floors of a consistent size. Elsewhere in the city, the
1961 Zoning Resolution dramatically reduced residential densities
, largely at the edges of the city.
For the first time, the city had density controls that established the number of people likely to occupy every development site. Ostensibly, that density was related either to the existing capacity of infrastructure (water, sewer, streets, transit) and community facilities (schools, libraries, parks, playgrounds, etc). Although based upon the leading planning theories of the day, aspects of those zoning policies have revealed certain shortcomings over the years.
The emphasis on open space

sometimes resulted in buildings that overwhelm their surroundings, and the open spaces created by incentive zoning provisions have not always been useful or attractive.

Urban design theories have changed as well. Today, tower-in-the-park developments, set back far from the city street, are often viewed as isolating and contrary to the goal of creating a vibrant urban streetscape.



Sources:
- Department of City Planning of New York City - Zoning Background; www.nyc.gov/zone - accessed in 15/05/2015
- The American City: What Works, What Doesn't - Alexander Garvin, 1995


The plaza bonus in an incentive for developers to provide the public with accessible open areas around their buildings. Such plazas presumably increase pedestrian space in densely built-up areas and sun and sky in areas with a preponderance of tall buildings. In compensation for this public benefit, developers receive a bonus of additional rentable floor area.
The 1961 Resolution established zones in which every square foot of exterior public plaza entitled the developer to an additional 2 square feet of interior floor area. This bonus ''proved almost embarrassingly successful. Between 1961 and 1973 some 1.1 million square feet of new open space was created''. Its effectiveness, however, varied significantly. In lower Manhattan, with its narrow twisting streets and busy sidewalks, the plaza bonus produced miraculous results. It freed pedestrian traffic, provided sitting areas, opened vistas to the sky, and even allowed the sun to light up small portions of ground. But opposite parks and along wide avenues it was superfluous.

Source: The American City: What Works, What Doesn't - Alexander Garvin, 1995; page 389
Seagram Building and Plaza. The German architect Mies van der Rohe designed an open plaza in front of the building, and it became a very popular gathering place.
Source: Alexander Garvin
Plaza Bonus
1961 Zoning Resolution
1961 Zoning Resolution
New York City's 1916 Zoning Resolution and all zoning ordinances established three land use categories: exclusively residential, commercial (in which residential uses are permitted), and unlimited (to which manufacturing is relegated). Following the precedent of New York City's 1961 Zoning Resolution, most cities dropped the unlimited category, replacing it with manufacturing zones (in which certain commercial, but not residential uses are permitted). The logic behind this segregation of manufacturing is that the traffic, noise, fumes, and industrial waste that are generated are inappropriate to most residential areas.
Some critics question even the desire to separate land uses. Jane Jacobs, in her pioneering book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, for example, argues for mixed land use as a way of ensuring safety and neighborhood vitality, pointing out that cities need ''people who go outdoors on different schedules...for different purposes, but who are able to use many facilities in common''. The only way to generate activity 24 hours a day is to allow for buildings that will contain the widest variety of uses. Starting in the 1970s, cities began redesigning zones for mixed use.
Plan Voisin for Paris - Le Corbusier. The separation of uses and the tower-in-the-park buildings are viewed today as isolating and contrary to vibrant urban life.
Source: preceden.com
New York City's Land Use Map
Source: Department of City Planning of New York City - Zoning Today
www.nyc.gov/zoning
Accessed in 28/05/2015
3. Tendencies and Zoning Today
1916 Zoning Resolution
1916 Zoning Resolution
The Equitable Building is a 40-story office building in New York City, located in Lower Manhattan.
Source: www.memory.gov
As early as the 1870’s and 1880’s, New Yorkers began to protest against the loss of light and air as taller residential buildings began to appear in Manhattan. In response, the state legislature enacted a series of height restrictions on residential buildings, culminating in the Tenement House Act of 1901. By then, New York City had become the financial center of the country and expanding businesses needed office space. With the introduction of steel frame construction techniques and improved elevators, technical restraints that had limited building height vanished. The Manhattan skyline was beginning to assume its distinctive form.

In 1915, when the 42-story Equitable Building was erected in Lower Manhattan, the need for controls on the height and form of all buildings became clear. Rising without setbacks to its full height of 538 feet, the Equitable Building cast a seven-acre shadow over neighboring buildings, affecting their value and setting the stage for the nation’s first comprehensive zoning resolution. Other forces were also at work during the same period. Housing shortages, caused by an influx of new immigrants, created a market for tenements built to maximum bulk and minimum standards. Warehouses and factories began to encroach upon the fashionable stores along Ladies’ Mile, edging uncomfortably close to Fifth Avenue. Intrusions like these and the impacts of rapid growth added urgency to the calls of reformers for zoning restrictions separating residential, commercial and manufacturing uses and for new and more effective height and setback controls for all uses.

Sources:
- Department of City Planning of New York City - Zoning Background; www.nyc.gov/zone - accessed in 15/05/2015
- The American City: What Works, What Doesn't - Alexander Garvin, 1995
The concept of enacting a set of laws to govern land use and bulk was revolutionary, but the time had come for the city to regulate its surging physical growth. The groundbreaking Zoning Resolution of 1916, though a relatively simple document, established height and setback controls and designated residential districts that excluded what were seen as incompatible uses. It fostered the iconic tall, slender towers that came to epitomize the city’s business districts and established the familiar scale of three- to six-story residential buildings found in much of the city. The new ordinance became a model for urban communities throughout the United States as other growing cities found that New York’s problems were not unique. The 1916 Resolution set off a chain reaction in the rest of the country. Within 5 years, 76 communities had adopted similar statutes. By 1926 that number had grown to 564.

But, while other cities were adopting the New York model, the model itself refused to stand still. The Zoning Resolution was frequently amended to be responsive to major shifts in population and land use caused by a variety of factors: continuing waves of immigration that helped to swell the city’s population from five million in 1916 to over eight million in 2010; new mass transit routes and the growth corridors they created; the emergence of technology and consequent economic and lifestyle changes; the introduction of government housing and development programs; and, perhaps more than anything else, the increase in automobile usage, which revolutionized land use patterns and created traffic and parking problems never imagined in 1916.

Sources:
- Department of City Planning of New York City - Zoning Background; www.nyc.gov/zone - accessed in 15/05/2015
- The American City: What Works, What Doesn't - Alexander Garvin, 1995
This advertisement in 1916 in The New York Times demanding action to save the city from incompatible land uses played a major role in persuading the city to enact comprehensive zoning. It highlights the importance of city planning and different districts as the factory invasion of the shopping district displaced multiple stores and homes. This add also asks for public participation and cooperation from the population.

New York City 1916 Zoning Resolution
New York Times' Advertisement
Source: The American City: What Works, What doesn't
Manhattan, 1916. Land uses permitted by the Zoning Resolution of 1916:

- Streets and avenues left blank were zoned for residential use only.

- Those marked in black were zoned for either commercial or residential use.

- On streets and avenues lined with black dots the zoning land use was unlimited (to which manufacturing is relegated)

Land uses
1916 Zoning Resolution
Source: New York City Department of City Planning
3.1 - 1811 Commissioner's Plan - The Grid Plan
Commissioner's Plan Map
Source: www.urbanomnibus.net
View from 2nd Avenue in 1861
Source: supremefiction.com
The Commissioners' Plan of 1811 was the original design plan for the streets of Manhattan, which put in place the grid plan that has defined Manhattan to this day. In 1811 the city leaders were looking to the future and considering what kind of changes were needed to prepare the city in a long term future, because they understood that the lack of urban planning could inhibit the development of Manhattan. The grid plan was established in 1811 and it proposed a grid system with 12 north-south avenues parallel to the Hudson River and numerous cross streets arranged in a regular right-angled grid. It has been called "the single most important document in New York City's development," and it was described by the commission that created it as combining "beauty, order and convenience", as well as allowing abundant circulation of air to avoid diseases. The driving force behind the grid were three commissioners who were appointed by the New York Legislature to establish this plan. After that, generation after generation of city leaders worked to implement the plan.
New York was not flat but hilly with swamps and streams. So part of facilitating the development of the grid was largely flattening the island, filling in the swamps and leveling the hills. Since its earliest days, the plan has been criticized for not taking into account the natural topography of the island, for its monotony and rigidity, in comparison with irregular street patterns of older cities. The designer of Central Park did not appreciate the grid of Manhattan, because he considered it anti-architectural and that it would deprive the city of having any of the monuments that had distinguished the great cities of Europe, like Paris or London. The grid was a result of a set of hard decisions and policies that were enforced over a century.

Source: Hilary Ballon, New York University, "The Greatest Grid: The Master Plan of Manhattan, 1811-2011"
Le Promenade plantée in Paris
(4,8km long) - 1993
Source: Patric Giraud
Source: Peter Eastern
Despite all the critics, one thing is certain: the plan, as most of New York City, was visionary. The long term perspective in city planning gave rise to one of the most important cities in the world. The plan brought some very beneficial elements to the city and population: it is extremely easy to move around in New York City, given that the streets and avenues follow the same pattern of numbers and angles. The use of numbers in both directions was quite unusual when it was created and it proved to be extremely orienting. For example, someone could refer to their location as ''at the corner of Fifth Avenue and 42nd Street''. The grid system also provided the long views up and down the streets, granting an infinit vista. In a lot of cities there is something that prevents that long view.

Source: Hilary Ballon, New York University, "The Greatest Grid: The Master Plan of Manhattan, 1811-2011"
The Grid Plan
New York City Number's System
Source: canadianbusiness
New York City's streets and avenues today
Source: new school of design
The Visionary Plan
from Railroad to High Line Park
History
Project/ Design
Maintaining the Park
"Friends of the high line" - Department of Parks & Recreation's non-profit partner
3. New York City's Planning
New York City is a city in constant change and a pioneer in many urban planning aspects. Along the years, many urban plans and public participation have shaped the city and transformed it in one of the most important cities in the world. When people think about New York City today, they all think about skyscrapers, the skyline, dense streets and long avenues. But why is the city the way it is today? And how did the population influence the development of this global metropolis? It all started with the Grid Plan, also called the Commissioner's Plan.
New York's skyline, one of the most famous in the world.
Source: www.history.com
3. New York City's Planning
New York's skyline, one of the most famous in the world.
Source: www.history.com
Why is New York City the way it is today?

How did the population's participation influence the development of this global metropolis?
1811 Commissioner's Plan - The Grid Plan
Commissioner's Plan Map
Source: www.urbanomnibus.net
View from 2nd Avenue in 1861
Source: supremefiction.com
-Original design plan for the streets of Manhattan

- Prepare the city for the future

- ''The Grid Plan is the single most important document in New York City's development''

- ''Beauty, order and convenience''

- Criticized for monotony and rigidity

- Visionary
New York City Number's System
Source: canadianbusiness
3.2 Central Park
Central Park was America's first great urban park, create as a place where people from all backgrounds could come together to mingle and relax. By the middle of the nineteenth century vast tides of immigrants were pouring into American's cities. The more congested these cities became, the more public demanded parks. The first American city to respond to this demand was New York. In 1850, when the city's population had reached 654,000, public clamor for parks spilled over into the mayoral election campaign. The following year the newly elected mayor, Ambrose Kingsland, obtained approval from the State Legislature for the creation of a major park. As he put it, a place intended for people to escape from the hustle and bustle of the city:

''A place where people would rejoice in being able to breathe pure air, while they ride and drive through its avenues free from...noise, dust and confusion''.

The idea is that parks can improve the surrounding city and become part of city planning. In 1857, after much discussion the Commissioners for the new Central Park decided to hold a design competition. Thirty-five designs were submitted. A proposal entitled ''Greensward'' by Frederick Law Olmsted and his architect partner Calvert Vaux won the competition. The design was an adaptation of English garden design. The Park extends north-south for 2 and a half miles, dividing the east and west sides of Manhattan. The Park is a success due to its location and design, since hundreds of thousands of people live and work within a few minutes's walk of the park. On a typical weekend, more than a quarter of a million people go to the park.
Once New York City created Central Park, citizens in almost every other city pressed for something similar. This resulted in many parks throughout the United States, like Fairmount Park in Philadelphia, Rock Creek Park in Washington, D.C., Forest Park in St. Louis, Golden Gate Park in San Francisco, and City Park in Denver are only a few of the more famous results.

Source: The American City: What Works, What Doesn't - Alexander Garvin, 1995
Location of Central Park in Midtown Manhattan
Source: worldeasyguides.com
Central Park is a network of garderns, meadows and lakes which expand more than 50 city blocks
Source: roadtrippers.com
Central Park in Midtown Manhattan. Central Park is the most visited city park in the United States
Source: ZeroOne
Because Broadway preceded the grid that the Commissioners' Plan of 1811 imposed on the island, Broadway crosses midtown Manhattan diagonally, intersecting with both the east-west streets and north-south avenues.
Source: Xenany
Manhattan's map today. The grid system continues to be one of the characteristics of Manhattan.
Source: Google Maps
The Grid Plan
The Plan today
Broadway crosses midtown Manhattan diagonally
Source: Xenany
Manhattan's map today. The Grid remains intact
Source: Google Maps
The Grid Plan
The Plan today
1916 Zoning Resolution
A construction worker on top of the Empire State Building in 1930. To the right, is the Chrysler Building.
Source: Lewis Hine
The nation's first Zoning Resolution
3.3 - 1916 Zoning Resolution
A construction worker on top of the Empire State Building in 1930. To the right, is the Chrysler Building.
Source: Lewis Hine
The nation's first comprehensive Zoning Resolution
What is zoning and why is it important for city planning?

- Zoning is a set of measures that shapes and organizes the city

- Relatively short history

- Determines size, use and location of buildings and density in neighborhoods

- Tool for carrying out planning policy

- New York is a pioneer with the Zoning Resolution of 1916

- Public participation is a key element in the creation of more reasonable zoning resolutions
New York City 1916 Zoning Resolution
The New York Times' Advertisement
New York City, 1916. The New York Times.
Source: The American City: What Works, What doesn't
Manhattan, 1916. Land uses permitted by the Zoning Resolution of 1916

Land uses
New York City 1916 Zoning Resolution
Manhattan, 1893. Fifth Avenue north of 42nd Street was entirely residential prior to zoning
Source: Museum of the City of New York
Manhattan, 1967. Fifth Avenue north of 42nd Street became entirely commercial after it was zoned for commercial use
Source: Alexander Garvin
1916 Zoning Resolution
Changes due to land uses
Manhattan, 1893. Fifth Avenue north of 42nd Street was entirely residential prior to zoning
Source: Museum of the City of New York
Manhattan, 1967. Fifth Avenue north of 42nd Street became entirely commercial after it was zoned for commercial use
Source: Alexander Garvin
1916 Zoning Resolution
Changes due to land uses
- Restricted towers to allow sunlight to reach the streets below

- The Art Deco style with conical tops reflected the zoning requirements

- Great Construction Boom and Great Depression in 1929
Setbacks
Empire State Building, Manhattan.
Source: Eric Mayville
Chrysler Building, Manhattan.
Source: Kris Banning
1916 Zoning Resolution
1961 Zoning Resolution
Tendencies and Zoning Today
- Cities never stand still, nor should zoning

- Sustainable Principles

-Affordable Housing

New York City's Land Use Map
Source: Department of City Planning of New York City - Zoning Today
www.nyc.gov/zoning

- Mixed use zoning

- Housing Boom outside Manhattan

- Increasing Gentrification


Jane Jacobs and the automobile discussion
Source: Metrojacksonville
Jane Jacobs (wearing glasses) with the crowds outside Penn Station in 1963, protesting the building's demolition. Photograph: Walter Daran/Getty Images
Source: The Guardian
Plan Voisin for Paris - Le Corbusier
Source: preceden.com
- In 1961, after years of consultations and community participation, the city adopted the new zoning resolution

- Le Corbusier's influence

- Emphasis on open spaces

- Plaza Bonus

- Critized for separation of uses and isolating buildings


Jane Jacobs with the crowds in New York in 1963, protesting against a building's demolition.
Source: The Guardian
Jane Jacobs and the automobile
Traffic in Los Angeles, USA
Source: campuscircle.com
New York is one of the few American Cities where one doesn't need a car to move around
Source: metrojacksonville
Midtown Manhattan
Source: Google Maps
Discussion
Hamburg City Center
Source: Google Earth
Lüneburg City Center
Source: Google Maps
Is it more practical and comfortable to live and move around in a planned and logical city like New York or in a more organic city like Hamburg and Lüneburg?
Midtown Manhattan
Source: Google Maps
Discussion
Hamburg City Center
Source: Google Earth
Lüneburg City Center
Source: Google Maps
Is it more practical and comfortable to live and move around in a planned and logical city like New York or in a more organic city like Hamburg and Lüneburg?
New York City
Bürgerbeteiligung im Zeitraffer - Von Rebellion und Reform bis heute. Ein internationaler Vergleich
Leuphana Universität Lüneburg
Students: Chan Yuen Chi
Julia Ceccon Ortolan
Lucas Dutra Nunes

Professor: Tanja Peickert
CONTENTS
1. History

2. New York City Nowadays and Boroughs

3. City Planning

4. Recent Projects

5. Online and Civiv Participation

6. Sources
Medium Household Income by census in 1990, 2000, and 2013. Lighter areas have lower median incomes and darker have higher ones
Source: United States Census
Gentrification
Medium Household Income Map - New York City 1990
Medium Household Income Map - New York City 2000
Medium Household Income Map - New York City 2013
New York's city planning is in constant motion, as well as the city and its population. Therefore, since the passage of the 1961 zoning ordinance, new approaches have been continually developed to deal with issues and opportunities that emerge as New York City grows and changes. A combination of incentive zoning, contextual zoning and special district techniques have been used to make zoning a more responsive and sensitive planning tool.
Today’s zoning has been designed to reshape the city by embodying smart growth and sustainable principles while addressing a range of goals as diverse as New York City’s neighborhoods. Over the past nine years, over 9,400 blocks - equal to roughly one-fifth of the city - have been rezoned. In a city where housing is always in short supply, new opportunities for housing development, market-rate and affordable, have been created in former industrial areas and in established neighborhoods with good transit connections that can sustain increased density.
The Zoning Resolution has been revised to achieve planning objectives across neighborhoods throughout the city. Affordable housing incentives have been made more widely applicable, and mixed use zoning has been used to help create vibrant, active neighborhoods, particularly in areas where residential uses were previously prohibited. Special incentives have been created to promote fresh food stores in underserved areas, and a range of zoning amendments have been adopted to ensure a more sustainable city through requirements for bicycle parking, mandatory street trees, with more green space in front yards, and landscaping in parking lots. New rules have also been adopted to assure a more open and inviting waterfront.
The Zoning Resolution is a blueprint for the development of the city. It is flexible enough to address the advances in technology, neighborhood transformations, changing land use patterns and emerging design philosophies that combine to make New York one of the great cities of the world. New York City is recognized for its iconic landmarks, but it is also at the forefront of continual reinvention and architectural exploration. There is no doubt that the Resolution will continue to change and evolve as we confront new challenges and shape the city to ensure a better future for all New Yorkers. Cities never stand still, nor should zoning.

Source: Department of City Planning of New York City - Zoning Today
www.nyc.gov/zoning
accessed in 08/06/2015
Source: United States Census
3. Gentrification
Medium Household Income Map - New York City 1990
Medium Household Income Map - New York City 2000
Medium Household Income Map - New York City 2013
2. New York City Nowadays
Manhattan
Queens
Brooklyn
Brooklyn is the most populous of New York City's five boroughs, with a Census-estimated 2,621,793 people in 2014. Brooklyn is famous of its public transportation. Eight subway lines go through this area. 92% of the residents use the subway to commute. There are 170 subway stations in Brooklyn.
The Bronx
Queens is the easternmost and largest in area of the five boroughs of New York City. LaGuardia Airport and John F. Kennedy International Airport are located in this area. Queens are also famous of its diversity in population. Many residents come from Asia , Latin America and Africa.
The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City. Since 19th and 20th century , many immigrants settled in this area. First from the European countries, especially Ireland, Germany and Italy and later from the Caribbean, e.g Jamaica, Dominican Republic. Now, a lot of African American live in this area. The diversity in culture made the Bronx the birthplace of Latin Music and Hip Hop.
La Guardia Airport
Source: experiencetheskies.com
Staten Island
Queens Neighborhood
Source: kaled.com
Manhattan is the smallest within the five boroughs but its population density is the highest. During a typical weekday, commuters swell the population of the island to 3.1 million, up from 1.6 million permanent residents. It is surrounded by the East River, Hudson River and Harlem River. It is always being seen as the heart of the economy and culture. Wall Street, New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ are all located at Downtown Manhattan. Over fifty million tourists visit Manhattan every year. Many famous touristic attractions are located at the area, e.g Time Square, Broadway, Central Park , Metropolitan museum of Art.
Brooklyn Bridge
Source: Arch2all
Staten Island is the least populated of the boroughs but is the third-largest in area. Staten Island is the only borough that is not connected to the New York City Subway system. The free Staten Island Ferry connects the borough to Manhattan and is a popular tourist attraction, providing views of the Statue of Liberty and Lower Manhattan.
The night view of Manhattan
Source : Kleberly Wallpapers
Brooklyn
Source: D Ramey Logan
Wall Street
Source : Evil Corps

New York City, in the U.S. state of New York, is composed of five boroughs. They are Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx, and Staten Island.
Source: media.web.britannica
Chinatown
Source : The Nine Horizons
Staten Island Ferry
Source : Heather Wolf
1. History
The Dutch West India Company established New Netherland in North America .
Source : commons.wikimedia.org
In 1785, New York City became the first capital of the United States.
Source : gaeleire.freeservers.com
Five borough formed ‘’Greater New York’''
Source : Map of Greater New York City courtesy of NYC & Co.
New Amsterdam in 1664, the year England took control and renamed it "New York"
Source: Patrickneil
The first underground line of the subway opened at 1904.
Source : stevenraker.com
Medium Household income by census in 1990, 2000, and 2013. Lighter areas have lower medium incomes and darker have higher ones
Source : telegraph.co.uk
- More than 8 million residents live in New York City.

- 37% of them were born outside the United State.

- More than one million Asians settle in the city.

- There are 3.2 million residential units.

- The average member of family member is 2.59.

- 4,500 skyscrapers form the skyline of New York City.

- 2000 of them are for residential use.
Presentation
In 16th century, many European countries established colonies in North America. In 1625, the Dutch West India Company was formed to establish a base and exploit the area’s commercial opportunities and named the area as ‘’New Netherland’’.

In 1664, England won the war and renamed it as ’’New York’’ so as to honor the Duke of York. It soon became an important port in the New England.

After the American War of Independence, New York became the capital of the United States until 1790. It was still one of the nation’s most important ports, especially in cotton economy with Europe.

In 1895, Residents of Queens, the Bronx , Staten Island and Brooklyn – all independent cities – voted to consolidate with Manhattan to from a five borough ‘’Greater New York’’. Three years later, the population of the city reached about 3 million. The operation of the fist subway line in 1904 symbolized the urbanization of the city. In 1907, the number of migrants reached one million. The growth in economy and population led to the urbanization of the city. It replaced London as the most populated city in the world in 1925.

Nowadays, New York City is the most populated city in the United State and one of the biggest cities in the world.
1. The History of New York City
- More than 8 million residents
- 37% of population were born outside the United States
- More than one million Asians live in New York
- 4,500 skyscrapers
- 2000 for residential use
- 3.2 million residential units
- Average number of family member : 2.59



Source : telegraph.co.uk
Five boroughs :

Manhattan
Brooklyn
Queens
the Bronx
Staten Island

Source: media.web.britannica
Manhattan
- Smallest but with highest population density
- 1.6 million permanent residents
- 3.5 million commuters
- Heart of the economy and culture
- Wall Street , New York Stock Exchange
- Time Square, Broadway, Central Park

The night view of Manhattan
Source : Kleberly Wallpapers
Wall Street
Source : Evil Corps

Brooklyn
- Most populous (2,621,793 people in 2014)
- Center of public transportation
- 92 % of the residents use the subway to commute
- 170 subway stations

Brooklyn Bridge
Source: Arch2all
Brooklyn
Source: D Ramey Logan
Bronx
- The northernmost
- Area of immigrants
- European ( especially Ireland, Germany and Italy)
- African American
- Cultural diversity (e,g Latin Music, Hip Hop )


Chinatown
Source : The Nine Horizons
Queens
- Easternmost and largest
- LaGuardia Airport and John F. Kennedy International Airport
- Diversity in population ( Asia , Latin America , Africa )
La Guardia Airport
Source: experiencetheskies.com
Queens Neighborhood
Source: kaled.com
Staten Island
- The least populated
- The third-largest in area
- Only borough that is not connected to the New York City Subway
- The free Staten Island Ferry
- Views of the Statue of Liberty and Lower Manhattan





Staten Island Ferry
Source : Heather Wolf
Central Park
Location of Central Park in Midtown Manhattan
Source: worldeasyguides.com
Central Park is a network of garderns, meadows and lakes which expand more than 50 city blocks
Source: roadtrippers.com
- First great urban park

- 1850 : the population of the city reached 654,000

- 1851 : approved to create a major park

- Aim : create leisure and public space in the city

- 1875 : design competition

- Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux’s proposal ‘’Greensward’’ won the competition


Location of Central Park :

- Extends north-south for 2 and a half miles

- Dividing the east and west sides of Manhattan

Influence :

- citizens in other cities pressed for something similar

- e.g Fairmount Park in Philadelphia ,
Golden Gate Park in San Francisco
Forest Park in St. Louis

Central Park in Midtown Manhattan. Central Park is the most visited city park in the United States
Source: ZeroOne
Some of the tendencies observed in New York is that the real Housing Boom is taking place outside Manhattan. Builders of rental and for-sale housing are being drawn to Brooklyn and Queens, neighborhoods where land is more plentiful and expenses are lower than in Manhattan. They are betting on high demand for their projects as the costs of living in and close to Manhattan continue to climb. Another important factor is the increasing gentrification in all neighborhoods of New York, more predominantly in Manhattan. According to the United States Census, since 1990 the medium income throughout the city has grown exponentially, with average incomes surpassing 75.000 dollars a year.
Urban Planning Debate
1950s - 1970s
High Line
Activism - against gentrification
2. New York City Nowadays
2.1 Boroughs
Formation of New York City
Documentary 'We built this City'
The Grid Plan
Activism x Gentrification
New York City Subway: It offers rail service 24 hours per day and every day of the year.
Source: zme science
75% of New Yorkers commute by subway
Manifestation in Brooklin Bridge (May, 2015)
Greenacre Park 1971
Paley Park 1967
3.5 Jane Jacobs and the automobile
Traffic in Los Angeles, USA
Source: campuscircle.com
New York City Subway: It offers rail service 24 hours per day and every day of the year.
Source: zme science
How to create and revitalize an abandoned area
without generating gentrification?
"One of the most compelling aspects of the High Line is how two apparently ordinary citizens, (...) The story of how they brought the issue to the public eye, how they generated creative ideas for its adaptive reuse, how they built political coalitions, how they harnessed private resources, and how they doggedly pursued the project in the face of enormous challenges is truly inspiring. (...)the narrative of the High Line is also a narrative of how human beings are capable of transforming cities through tremendous effort, creativity, and perseverance."

Nadia Elokdah.
South of Central Park is today mostly commercial
Source: architecturelb.net
South of Central Park is today mostly commercial
Source: architecturelb.net
4. Recent Projects - Times Square
-“New York park in the sky”-
In the 1930s, as a part of a massive project of infrastructure called “The West Side Improvement”, a railway track was built elevated 9 meters from the ground floor. The elevated tracks should replace the ones sited on the grade level alongside pedestrian, which had been the cause of a great amount of accidents and death in the city. Factories and warehouses also moved, shipping docks to the upper floors in order to avoid the street-level congestion.

The manufacturing declined and a part of the railway was first demolished in 1960. In the 1980 the tracks officially fell into disuse. After almost two decades abandoned, local people of West-Chelsea started lobbing for the demolition of the high line. In 1999 two residents of the area met in a community meeting that would discuss the future of the railway. Everybody was decided that the best option would be to turn it down, except for the two residents, Joshua David and Robert Hammond. The founded “Friends of the Highline”, a non-profit organization that aimed to preserve the structure and lather on, to bring a new use for that.
In the further years the foundation brought together community of architects, artists, business owners and other citizens. The city government got behind the project in 2002 and 3 years later the project was approved. In 2006, after a design competition encouraging people to bring up ideas of new uses and revitalization to the place, the project started to be executes and the first section of the High line opened in June 2009. The second and the third section opened, respectively, in 2011 and 2014.

“(…) One of the most compelling aspects of the High Line is how two apparently ordinary citizens, Robert Hammond and Joshua David, set about to save the old elevated railroad tracks and repurpose them. At the time, they had no significant funding, no political contacts, no training in landscape or urbanism, and no experience in the field. The story of how they brought the issue to the public eye, how they generated creative ideas for its adaptive reuse, how they built political coalitions, how they harnessed private resources, and how they doggedly pursued the project in the face of enormous challenges is truly inspiring. At the end of the day, the narrative of the High Line is also a narrative of how human beings are capable of transforming cities through tremendous effort, creativity, and perseverance.”

The success of the High Line was felt both in a urban sphere and in the local economy, attracting resident, tourists and also private investments in the area. The negative effect of that is the gentrification process, that increased the cost of renting and housing in the area. This facts high lights the contradiction the urbanism is facing nowadays: improving public areas x promoting gentrification and expelling local people because of the non-affordable prices.


Pocket parks are urban open spaces at the very small scale, created to serve the immediately local population and helping on building identity to the local where sited. They usually appear in vacant or forgotten spaces as result of community initiatives, private entities or foundations that reclaim the place for the use of the neighborhood.
Their functions can vary according to the most relevant needs perceived in each area, for example: event space, play area for children, relaxing space, meeting pony for friends and lunch breaks.
In the sense of attending the common need, pocket parks have to deal with the diversity of interests of each neighborhood, trying to bring the community to a common sense where everybody can feel full field . On the other hand, pocket parks are normally sized between 1 and 3 house lots, so the conflict between different groups have to be well-discussed in order to avoid small chaotic place that would mistakenly aim to embrace all kind functions.
For P.P. to being successful, they have be sited in areas of heavy pedestrian traffic, where they can also be seen from the street.
Also seen as lung of the cities, this parks are within a walking distance to its community, what contributes on the lower demands for playing areas in the bigger parks. This enables the bigger parks to dedicate more space and resources on developing ecological functions.
Examples of P.P. in NYC:

Pocket Parks
Renewal Urban Planning


In the 1950s and 60 the federal government forced 300.000 families from their homes”
In 1949 president Harry Truman signed a national housing act, creating a federal program, called urban renewal. The program`s goal was to replace chaotic neighborhoods with planned communities. The new housing was to be built not by the government, but by private companies, that be. Robert Moses was the leader of the project of clarifying slums and he had the power to choose what company would get the land.
“The slum means disease and crime. The new projects mean health and happiness.” (mayor of NYC 1946-1950, William O`Dwyer).
The plan condemned West Village and the village of 98th and 99th street as slums and were so submitted to having its housing threatened by the government urban projects at the time.


Projects

Greenwich Village - Jane Jacobs x Modernism´s trends -
After writing the book “The Death and Life of Great American Cities” Jane Jacob started defending its ideas in political actions. These actions fought against the imposition of some renewal urban projects that were planned to be placed on the neighborhood she lived in. The community won the conflict and stopped the government (Robert Moses) from building the Lower Manhatan Expressway, that would have obliged people to evacuate their homes. At this point the community had already developed a building planning for the village based on a rehabilitation project, what also shows how the community was well organized and determined on defending their innovative conception of the cities.

“It was a crucial turning point in the life of NY and in the cultures of cities everywhere(…)”. Jane Jacobs and the success of the political action she was leading had challenged “the most basic assumptions of all which NY had percieded: that the new is always better than the old”. The fight was for this reason not an isolated case about the project the community was trying to block, but an new ideological position about how cities should look like and how should they be conceived. It was a fight against the modernist way of thinking, which had been, so far, the very predominant trend in the 20th century so in the field urban planning.
“Since the twenties it`s been ´modern, modern, modern! And modern means: dump the past, break with the past, think new(…). Terre down the old stuff, (…) because the new is intrinsically superior to the old.”

“Part of the texture of life in the city is that people are not just connected to each other on streets (with their neighbors) (…), but they are connected in time. There´re some sense in the buildings around you that remain(…), that keeps you a sense of being part of a continuity.”


98th and 99th street

West 99 to 98th street and for surrounding blocks
“Philip Payton Jr. wanted to end residential segregation in NYC.” He started buying and selling/renting houses for black people, there located in the West 98th and 99th streets. This region of the city became home of a recognizable community of musicians, artists and writers
In 1952 both streets were declared slums and everybody living there had to live.
“Something was just taken away from us”.
Urban Planning Debate
Times square has been in the recent decades a central destination for residents, employees and tourists that circulate in the streets of New York City. It is located in the encounter of Broadway and the 7th Avenue.
“The Times Square Alliance hired Project for Public Spaces (PPS), from May 2006 to June 2007, to better understand and re-imagine how Times Square performs as a public space.” The fist step was to analyze the current situation of the place, by making use of different techniques of observation, like film analysis, activity mapping and user surveys. Among the most relevant conclusions, the main goals were pointed to be:

-improvement of the ground-floor experience
-expend the range of activities outside the Bowtie (the main axe)
-accommodate more people doing a variety of activities

Later on, as part of a 1-year-time experimental project, in May 2009, Broadway was closed to vehicular traffic in the extension of 6 blocks (from 42nd to 47th street). The idea was to make Time Square a more pedestrian-friendly area, improving the mobility conditions and safety. Permanent design changes were hold in Broadway and in nearby streets in 2009 and 2010 after the positive result perceived with the temporary experiments. Some of the changes implicated on creating:

- Pedestrian plazas
- Bike lanes separated from vehicular traffic.
- New traffic orientations: East 17th Street converted from a two-way street to a one-way street, with bike and pedestrian lanes added, separated from traffic by planters.
- Shorter crossing distances at intersections, by constructing neckdowns and refuge islands.
- New signal and turning regulation in order to optimize traffic flow for new street conditions.

Times Square
Discussion question
1. History

2. New York City Nowadays
2.1 Boroughs (Manhattan, Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens and Staten Island)

3. City Planning
3.1 Grid Plan
3.2 Central Park
3.3 1916 Zoning Resolution
3.4 1961 Zoning Resolution
3.5 Jane Jacobs and the automobile
3. Tendencies and Zoning Today
3. Gentrification

4. Recent Projects

5. Online Participation

6. Sources
In 1949 - federal program was created:

"Urban Renewal"


- R
eplace chaotic neighborhoods
with planned communities / clarifying slums


- Housing was built by private companies


- West Village and the village of 98th and 99th street condemned as slums
Renewal Urban Planning
In the 1950s and 60s the federal government forced 300.000 families from their homes.


"Lower Manhatan Expressay" project 1961

"(…) because the new is intrinsically superior to the old.”
Confronting Ideas: West-Village
X
West Vilage Community fightS against it and block the project

MODERNIST TREND FROM THE 1920S
NEW IDEOLOGICAL POSITION
“Something was just taken away from us”.
98th and 99 village - declared slum
-Urban open spaces at small scale (1 to 3 house lots size)

- Serving immediately local population and helping on building identity

- Vacant or forgotten spaces

- Community initiatives, private entities or foundations

- Areas of heavy pedestrian traffic and seen from the street.

- Lower demands in the bigger parks


Pocket Parks
-2009 - 1-year-time experimental project: Broadway was closed to car traffic

-2009/2010 - Permanent design changes

- Encounter of Broadway and the 7th Avenue


- 2006/ 2007
Analysis about the square developed by PPS pointed:

-Improvement of the ground-floor experience

-Accommodate more people doing a variety of activities
"There is no square there"
"Pedestrian-friendly"
- Pedestrian plazas
- Bike lanes separated from vehicular traffic.
- New signal and turning regulation in order to optimize traffic flow

"Pedestrian- Friendly"
BOOKS
INTERVIEW
BALLON, Hilary. (2011). Interview. New York University "The Greatest Grid: The Master Plan of Manhattan, 1811-2011" at the Museum of the City of New York, NYC.
WEBSITES
Department of City Planning of New York City. Zoning. New York City. Available: http://www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/html/subcats/zoning.shtml - accessed in 05 and 06/2015

National Geographic. High Line. Available at: http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2011/04/ny-high-line/goldberger-text - accessed in 15/06/2015

Freeenterprise. Story. Available at: www.freeenterprise.com/story/new-yorks-high-line-inspires-wave-of-urban-renewal-projects/ - accessed in 11/06/2015

Asla. 2010 Awards. Available at: http://www.asla.org/2010awards/173.html - accessed in 08/06/2015

Field Operations. Highline. Available at: http://www.fieldoperations.net/project-details/project/highline.html - accessed in 10/06/2015

Archdaily. The High Line. Available at: http://www.archdaily.com/554117/viewing-a-city-in-motion-from-the-high-line-s-third-phase/ - accessed in 02/06/2015

Metropolismag. High Line point of view. Available at: http://www.metropolismag.com/Point-of-View/October-2014/The-High-Lines-Last-Section-Plays-Up-Its-Rugged-Past/ - accessed in 13/06/2015

The High Line. Project. Available at: http://art.thehighline.org/project/olafureliasson/ - accessed in 07/06/2015

Change by Us. Available at: http://nyc.changeby.us/#start - accessed in 01/07/2015


-“New York park in the sky”-
1930s - a railway track was built elevated 9 meters from the ground floor in West- Chelsea


- 1999 two residents in a community meeting that would discuss the future of the railway
- the first section of the High line opened in June 2009. The second and the third section opened, respectively, in 2011 and 2014.

“(…) One of the most compelling aspects of the High Line is how two apparently ordinary citizens, Robert Hammond and Joshua David, set about to save the old elevated railroad tracks and repurpose them. At the time, they had no significant funding, no political contacts, no training in landscape or urbanism, and no experience in the field. The story of how they brought the issue to the public eye, how they generated creative ideas for its adaptive reuse, how they built political coalitions, how they harnessed private resources, and how they doggedly pursued the project in the face of enormous challenges is truly inspiring. At the end of the day, the narrative of the High Line is also a narrative of how human beings are capable of transforming cities through tremendous effort, creativity, and perseverance.”

The success of the High Line was felt both in a urban sphere and in the local economy, attracting resident, tourists and also private investments in the area. The negative effect of that is the gentrification process, that increased the cost of renting and housing in the area. This facts high lights the contradiction the urbanism is facing nowadays: improving public areas x promoting gentrification and expelling local people because of the non-affordable prices.
High Line
-“New York park in the sky”-
a linear park 2.33km long built from a disused railroad


-
''without streets to cross or traffic lights to wait for, ten blocks pass as quickly as two.''
Social Meanings
Avienwoncities. NYC. Available at: http://www.aviewoncities.com/nyc/highline.htm - accessed in 04/06/2015

Government of New York City. Plaza Program.
http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/html/pedestrians/nyc-plaza-program.shtml - accessed in 05/06/2015

PBS. New York Planning. Available at: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/newyork-planning/ - accessed in 28/05/2015

New York, NY (2006-2007) - Client: Times Square Alliance.Available at : http://www.pps.org/projects/timessquare/ - accessed in 26/05/2015

Times Square in Context. Available at : http://www.pps.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/TSA_Booklet_Draft_Pages.pdf - accessed in 09/06/2015

Time Squre. Available at : http://www.aviewoncities.com/nyc/timessquare.htm - accessed in 30/05/2015 - accessed in 05/06/2015

Puffing Foundation. About Us. Available at: http://www.puffinfoundation.org/about-us.html - accessed in 25/06/2015
creation of new green space
"displacement of the very residents the green space strategies were designed to benefit."
neighborhoods healthier and more aesthetically attractive
increase housing costs and property values
GENTRIFICATION
Paradoxical Urbanism
Urban planner Robert Moses
Source: wnyc.org
Broadway
Source: NYC Department of Transportation
FHL is the NYC Department of Parks & Recreation's non-profit partner working to ensure the park is maintained as a great public space for all New Yorkers and visitors to enjoy. The City of New York owns the High Line structure and Friends of the High Line manages the park pursuant to a license agreement. FHL has a highly committed staff of 80 full-time employees (150 in high season) and an annual operating budget of $11.5 million, in addition to capital construction and management and fundraising expenses. Virtually all of the park's annual operating budget is supported by philanthropic funding raised by Friends of the High Line. Every person working in the park in a High Line uniform is employed by FHL. The City of New York provides Parks Enforcement Patrol officers and utility services.

Friends of the High Line has raised more than $150 million in public and private funds to construct the first two sections of the High Line and is completing a $125 million campaign to fund the capital construction of the final elements of the High Line and to grow the park's endowment. The High Line has become one of New York City's top destinations and one of the most visited public parks per acre — one that has helped generate more than $2 billion in economic activity along Manhattan's West Side.

FHL's offices are located at its new maintenance and operations headquarters in the Diller – Von Furstenberg Building at 820 Washington Street located in the Meatpacking District.
-An annual operating budget of $11.5 million
Section 1 - 2009

Section 2 - 2011

Section 3 - 2014
Between 2003 and 2011, property values near the high line park increased 103 percent


Jane Jacobs: "Death and Life of Great American Citis"
Contents
Jane Jacobs with the crowds in New York in 1963, protesting against a building's demolition.
Source: The Guardian
Urban Planning Debate 1950s - 1970s
In 1949 - federal program was created:

"Urban Renewal"


- R
eplace chaotic neighborhoods
with planned communities / clarifying slums


- Housing was built by private companies


- West Village and the village of 98th and 99th street condemned as slums
In the 1950s and 60s the federal government forced 300.000 families from their homes.


"Lower Manhatan Expressay" project 1961

"(…) because the new is intrinsically superior to the old.”
Confronting Ideas: West-Village
X
West Vilage Community fightS against it and block the project

MODERNIST TREND FROM THE 1920S
NEW IDEOLOGICAL POSITION
“Something was just taken away from us”.
98th and 99 village - declared slum
Urban planner Robert Moses
Source: wnyc.org
Jane Jacobs: "Death and Life of Great American Citis"
Source: fieldoperations.net
Source: fieldoperations.net
Source: fieldoperations.net
Source: fieldoperations.net
Source: fieldoperations.net
Source: fieldoperations.net
ONLINE
http://nyc.changeby.us/#start
New York city is very far ahead in terms of online participation. In the official New York City's website, there is a section intended to promote community participation through numerous projects and programs, like 'Change by Us', which is an online platform that engages inhabitants to participate and try to improve the City neighborhoods (more information on the next slides). Other very interesting online programs are the 'Community Action Program Information', which provides community services for seniors, immigrants, youth and families, and the program called 'Youth Connect', which is a free and confidential information service that connects youth to jobs, after school programs and training opportunities.


http://www.greenthumbnyc.org/get_involved.html
Change by Us NYC is an online platform that helps people to share ideas and organize projects. It is known for its innovative work and it is run by the City of New York. It's a place for New Yorkers to put their ideas into action by creating projects and building teams to make the city a greener and better place to live.
Through the program, you can connect with other residents, City programs and resources, and non-profit organizations committed to creating positive change in the communities. This is a very practical way for the community to express and communicate ideas directly with the government. Any inhabitant can propose an idea and discuss the issues of the the city. Other inhabitants can see the idea on an online board and participate, giving their own suggestions and creating a community project together. Some of the most successful initiatives are the 'Cool Roof Program' and the 'Healthy Community Garden Project'.

Source: http://nyc.changeby.us/#start
Online Participation
Change by Us
Healthy Community Garden Project
5. Online Participation
This online network connects New Yorkers to make buildings more energy efficient by cooling the roofs. It consists in painting white the flat roofs in New York City, bringing down the temperature of buildings and helping to save energy. It is a successful environmental initiative, connecting volunteers from all over the city and organizing events when everybody paints the roof together in favor of reducing the city's footprint in 30%.
Children working on a community garden.
Source: nyc.changeby.us
Volunteers painting the roof of a building white. Source: thecityatlas.org
Change by Us
Cool Roofs
Change by Us
Online Platform for the Project
Source: www.nyc.gov/html/coolroofs/html/about/about
This Gardening Project consists of creating a healthy eating program that encourages families to adopt healthy eating habits and promote healthy activities. This project was the idea of residents and more people have participated - up to now there are 9 active members, and the issues and events are all discussed online. The project aims to educate homeowners, community gardeners and other interested how to grow their own food, harvest and collect rainwater to green roofs, minimizing the effects of flooding in the city.
Online Platform where people discuss about the project and create events
Source: nyc.changeby.us
The New York City's website has a whole section aimed at Community Participation.
Source: http://www1.nyc.gov/
Inhabitants are stimulated to express their ideas about different topics, like the government, environment, etc.
Source: nyc.changeby.us
One New Yorker suggested to clean Central Park. This way, more inhabitants can see this idea and join a project.
http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/html/community_affairs/community_participation_programs.shtml
http://www.greenthumbnyc.org/get_involved.html
Participatory Budgeting
Online Platform where people can see the best projects and check how to vote
Source: http://council.nyc.gov/
New York City Council announced the voting results and winning proposals of the 2014-2015 Participatory Budgeting cycle. During the voting period of April 11th through April 19th, over 51,000 New Yorkers voted to allocate $32 million dollars for locally-developed capital projects across 24 Council Districts in New York City.

“The level of engagement and enthusiasm in this year’s Participatory Budgeting process was unprecedented and deeply democratic,” said Speaker Melissa Mark-Viverito. “Across the city, thousands of residents of all ages and backgrounds came together to make their neighborhoods a better place to call home. Participatory Budgeting breaks down barriers that New Yorkers may face at the polls—including youth, income status, English-language proficiency and citizenship status—resulting in a civic dialogue that is truly inclusive and representative of the diversity of this community and this city. I thank everyone who took part in this year’s process and helped make Participatory Budgeting a success.”
Theresa Davis displays her poster, which describes playgrounds in NYCHA houses that are in need of repair, at District 33's Participatory Budgeting Project Expo. Davis' proposal won the most votes, and will be funded.
What is Participatory Budgeting?

Participatory budgeting (PB) is a democratic process in which community members directly decide how to spend part of a public budget. In other words, the people who pay taxes decide how tax dollars get spent. It helps make budget decisions clear and accessible. It gives real power to people who have never before been involved in the political process. And it results in better budget decisions - because who better knows the needs of our community than the people who live there?
The Brazilian city of Porto Alegre started the first full PB process in 1989, for its municipal budget. Since then, PB has spread to more than 1,500 cities around the world. Its usually used for city budgets, but states, counties, schools, universities, housing authorities, and coalitions of community groups have also used PB to open up spending decisions to the people.

How does it work?

PB lets the whole community participate in decision-making. It’s a yearlong process of public meetings, to make sure that people have the time and resources to make wise decisions. Community members discuss local needs and develop proposals to meet these needs. Through a public vote, residents then decide which proposals to fund. For the time being, PBNYC only deals with CAPITAL money. That means community members can propose projects like improvements to schools, parks, libraries, public housing, and other public or community spaces.

Source: http://council.nyc.gov/html/pb/home.shtml
Participatory Budgeting
- New York city is very far ahead in terms of online participation

- The city promotes numerous community projects and programs

- 'Change by Us' is an online platform that engages inhabitants to improve the City neighborhoods

-'Community Action Program Information' provides community services for seniors, immigrants, youth and families

- 'Youth Connect' is an information service that connects youth to jobs and training opportunities


5. Online Participation
The New York City's website has a whole section aimed at Community Participation.
Source: http://www1.nyc.gov/
- Change by Us is an online platform that helps New Yorkers to share ideas and organize projects

- It is run by the City of New York

- Inhabitants connect with other residents, City programs and resources, and non-profit organizations

- It is a very practical way for the community to communicate ideas directly with the government

- Any inhabitant can propose an idea and discuss the issues of the the city

- Some of the most successful initiatives are the 'Cool Roof Program' and the 'Healthy Community Garden Project'.


Online Participation
Change by Us
Inhabitants are stimulated to express their ideas about different topics, like the government, environment, etc.
Source: nyc.changeby.us
One New Yorker suggested to clean Central Park. This way, more inhabitants can see this idea and join a project.
Healthy Community Garden Project
Children working on a community garden.
Source: nyc.changeby.us
Change by Us
- Gardening Project encourages healthy eating and healthy activities

- This project was the idea of residents and more people have participated

- Issues and events are all discussed online

- Educate community gardeners and other interested how to grow own food, harvest and collect rainwater to green roofs, minimizing the effects of flooding in the city.
Online Platform where people discuss about the project and create events
Source: nyc.changeby.us
- Online network that connects New Yorkers to make buildings more energy efficient

- It consists in painting white the flat roofs in to cool down buildings

- It is a successful environmental initiative, connecting volunteers from all over the city
Volunteers painting the roof of a building white. Source: thecityatlas.org
Cool Roofs
Change by Us
Online Platform for the Project
Source: www.nyc.gov/html/coolroofs/html/about/about
Participatory Budgeting
Online Platform where people can see the best projects and check how to vote
Source: http://council.nyc.gov/
- Democratic process in which community members directly decide how to spend part of a public budget

- It gives real power to people who have never before been involved in the political process

- The Brazilian city of Porto Alegre started the first full PB process in 1989, for its municipal budget

- The whole community participates in decision-making during a yearlog process of public meetings

- Through a public vote, residents then decide which proposals to fund

- Community members can propose projects like improvements to schools, parks, libraries, public housing, and other public or community spaces
- 2014-2015 Participatory Budgeting: over 51,000 New Yorkers voted to allocate $32 million dollars for locally-developed projects in New York City

“Across the city, thousands of residents of all ages and backgrounds came together to make their neighborhoods a better place to call home. Participatory Budgeting breaks down barriers that New Yorkers may face at the polls—including youth, income status, English-language proficiency and citizenship status—resulting in a civic dialogue that is truly inclusive and representative of the diversity of this community and this city.”
Theresa Davis displays her poster, which describes playgrounds in NYCHA houses that are in need of repair, at District 33's Participatory Budgeting Project Expo. Davis' proposal won the most votes, and will be funded.
Participatory Budgeting
Entrega
New York City
Bürgerbeteiligung im Zeitraffer - Von Rebellion und Reform bis heute. Ein internationaler Vergleich
Leuphana Universität Lüneburg
Students: Chan Yuen Chi
Julia Ceccon Ortolan
Lucas Dutra Nunes

Professor: Tanja Peickert
Falta acrescentar os teus slides para entrega e o último exemplo de online participation. Dai dá de copiar tudo para outro prezi e fazer lá os slides para entrega (já que esse prezi já tem os slides da apresentação) :D
6. Sources
GARVIN, Alexander. (1995). The American City: What Works, What Doesn't. Quebecor/Kingsport Press. New York, NY.

BOYER, Christine. (1983). Dreaming the Rational City: The Myth of American City Planning. Edwards Brothers, Inc. Massachusetts, USA

HARDINGHAUS, Matthias. (2004). Zur amerikanischen Entwicklung der Stadt: Ein Beitrag zur Kulturgenese des City-Suburb-Phänomens unter besonderer Berücksichtigung protestantisch-calvinistischer Leitbilder. Peter Lang Verlag. Frankfurt am Main.

NISSEN, Sylke. (2012). Die regierbare Stadt. Metropolenpolitik als Konstruktion lösbarer Probleme. New York, London und Berlin im Vergleich. Westdeutscher Verlag. Wiesbaden.

MIDDLETON, Richard. (1996). Colonial America. Blackwell Publishers Ltd. Oxford.

DIAMOND,Henry L.Noonan , Patrick F. (1996). Land Use in America. Island Press. Washington DC.

CULLINGWORTH, Barry. (1997). Planning in the USA: policies, issues and processes. Routledge. New York, NY.

DOMOSH, Mona. (1996). Invented Cities: The Creation of Landscape in Nineteenth-Century New York and Boston. Yale University. Hong Kong.
BOOKS
INTERVIEW
BALLON, Hilary. (2011). Interview. New York University "The Greatest Grid: The Master Plan of Manhattan, 1811-2011" at the Museum of the City of New York, NYC.
WEBSITES
Department of City Planning of New York City. Zoning. New York City. Available: http://www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/html/subcats/zoning.shtml - accessed in 05 and 06/2015

National Geographic. High Line. Available at: http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2011/04/ny-high-line/goldberger-text - accessed in 15/06/2015

Freeenterprise. Story. Available at: www.freeenterprise.com/story/new-yorks-high-line-inspires-wave-of-urban-renewal-projects/ - accessed in 11/06/2015

Asla. 2010 Awards. Available at: http://www.asla.org/2010awards/173.html - accessed in 08/06/2015

Field Operations. Highline. Available at: http://www.fieldoperations.net/project-details/project/highline.html - accessed in 10/06/2015

Archdaily. The High Line. Available at: http://www.archdaily.com/554117/viewing-a-city-in-motion-from-the-high-line-s-third-phase/ - accessed in 02/06/2015

Metropolismag. High Line point of view. Available at: http://www.metropolismag.com/Point-of-View/October-2014/The-High-Lines-Last-Section-Plays-Up-Its-Rugged-Past/ - accessed in 13/06/2015

The High Line. Project. Available at: http://art.thehighline.org/project/olafureliasson/ - accessed in 07/06/2015

Change by Us. Available at: http://nyc.changeby.us/#start - accessed in 01/07/2015


Avienwoncities. NYC. Available at: http://www.aviewoncities.com/nyc/highline.htm - accessed in 04/06/2015

Government of New York City. Plaza Program.
http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/html/pedestrians/nyc-plaza-program.shtml - accessed in 05/06/2015

PBS. New York Planning. Available at: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/newyork-planning/ - accessed in 28/05/2015

New York, NY (2006-2007) - Client: Times Square Alliance.Available at : http://www.pps.org/projects/timessquare/ - accessed in 26/05/2015

Times Square in Context. Available at : http://www.pps.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/TSA_Booklet_Draft_Pages.pdf - accessed in 09/06/2015

Time Squre. Available at : http://www.aviewoncities.com/nyc/timessquare.htm - accessed in 30/05/2015 - accessed in 05/06/2015

Puffing Foundation. About Us. Available at: http://www.puffinfoundation.org/about-us.html - accessed in 25/06/2015
Community Affairs Bureau
- Created to estimate and build positive and productive police-community relations

- Works with community leader, civic organizations, block associations and concerned individuals, aiming to find solutions for the problems that surround the many communities.

- The Community Affairs Division, The Crime Prevention Section, The School Safety Division, Juvenile Justice Division and The Youth Services Section. 

- Satellite offices as a response to the growing reclaims of the many communities of the city.

- Participative programs

Community Affairs Bureau / Participation Programs
Community Affairs Bureau / Participation Programs
Community Affairs Bureau / Participation Programs
Precinct Community Councils
- Were created in the 1940´s

- Forums that enable the direct communication between the police and community

- Regular meetings between community members and the precinct Commanding Officer and Community Affairs Officers

- Public-safety problems that concern the neighborhood

- 86 councils in New York City

Civilian Observation Patrol
- The goal: to enhance the quality of life in NYC

- Partnership with the New York City Police Department

- The work: observing and reporting suspicious and criminal activity

- The volunteers are “the eyes and ears” of the Police Department

- Creating a safer neighborhood.

Ride Along Program
- Partnership between the community and the police.

- Volunteers ride along in a police vehicle with NYPD police officers during their patrol in the city (2 hours).

- Provide the citizens an experience that enable them to see the city through the perspective of the police officers

- Building a more articulated and cohesive community.

DA Vance speaks with members of the 9th Precinct Community, as members of the NYPD, DANY staff, and members of the 9th Precinct Community Council look on. (June 2011)
Source: The New York County District Attorney´s Office
“Ever wonder what it is like to ride in a NYPD police vehicle and patrol New York City?”
Website where people can have access to important information regarding the community meetings and projects.
People that are interested on participating on the project can have access to the rules of conduct and requirements regarding the project. The application can also be done through the website.
Full transcript