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Anatomy of a Vertical Jump
Transcript of Anatomy of a Vertical Jump
The preparatory phase includes flexion of the sartorius, rectus femoris, and the biceps femoris at the hip and knee and dorsiflexion of the tibialis anterior at the ankle. As the body descends, the hips and knees undergo flexion, the ankle dorsiflexes and muscles around the joint contract eccentrically, reaching maximal contraction at the bottom of the movement while slowing and reversing descent. The muscles around the hips provide the power out of the bottom. If the knees slide forward or cave in then tension is taken from the hamstrings. Bones involved include the ischium, femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges of the foot.
The takeoff phase begins with hip extension, followed immediately by knee extension, then ankle plantar-flexion.
Hip extension occurs at the beginning of the jumping phase, before your feet leave the ground. Muscles involved in hip extension are the gluteus maximus, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, the long head of the biceps femoris, and the adductor magnus.
Knee extension occurs almost simultaneously with hip extension in a vertical jump. One muscle is involved in knee extension: the quadriceps femoris. This muscle can be broken down into four separate muscles of the anterior thigh: Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis. These four muscles work together to perform knee extension.
Ankle plantarflexion is also known as "pointing your toes." This is the final movement the lower leg performs before leaving the ground during a jump. The primary muscles involved are the gastrocnemius and soleus, or the large muscles in the calf.
Bones involved in the takeoff phase include the ischium, femure, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges of the foot.
Landing the vertical jump uses the same muscles groups as the takeoff phase, but in the backwards order and the compression of the rectus abdominis to maintain balance and the Iliocostalis thoracis, which maintains the spine's erect position.