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Science Fair (grade 10)

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by

Mehik Rizvi

on 3 January 2011

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Transcript of Science Fair (grade 10)

Sources http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/Chem_p038.shtml?fave=no&isb=c2lkOjEsaWE6Q2hlbSxwOjMscmlkOjg1MjI5MDE&from=TSW http://www.sciencenerddepot.com/Science_Fair_Display.html To identify which substances are good insulators of heat. Material Sciences:
Heat Insulation I used 4 different materials in my experiment. I hypothesized that ceramic would be the best insulator followed by Styrofoam, plastic, and glass. I reasoned, that ceramic would be a good insulator because I thought that it is used in coffee mugs to keep the coffee warm. Materials Procedure Variables Safety Tips Purpose & Hypothesis Experiment Observations & Conclusions Background Research Applications notebook a ceramic cup a glass a plastic cup styrofoam cup an indoor/outdoor thermometer a measuring cup Heat about 5 cups of water on the stove until the water reaches its boiling point (100 c). Fill each cup with the same volume of water. Using an indoor/outdoor thermometer measure the water temperature in each of the cups. (The initial temperature of the water in each cup should be the same and each cup should be exposed to the same room temperature.) After every 5 minutes check the water temperature in each cup, and record your observations. while pouring the hot water into each of the cups Be careful while heating the water , if you choose to use the stove. and Independant Dependant Constant Styrofoam is an excellent insulator of heat followed by plastic, glass, and then ceramic. Another observation I made was that good conductors of heat, get warmer than the insulators, and the insulators were more likely to burn/break. Heat energy can flow by three mechanisms: conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction works when heat energy flows from a hot object to a colder one—when they touch. Convection is an aid to heat conduction when some of the material flows from one place to another, carrying the heat energy along with it. Radiation involves the carrying of heat energy from one place to another by light waves (or their longer-wavelength cousins infrared waves).

The Styrofoam cup is cool to the touch because it is a foam, filled with air pockets. Therefore, the foam is a good insulator because air conducts heat very poorly. The electrons in air molecules are very tightly bound to their respective molecules, in the form of covalent bonds. As a result, it takes a lot of energy to "rip" the electrons out of that bond. The cup doesn't heat up from its hot contents; it remains cool. In other words, Styrofoam is made mostly out of air, which conducts heat very poorly— however, it convects well. Styrofoam traps the air in small pockets, preventing it from flowing, and so it reduces conduction and convection at the same time!

Ceramic is a dense material, usually made out of clays and stony materials. These conduct heat better than air, plastic, or wax (paper cups are usually waxed). When some atoms "jiggle" on one side of a crystal of a rocky mineral, it is easier for this motion to be conveyed through the crystal lattice of the mineral than it is for plastic or wax, where the motion is damped out.

because a thermal insulator does not contain either large numbers of free electrons or atoms that can vibrate easily which refer to the glass...

Good thermal insulators do not contain either large numbers of free electrons or atoms that can vibrate easily i.e. glass and ceramic. By, finding out which substances make better insulators and conductors could help us create better thermos to keep food/drinks at a constant temperature and to determine which type of material pots and pans should be made of. The closer the atoms are together, the easier it is for heat to be transferred. The Styrofoam cup is cool to the touch because it is a foam, filled with air pockets. Therefore, the foam is a good insulator because air conducts heat very poorly. Thanks for listening !! :D
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