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Arab Israeli Conflicts 1800-1950
Transcript of Arab Israeli Conflicts 1800-1950
plan In October 1946 the U.S.A. announced their support for creating a jewish state in the Palestinian territory. During 1947 the united nations commission in Palestine proposed a partition plan to create a jewish state in Palestine. On 29, November 1947 the united nations made the partition plan resolution (resolution 181) that divided the old british mandate into an israeli and an arab state. Peace Conference Held in Paris, 1919.
Zionist and Arab representatives pleaded their case.
The Ottoman empire was divided into different territories which were assigned to parties who were victorious in the war.
The Arabs disagreed with the idea of the Jewish State in their home.
The British plan was adopted and the division of the areas between France and Britain became the central issue. Britain and France occupy the canal.
Egypt sunk 40 of their ships and blocked the canal 1897 ZIONIST MOVEMENT
Bringing jews back to Zion
(Jerusalem) 1922 BRITISH MANDATE
Palestine territory allied with Germany during WW1.
Great Britain took over Palestine. 1947 PARTITION PLAN - UN
UN made a plan dividing the state of Palestine between Arab territory and Israel. Z 1948 Arab Israeli War
Jordan, Egypt and Lebanon invaded the jewish and arab states . 1953 Qibya Massacre (Retribution Operations)
Israeli troops attacked West Bank. 1955 Operation Volcano (Retribution Operation)
Israeli Defense Forces attacked Nitzana. 1956 Suez War
Israel, Britain and France defeat the Egyptian army and occupy the Suez Canal. The Zionist Movement
It focused on attaining a jewish majority in Palestine and to acquire statehood.
Chaim Weizmann was the president of the World Zionist Organisation and he had many demands before the Paris Peace conference in February 1919.
He expected 70, 000 to 80, 000 Jewish immigrants to arrive each year in Palestine.
Weizmann also believed that when the Jews would become a majority, they would form an independent government and Palestine would become a Jewish area. SUEZ WAR
1956 BRITAIN AND EGYPT
Britain ruled over Egypt and had control over the
Suez Canal. Vital during Cold War
Largest British military base (80,000 troops)
Cut miles from Europe to Asia. (Mediterrenean
to Indian Ocean) SUEZ CANAL Britain and France wanted to control it.
Egypt nationalized it.
Britain and France join forces with Israel (E long time enemy).
Israel was purchasing aircraft and weapons from France. They had been secretly ,meeting and invited Britain to join them.
October 29th Israeli army defeats the Egyptian army. UN INVOLVEMENT The UN told Britain and France to back down and within a week they had withdrawn their troops. USA appealed to the General Assembly for a withdrawal of forces FORCES THAT PARTICIPATED Nationalism
Cold War (Russia providing weapons)
Arab-Israeli Conflict Weizmann proposed that all boundaries should be:
The Mediterranean Sea would be West.
Sidon, Litani River and Mount Hermon would be North.
Transjordan, west of the Hijaz railway would be East.
The line across Sinai from Aqaba to al-Arish would be South.
He also offered Arab countries a free zone in Haifa and a joint port in Aqaba. Chaim Weizmann's policy was in accord with the leaders of Yishuv who held a conference in December 1918 about their demands.
Yishuv's plan stressed that:
Yishuv must control appointments to administrative services.
The British must assist their program to transform Palestine into a Jewish State and therefore the Arabs would have minority rights.
However, the peace conference did not allocate such extensive territories for Jews and they did not support the idea of Palestine becoming a Jewish State. Weizmann had aims which were related to the 5 tenets of Zionism.
1. Supporters of Zionism believed that the Jewish people had the essential right to Palestine.
Religious Zionists believed in the biblical aspect of the situation which was that the land was promised to Israel.
Secular Zionists believed that Palestine alone could solve the jewish dispersion problem. 2. Zionists felt that the European civilization was superior to the Arab cultures and values.
Theodor Herzl (founder of the World Zionist Organization) wrote in the Jewish State in 1886 that the Jewish community could serve as a defense wall for Europe in Asia against barbarianism.
Weizmann believed that Zionists would bring enlightenment & economic development to the Arabs. 3. Zionist Leaders knew that they needed an external patron to legitimize their presence in the International Arena.
And also to provide legal and military protection.
Great Britain played that role in the 1920's to 1930's and the United States became the mentor in the mid 1940's. 4. Zionist Politicians accepted the idea of an Arab Nation.
But rejected the concept of a Palestinian Nation 5. The Zionist leaders argued that if the Palestinians could not reconcile to Zionism, not to compromise the goals was the only response possible.
By the early 1920's, after Arab protests broke out in Jaffa and Jerusalem, the leaders of Yishuv said:
It might be impossible to bridge a gap between the aims of the two peoples. RETRIBUTION OPERATIONS
1950 - 1960 They were attacks carried out by the Israel Defense Forces in response to the fedayeen (palestinian groups) attacks. Arab militants attacked Israel from
Jordan Belfour Declaration Issued in November 1917.
A letter that was made in request of the Zionist organization located in Britain.
Addressed to Lord Rothschild.
The document announced Britain's support for Jews and supported the idea of a national home in Palestine.
The declaration discouraged the act of violating religious and civil rights of non-Jewish communities. Two Israeli units (250-300 men) with mortars, torpedoes and mined roads.
People from the West Bank resisted and defended themselves 42 villagers were killed and 15 wounded.
US Department, Un Security Council and Jewish communities worldwide condemned the Israelis.
UN decided to pull their troops out of that area after the attack. Goal of operations:
Prevent future attacks, restore public morale, train new army units QYBIA MASSACRE (October 1953)
Israeli troops attacked West Bank. OPERATION VOLCANO
1955 Israel defense force against the Egyptian militaries around Nitzana. Stagetic point between Israel and Egypt.
Egypt invaded Israel through this region. Expulsion of Egyptian forces from Demilitarized zone.
Mortars and artillary fire were the weapons used to destroy the targeted Egyptian emplacements.
Almost all of Egypt's weapons fell into Israel's hands.
81 egyptians were killed. arab-israeli war Provisional Mandate Was granted to Britain in 1920.
This mandate extended the Jordan River.
in 1922, the boundary of Palestine was made restricted to the area west of the river by the British.
The area east of the river was named Transjordan.
This area later received independence and became Jordan.
The Zionist Movement felt a loss for letting a large amount of land go.
91, 000 squared km of originally 118, 000 squared km was where Transjordan was created.
Transjordan was declared out of bounds for the land of Jews.
The mandate itself was an international recognition for establishing a home for Jewish people in Palestine. Balfour Declaration Remaining Facts About the British Mandate The British were in no rush to leave Palestine.
The British permitted Zionist organizations to initiate laying grounds for what was going to be the Jewish State.
Then, the British allowed Jewish immigrants from 1922 to 1948 to come to Palestine as well as the establishments of Jewish governing bodies.
There were over 350, 000 legal immigrations. Once Jews managed to immigrate illegally, the total immigrations came up to 400, 000.
In 1947, the Jewish state was formalized for the first time by the United Nations Partition Plan Resolution 181.
At the time of 1947, Britain found the difficulty in ruling over the land.
The British sought to end this mandate and after 26 years of rule over Palestine, it ended in 1948. after the UN partition plan five arab nations (Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Egypt and Syria) invaded the old Palestinian territory. It began with Palestinian and neighboring arabs that did not accept the UN partition plan attacked jewish settlements and armed forces. the goal for the arabs was to prevent the independence of the jewish state. The fighting intensified when the independence of Israel was declared. Other nations joined the war. on may 14 an air attack on the jewish settlement of Tel Aviv and this was followed by the invasion of Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Egypt and Iraq. A little later Israel was able to gain the offensive. Israel's greatest military undertaking since their Independence
End of Egyptian military encroachments
Israel's sovereignty over Nitzana After the war Jordan OPERATION EGGED
Israeli militants attacked
egyptian post in Kuntilla
200 paratroopers attacked Kuntilla .
The mission was succesful.
12 egyptian soldiers were
killed and 29 were taken prisoners. Before the war the war continued until 1949 and no agreements were made until February. Israel was able to gain a big amount of territory that was given to the arab state in the 1947 partition plan. Jordan gained control over the west bank and Egypt gained control over the Gaza strip. the arab - israeli war lead to the displacement of many arabs from their homelands. which moved mostly to west bank and Gaza. the UN partition plan was made to propose union and trade to both states and Jerusalem would be a city of equal rights to all people including in terms of religion, race, etc. fact