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Skeletal System

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Evelyn Ramirez

on 18 May 2010

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Transcript of Skeletal System

The Skeletal System Primary Functions:


Supports the body
The skeleton gives the body its outer shape Bones such as the skull and ribs cover internal organs like the brain and heart to protect them from harm Bones act like levers to produce movement;
Skeletal muscle attached to the bone pull on bone in different directions Bones contain reserves of calcium and phosphorus Blood cells are formed in bone marrow and fill internal cavities in bones Parts of the Skeletal System The skeletal system is divided into two parts....
The axial part of the skeleton supports the central balance of the body (consists of about 80 bones) The appendicular part of the skeleton consists of other bones such as the arm and leg bones. Structure of the Skeletal System There are 206 bones in the human body.
Bones are living cells and protein fibers that are surrounded by deposits of calcium.
periosteum:
a tough connective tissue that surrounds the bone Compact bone is very dense and consists of Haversian canals that contain blood vessels and nerves Haversian canals are tiny, interconnecting channels located in bone tissue. protects intenal organs stores mineral reserves provides movement provides a site for cell formation Spongy bone is inside the outer layer of compact bone. Spongy bone adds strengh to the bone without adding mass because it is very dense A bone is made up of many parts. . . Within the bone cavities are soft tissue called bone marrow. There are two types: yellow bone marrow red bone marrow Red bone marrow produce red and white blood cells as well as platelets Yellow bone marrow is made up of fat cells and stores energy Mature bone cells are called osteocytes. The two types are: osteoclasts- breaks down old or worn bone osteoblasts- produce and build new bone Bone cells line the Haversian canals and the surfaces of compact and spongy bone. These cells, when working together, control bone growth and repair Development of Bone Cartilage is the primary make-up of bones during development. Cartilage is dense and fibrous so it can support a lot of weight By process of ossification, cartilage is replaced by bone Bones contain growth plates on both ends where cartilage grows. This causes bones to lengthen and eventually the cartilage is replaced by bone tissue. This bone tissue makes the bone larger and stronger. When cartilage in the growth plates have completely turned into bone, the bone stops growing. This is the cartilage To properly understand the skeletal system, it's best to know the main organs. The main organs are:
bones
cartilage
ligaments
tendons
joints Ligaments are fibrous bands of connective tissue that hold bones together. A tendon is a tissue that attaches muscle to bone. Tendons transmit the mechanical force of muscle contraction to bone Joints are places where one bone attaches to another. Joints can be immovable, slightly movable, or freely movable Immovable joints allow no movement and are interlocked by connective tissue.
An example would be where the bones in the skull meet. Slightly movable joints permit restricted movement and are seperated from each other Freely movable joints permit movement in one or more directions Homeostasis Changes In the skeletal system, bones maintain the balance in blood calcium levels as well as phosphorus levels. Bones contain about 99% of the total body calcium and about 85% of the total phosphorus levels Osteocytes help the skeletal system maintain homeostasis by ridding the body of worn bone and replacing it with new bone. The skeletal system interacts with many body systems. One of the systems is the nervous system Bones produce calcium that is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system
As mentioned before, the bones protect the major organs of the system (the skull protects the brain and the vertebrate in the spine protect the spinal cord) Sensory receptors in joints between bone send signals about the body position to the brain Also, the brain regulates the position of bones by controlling muscles In addition, muscles and bone work together to provide movement... Muscles are connected to bone and contract to move the skeleton Bones also work with the circulatory system Bone marrow produces white and red blood cells that flow in arteries and veins In the digestive system, bones are important in mastication.
The jawbone moves to help teeth chew.
Also, teeth are NOT bone.! Teeth are made of tissue and do not have bone cells.
Disorders and Diseases Disorders Rickets: a disorder common in children who are vitamin D deficient. Rickets is the softening of bones that leads to fractures and deformity. Children who are rarely exposed to sunlight and do not consume enough vitamin D tend to get rickets easily. Vitamin D supplements and exposure to sunlight helps prevent and treat the disorder. Scoliosis: During childhood and adolescence the spine can become abnormally distorted. The spine should only move front and back but with scoliosis the spine can also move sideways, making an S shape. Scoliosis is one of the most well known spinal- curvature disorders. There is no known prevention and there are three types of treatment- orthopedic bracing, nonsurgical observation, or surgery. Spina Bifida: A disabling birth defect of the vertebrate meaning "split spine" in Latin. During the first month of embryotic development the vertebral laminae fail to unite. The vertebral laminae are two broad plates that join to form a vertebrate. Treatment involves closing the opening in the back and prevention can be taken by taking AB vitamin called folic acid. Folic acid helps build healthy cells. Rheumatiod Arthritis: a severely damaging arthritis that begins with inflammation. It is then followed by bone degeneration and disfigurement. More women are affected by it then men and is believed to be caused by a genetic predisposition. Joint replacements may restore function. Osteopenia: Bones become weaker and thinner as age progresses. Eventually everyone becomes osteopenic. Diseases Osteoporosis: a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue. Osteoporosis leads to bone fragility and an increased risk of fractures. To prevent it, calcium is needed to reach optimal bone mass. Paget's Disease: a disease that causes bone to grow larger and weaker than normal. This results in misshapen bones and because the bones are weaker, they can break easily. Bone Cancer: There are 3 types of bone cancer- osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing's sarcoma. Surgury is the main treatment for bone cancer as well as amputation or chemotherapy.
careers Rheumatologist- a specialist in rheumic illnesses and medical problems with joints. The job requires at least 4 years of medical school as well as at least 3 years of internal medicine internship and studies. The average salary is between $100,000 to $175,000 per year. Chiropractor- diagnose, treat, and prevent mechanical disorders of the skeletal system, especially the spine. Requires minimally 2 years of college and 4 years in a school of chiropractic. Average salary is between $45,000 to $82,000 per year. Interesting facts:
- The skeletal system only weighs about 20 pounds.
- The most frequently broken bone is the collarbone and clavicle
-Bones stay alive even after death
-During childhood, new bone is added faster then old bones is removed.
-Bone density and strengh reaches its peak at about 30, then slowly old bone begins to be removed.
Radiologist: a physician that specializes in taking and reading x-rays, CT scans, and MRI's. Diagnostic radiologists must complete at least 13 years of post high school education, including undergraduate training, 4 years of medical school, and 5 years of post-graduate training. The average salary is $94,000-$330,000 per year. Currrent Research/ Technology Scientists have come up with a way to create artificial bone. Artificial bone is used to replace bone that has been lost due to fracture or disease and is made to be soft and eventually harden once placed inside the body. Orthopedic Surgeon: use surgical means to treat or repair bone trauma, disease, infection, or injuries. An orthopedic surgeon requires 13 years of education like radiologists-- 4 years of undergraduate school, 4 years of medical school, and 5 years of surgury training. The average salary is about $190,000- $381,000 per year. Caring for the system Bones are affected by age; as age progresses bone tissue tends to lose more calcium than is replaced. Following a healthy lifestyle by getting enough rest, reducing stress, drinking enough water, following a proper diet, and exercising regularly can lessen the effects of aging. Proper diets and exercise are key factors. Bone mass must be built so bones can grow properly. In order to grow bones require:
Calcium
Phosphorus
Protein
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin D Bones need to be able to carry weight or be stressed. Without the stress they lose calcium. The more the bones are exercised, the stronger they become. We've mentioned these already so we'll move on to ligaments, tendons, and joints.
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