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Aysel Kayhan

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Transcript of EDUCATION

What is the history of British Universities ?
The first universities were established in the 13th century in Oxford and Cambridge. Oxford was already an important town geographically, commercially and favored by royalty. Cambridge was established when some Oxford students had a quarrel with Oxford citizens and moved to Cambridge.
What is the history of British Universities ?
There were 23 British universities in 1960. After a period of expansion in the 1960s and reform in 1992,

were given university status.
The first group is the ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
In 1939 there were 50.000 students in Britain. This number was representing less than two per cent of the young people. After war the number of the students increased and UGC became more active.

In 1961, nine new campus-based universities were founded. The state would pay the fees of all students and give them maintenance grants to study wherever they wished.
Research and postgraduate study became more important and this improvement gave the British universities an international reputation.
They achieved an equilibrium;
between teaching and research,
between state funding and university autonomy,
between elite formation and democratic reaction.
With the universal fees policy the elective secondary education restricted the numbers for university entrance. At this time, state
grammar schools
independent schools
Background Of The British Universities

the institutions of higher education in England and Wales,
supply a large number of vocational and academic courses at degree level,
may be full-time and part-time,
were tied to their local government, but now they are independent,
have been allowed to apply for university status since 1992.

The second group comprises the "redbrick" or civic universities.
The third group includes the universities which were founded after the second war.

The last group is the new universities which were created in 1992 by polytechnics.
Types of universities:
The modern university system was shaped in the 19th century. Universities models varied partly geographically, partly functionally.
In this century, all universities relied on state for their funding by the creation of the
University Grants Committee
( UGC ) in 1919.
These policies effectively nationalized universities and encourage them to abandon their local roots.
The older civic universities now began to built halls of residence and living in a community.

University education was seen as a public good to all citizens. In practice, this civic right was conditioned by many factors of cultural and social.
Art colleges and education colleges were integrated into polytechnics, but there were a tension within the sector. Some of leaders supported that the polytechnics devoted to teaching rather than research, vocational or practical. So polytechnics closed to the universities and they were removed from local government control in 1988.
In 1992, old and new universities were integrated. But in fact, hierarchies of prestige and quality survived. Differences were expanded because of an explosion of student demand.
They include more adult and part-time student than the older model. They used the Research Assessment Exercise to reduce the costs. By the effect of the RAE, some universities aimed to compete at "world class" level.
Before 19th century, there was no state funding for university education therefore students were required to pay their own fees.

The previous Conservative Government was concerned to make the universities more accountable in the national interest and controlled their budgets, encourage them to seek alternative source of finance. So the universities lost their money and stuff. Because of this situation, they paid attention to their performance about management, finance and education.
Now, the competition to enter universities is very strong because the student who can not get A level, may be unable to find a place. Some ten per cent of students drop out of higher education because of work, financial or other problems, but most of them aim to a good degree.
Other Higher Education Colleges
They came up in 1970s. These colleges occurred by merging existing colleges with redundant teachers training collages or by establishing new institution. They offer degree courses in both art and science. They were under the control of government but Conservative Government allowed them to independence.
The Open Universities
It was the world's first successful distance teaching university.
It opened in 1969, first courses started in 1971.
It is a non-residential university which established by Labor Party.
The aim of these universities is to extend educational opportunities to adults who had not had to chance to attend a traditional university.
The person receive their lessons at home by television, radio or correspondence courses.
The open universities has served as a model for other countries.
Further and Adult Education
Further education is a term which an individual fallows after leaving secondary school, but it is not degree level work at the higher education institutions.
Adult education is a program which is fallowed by a person who has already left secondary school. Adult courses may be vocational or recreational.

In short, Further and higher educations are the parts of a lifelong learning process. Also education is a main concern in British life.
Student Finance
British students were awarded a grant from their local education authorities in the past.
Two parts of grants existed that:
the first one contained tuition fees.
the second one covered after testing of parent's income, costs of living such as rent, food, book in term time.
Student Finance
The Labor Government changed this situation about the grants in 1998 by abolishing the student grant.

The Student Loan Company

began providing loans for tuition fees and living costs. The students start to pay back their loans when they reach certain salary level. If their parents are found poor, they may not have to pay the tuition fees.

Student Finance
Now, many students have to provide their own higher education. Also, some of them are financial difficulties. As a result of these changes, the number of students dropped for university entry.
For Overseas
British universities have attracted a large number of students from overseas. Another development that has occurred recently, the tendency for British universities to promote themselves.
To Sum Up :

British higher education was transformed from an elite to a mass system between 1980s-1990s.
There was a growth in the student population.
The advancement of polytechnics to university status which resulted with the admission system.
The funding the universities has been transformed, now the system is carried out by The Funding Council.
The number of universities almost doubled, the old polytechnics became the new universities.
The new British university system represent a balance between new and the traditional universities.
History of British University
History of British University
History of British University
History of British University
History of British University
History of British University
History of British University
History of British University
History of British University
History of British University
Students wishing to attend a higher education institutions, first must apply to central admission council.
Until 1993 there were two councils:
The Universities Central Council on Admission
The Polytechnics Central Admissions System
Following the change in status of the polytechnics, these two admissions councils amalgamated into a new council known as
The University and Colleges Admissions Service
Education and educational system in Britain have long and interesting history. There were lots of changes during the progress.
Educational system in Britain starting with the 12th century.

Schools were attached to monasteries and churches to educate clerics who were the civil servants and the scholars of the time as well as monks, nuns and priests.
Education had no direct control by the state, the church had been almost a monopoly of literacy and education

Existed infant or 'petty' schools for sons of merchants, skilled craftsmen and squires.Boys were taught reading, writing and saying catechism or a series of questions and answers about God and Church
Then existed grammar and public schools for sons of tradesmen and craftsmen.

Then education for girls arose. But actually it was considered more important for a girl to know about housewifery than Latin. And so the girls did not attend school, but they were often taught in well-to-do families how to read, write and do sums.
15th-16th centuries
The 'subjects' were Religion, Reading and Writing. Also still existed grammar schools for the sons of tradesmen and craftsmen.
There were some schools for girls with major focus on Dancing, Music, Painting and Singing, Writing and Accounting.

One of the most urgent problems after the war was the shortage of teachers. The problem was exacerbated by the raising of the school leaving age to 15 and the reorganization of secondary education.
An emergency training program was introduced in 1945, with 53 training colleges opened by 1950.

The 17th century
Education is important in England, as it is Wales and Scotland too.
ucation is important in England, as it is Wales and Scotland too.

Introduction to School Life
Education is an important part of British life. There are hundreds of schools, colleges and universities, including some of the most famous in the world.

Education is free and compulsory for all children between the ages of 5 - 16. Some children are educated at home rather than in school.
Education is compulsory, but school is not,children are not required to attend school. They could be educated at home.

Motto Hinc lucem et pocula sacra
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge,England.
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge,England.
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge,England.
The two "ancient universities" have many common features and are often jointly referred to as Oxbridge.
The two "ancient universities" have many common features and are often jointly referred to as Oxbridge.
Term dates and calendars
2013-14 Tue 8 Oct - Fri 6 Dec Tue 14 Jan - Fri 14 Mar 20 Apr Tue 22 April - Fri 13 Jun
The academic year is divided into three academic terms, determined by the Statutes of the University. Michaelmas term lasts from October to December; Lent term from January to March; and Easter term from April to June.Within these terms undergraduate teaching takes place within eight-week periods called Full Terms.
Women's education
Initially, only male students were enrolled into the university.
The first colleges for women were Girton College (founded by Emily Davies) in 1869 and Newnham College in 1872 (founded by Anne Clough andHenry Sidgwick), followed by Hughes Hall in 1885 (founded by Elizabeth Phillips Hughes as the Cambridge Teaching College for Women), New Hall (later renamed Murray Edwards College) in 1954, and Lucy Cavendish College in 1965.
Colleges of the University of Cambridge
The colleges are self-governing institutions with their own endowments and property, founded as integral parts of the university.
All students and most academics are attached to a college.
Their importance lies in the housing, welfare, social functions, and undergraduate teaching they provide.
Cambridge has 31 colleges, of which three, Murray Edwards, Newnham and Lucy Cavendish, admit women only.
Schools, faculties and departments
In addition to the 31 colleges, the university is made up of over 150 departments, faculties, schools, syndicates and other institutions.
• Arts and Humanities
• Biological Sciences
• Clinical Medicine
• Humanities and Social Sciences
• Physical Sciences
• Technology

• Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic
• Architecture
• Asian and Middle Eastern Studies
• Classics
• Economics
• Education
• English
• Geography
• History
• History of Art
• Human, Social and Political Sciences
• Archaeology
• Biological Anthropology
• Politics and International Relations
• Social Anthropology
• Sociology
• Land Economy
• Law
• Linguistics
• Management Studies
• Modern and Medieval Languages
• French
• German
• Italian
• Portuguese
• Russian
• Spanish
• Music
• Philosophy
• Theology and Religious Studies

• Chemical Engineering
• Computer Science
• Engineering
• Manufacturing Engineering
• Mathematics
• Medicine
• Medicine (A100) course
• Graduate Medicine (A101) course
• Natural Sciences
• Astrophysics
• Biochemistry
• Biological and Biomedical Sciences
• Chemistry
• Genetics
• Geological Sciences
• History and Philosophy of Science
• Materials Science
• Neuroscience
• Pathology
• Pharmacology
• Physical Sciences
• Physics
• Physiology, Development and Neuroscience
• Plant Sciences
• Psychology
• Systems Biology
• Zoology
• Psychological and Behavioural Sciences
Veterinary Medicine

Cambridge is by far the wealthiest university in the UK and in the whole of Europe, with an endowment of £4.3 billion in 2011.
This is made up of around £1.6 billion tied directly to the university and £2.7 billion to the colleges.
The university's operating budget is well over £1 billion per year. Each college is an independent charitable institution with its own endowment, separate from that of the central university endowment.
In 2006–7, it was reported that approximately one third of Cambridge's income comes from UK government funding for teaching and research, with another third coming from other research grants. Endowment income contributes around £130 million.
Student life

The Cambridge University Students' Union (CUSU) serves to represent all the students within the University which automatically become members upon arrival. It was founded in 1964 as the Students' Representative Council (SRC); the six most important positions in the Union are occupied by Sabbatical officers.
Students' Union
Rowing is a particularly popular sport at Cambridge, and there are competitions between colleges, notably the bumps races, and against Oxford, the Boat Race.
There are also Varsity matches against Oxford in many other sports, ranging from cricket and rugby, to chess and tiddlywinks.
Colleges of the University of Cambridge
Numerous student-run societies exist in order to encourage people who share a common passion or interest to periodically meet or discuss.
As of 2010, there were 751 registered societies. In addition to these, individual colleges often promote their own societies and sports teams.The Cambridge Union serves as a focus for debating.
Motto Dominus Illuminatio Mea
Motto in English The Lord is my Light

The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
While Oxford has no known date of foundation, there is evidence of teaching as far back as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world, and the world's second-oldest surviving university.
It grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris.
After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled northeast to Cambridge, where they established what became the University of Cambridge.The two "ancient universities" are frequently jointly referred to as "Oxbridge".
Academic year
The academic year is divided into three terms.
Michaelmas Term lasts from October to December; Hilary Term from January to March; and Trinity Term from April to June.
In 2011/12, the University had an income of £1,016m; key sources were research grants (£409m), teaching funding (£204m), and academic fees (£173m).
The colleges had a total income of £361m, of which £47m was flow-through from the University.
Women's education
The University passed a Statute in 1875 allowing its delegates to create examinations for women at roughly undergraduate level.
The first four women's colleges were established thanks to the activism of the Association for Promoting the Higher Education of Women (AEW).
Lady Margaret Hall (1878) was followed bySomerville College in 1879; the first 21 students from Somerville and Lady Margaret Hall attended lectures in rooms above an Oxford baker's shop.
Somerville College was founded as one of Oxford's first women's colleges in 1879, it is now fully co-educational.
There are 38colleges of the University of Oxford and six Permanent Private Halls, each controlling its membership and with its own internal structure and activities.
• Blackfriars
• Campion
• Regent's Park
• St Benet's
• St Stephen's House
• Wycliffe

The Permanent Private Halls were founded by different Christian denominations.
The University maintains the largest university library system in the UK; and, with over 11 million volumes housed on 120 miles (190 km) of shelving, the Bodleian group is the second-largest library in the UK, after the British Library.
The Bodleian is a legal deposit library, which means that it is entitled to request a free copy of every book published in the UK.
The Radcliffe Camera
The Clarendon Building
Student life

Sport is played between collegiate teams, in tournaments known as cuppers.
There are two weekly student newspapers:
The Isis magazine,The Owl Journal,
The satirical Oxymoron, and the graduate Oxonian Review. The student radio station is Oxide Radio.
OUSU and Common Rooms
The Oxford University Student Union, better known by its acronym OUSU, exists to represent students in the University's decision-making, to act as the voice for students in the national higher education policy debate, and to provide direct services to the student body.
Alumnas and Alumnus
26 British prime ministers have attended Oxford, including William Gladstone, Herbert Asquith, Clement Attlee, Harold Macmillan, Edward Heath, Harold Wilson, Margaret Thatcher, Tony Blair and most recentlyDavid Cameron
Other international leaders have been educated at Oxford. This number includes Harald V of Norway, Abdullah II of Jordan
Bill Clinton (the first President of the United States to have attended Oxford; he attended as a Rhodes Scholar)
Can Yeğinsu a lawyer in New Square Chambers
The London School of Economics and Political Science is a public research university specialised insocial sciences located in London, United Kingdom, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
Founded in 1895 by Fabian Society members Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb, Graham Wallas and George Bernard Shaw, LSE joined the University of London in 1900 and first issued degrees to its students in 1902.[4]Despite its name, LSE conducts teaching and research across a range of social sciences, as well as in mathematics, statistics, philosophy and history.
LSE is located in Westminster, central London, near the boundary between Covent Garden and Holborn in an area historically known as Clare Market.
LSE is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs, the European University Association, the G5, the Global Alliance in Management Education, the Russell Group and Universities UK.
Campus and estate
LSE moved to its present day central London campus at Clare Market and Houghton Street inWestminster, off the Aldwych and next to the Royal Courts of Justice and Temple Bar in 1902. In 1920,King George V laid the foundation of the Old Building, which remains the principal building on campus.
Over the years the School has gradually increased its ownership of adjacent buildings, creating an almost continuous campus between Kingsway and the Royal Courts.
LSE's Old Building

In the financial year ended 31 July 2011, LSE had a total income (including share of joint ventures) of £233.7 million (2009/10 – £220.92 million) and total expenditure of £214.84 million (2009/10 – £201.69 million).
Libraries and archives
The main library of LSE is the British Library of Political and Economic Science (BLPES), located in the Lionel Robbins Building.
The School is organised into 24 academic departments and 19 research centres. LSE's library, the British Library of Political and Economic Science, contains over 4 million print volumes, 60,000 online journals and 29,000 electronic books.
Student life
Student body
In the 2011–12 academic year there were 9,300 full-time students and around 700 part-time students at the school. Of these, approximately two-thirds came from outside the United Kingdom. LSE has a highly international student body, with over 145 countries represented.

LSE students revising inLincoln's Inn Fields

Students' Union

LSE has its own students' union (LSESU), which is affiliated to the National Union of Students and the National Postgraduate Committee, as well as to the University of London Union.
The students' union is often regarded as the most politically active in Britain – a reputation it has held since the well documented LSE student riots in 1966–67 and 1968–69, which made international headlines.
A weekly student newspaper The Beaver
The Union's radio station Pulse! has existed since 1999, and the television station LooSE Television has existed since 2005.
Notable people
London School of Economics people
John F Kennedy
Karl Popper, philosopher
Mick Jagger, lead singer of the Rolling

The School has produced many notable alumni in the fields of law, economics, philosophy, business, literature and politics. To date, there have been 16 Nobel Prize winnersamongst its alumni and current and former staff, at least 37 world leaders, 6 Pulitzer Prize winners and fellows of the British Academy
LSE has a long list of notable alumni and staff, spanning the fields of scholarship covered by the school. Among them are eighteen Nobel Prize winners in Economics, Peace and Literature.
Nobel Laureates associated with the London School of Economics

1925 George Bernard Shaw

1950 Ralph Bunche

1950 Bertrand Russell

1959 Philip Noel-Baker

1972 Sir John Hicks

1974 Friedrich Hayek

1977 James Meade

1979 Sir William Arthur Lewis

1987 Óscar Arias

1990 Merton Miller

1991 Ronald Coase

1998 Amartya Sen

1999 Robert Mundell

2001 George Akerlof

2003 Robert F. Engle III

2007 Leonid Hurwicz

2008 Paul Krugman

2010 Christopher A. Pissarides

Pulitzer Prize winners associated with the London School of Economics
1968 Nick Kotz
Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting

1990 David A. Vise
Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Journalism

1994 David Levering Lewis
Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography

2000 John Bersia
Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Writing

2001 David Levering Lewis
Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography

2013 Bret Stephens
Pulitzer Prize for Commentary

King's College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. King's is arguably the third-oldest university in England, having been founded by King George IV and the Duke of Wellington in 1829
King's has around 26,000 students and 6,113 staff and had a total income of £554.2 million in 2011/12, of which £154.7 million was from research grants and contracts.
Strand Campus

It is located on the Strand
in the City of Westminster
Guy's Campus
Guy's Campus is situated
close to London Bridge and
the Shard on the South Bank
of the Thames
Waterloo Campus
James Clerk Maxwell Building,
Waterloo Campus
The Waterloo Campus is
located across Waterloo
Bridge from the Strand
St Thomas' Campus
The St Thomas' Campus in
the London Borough of Lambeth
St Thomas' Hospital,
St Thomas' Campus
Denmark Hill Campus
Golden Jubilee Wing,
King's College Hospital,
Denmark Hill Campus
Schools and departments
King's is made up of nine academic schools, which are subdivided into departments, centres and research divisions:

• Dental Institute
• Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery
• Institute of Psychiatry
• School of Arts & Humanities
• School of Biomedical Sciences
• School of Medicine
• School of Natural & Mathematical Sciences
• School of Social Science & Public Policy
• The Dickson Poon School of Law


King's is the largest centre for healthcare education in Europe. King's College London School of Medicine has over 2,000 undergraduate students, over 1,400 teachers, four main teaching hospitals – Guy's Hospital, King's College Hospital, St Thomas' Hospital and University Hospital Lewisham –
Maughan Library

The Maughan Library is King's largest library. The building was designed by Sir James Pennethorne and is home to the books and journals of the Schools of Arts & Humanities, Law, Natural & Mathematical Sciences, and Social Science & Public Policy.
Other libraries
• The Foyle Special Collections Library
• The Tony Arnold Library
• The Franklin-Wilkins Library
• The New Hunt's House Library
• The Weston Education Centre Library
• The St Thomas' House Library
• The Institute of Psychiatry (IoP) Library
• The Bethlem Royal Hospital Library

Student life
Student residences
Halls of residence

King's has a total of eight halls of residence
located throughout London.


• Brian Creamer House at St Thomas' Campus
• Great Dover Street Apartments at Guy's Campus
• Hampstead Residence in Hampstead
• Moonraker Point in Southwark
• Stamford Street Apartments at the Waterloo Campus
• The Rectory at St Thomas' Campus
• Wolfson House at Guy's Campus


• King's College Hall at the Denmark Hill Campus

Notable alumni
King's has educated numerous foreign Heads of State and Government including two former Presidents of Cyprus; Tassos Papadopoulos (Law, 1955), and Glafcos Clerides (Law, 1948), Prime Minister of the Bahamas; Sir Lynden Pindling (Law, 1952, Prime Minister of Iraq; Abd ar-Rahman al-Bazzaz (Law, 1938) , Governor of the Turks and Caicos Islands; Martin Bourke (War Studies, 1970) Health Ministers of Turkey (Recep Akdağ)
Notable King's alumni in poetry and literature include the poet John Keats (Medicine), and the writers Thomas Hardy (French), Sir Arthur C. Clarke (Mathematics & Physics), Virginia Woolf, Alain de Botton (Philosophy), Michael Morpurgo (French & English) In addition, the dramatist Sir W. S. Gilbert of Gilbert and Sullivan graduated from King's.
John Keats
Virginia Woolf
Nobel laureates
There are 12 Nobel laureates who were either students or academics at King's:

Charles Glover Barkla
1917 Nobel Prize in Physics

Sir Owen Willans Richardson
1928 Nobel Prize in Physics

Sir Frederick Hopkins
1929 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

Sir Charles Scott Sherrington
1932 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

Sir Edward Victor Appleton
1947 Nobel Prize in Physics

Max Theiler
1951 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

Maurice Wilkins
1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

Desmond Tutu
1984 Nobel Peace Prize

Sir James Black
1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

Mario Vargas Llosa
2010 Nobel Prize in Literature

Peter Higgs
2013 Nobel Prize in Physics

Michael Levitt
2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

University College
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federalUniversity of London. Founded in 1826, UCL was the first university institution established in London and the first in England to be entirely secular, to admit students regardless of their religion, and to admit women on equal terms with men.
UCL has around 26,700 students and 11,025 staff and had a total income of £871 million in 2012/13, of which £335 million was from research grants and contracts. UCL has around 5,000 academic and research staff and 650 full professors, the highest number of any British university.

UCL is primarily based in the Bloomsbury area of central London. The main campus is located around Gower Street and includes the biology, chemistry, economics, engineering, geography, history, languages, mathematics, philosophy, politics and physics departments.
The UCL academic year is divided
into three terms. For most departments
except the Medical School, Term One
runs from late September to mid
December, Term Two from mid
January to late March, and Term
Three from late April to mid June.
Certain departments operate reading
weeks in early November and mid

Faculties and departments
UCL is organised into 10 constituent faculties, within which there are over 100 departments, institutes and research centres.
Drayton House, which houses the Faculty of Economics
To facilitate greater interdisciplinary interaction in
research and teaching UCL also has three strategic
faculty groupings:

• the UCL School of Life and Medical Sciences
• the UCL School of the Built Environment,
Engineering and Mathematical and Physical
• the UCL Faculty of Arts & Humanities, UCL Faculty of Laws, UCL
Faculty of Social & Historical Sciences and the UCL School of
Slavonic & East European Studies.

Faculty and staff
UCL had 5,405 academic and research staff across its 10 faculties. UCL has the highest number of full professors of any university in the UK, with 648 established and personal chairs There are currently 53 Fellows of the Royal Society, 51 Fellows of the British Academy, 15 Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering and 117 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences amongst UCL academic and research staff. There are currently approximately 3,000 PhD students working at UCL.
The main building of University College Hospital
UCL has offered courses in medicine
since 1834, but the current UCL Medical
School developed from mergers with the
medical schools of the Middlesex
Hospital (founded in 1746) and the Royal
Free Hospital (founded as the London
School of Medicine for Women in 1874)
The UCL library system comprises 16 libraries located across several sites within the main UCL campus and across Bloomsbury, linked together by a central networking catalogue and request system called Explore. The libraries contain a total of over 1.5 million books.
Museums and collections
UCL is responsible for several museums and
collections in a wide range of fields across the arts and sciences, including:

• Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology
• Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative
• Art Collections
• Institute of Archaeology Collections
• Ethnography Collections
• Galton Collection
• Science Collections
• The Flaxman Gallery

Student life

UCL Union runs over 50 sports clubs, including UCL Boat Club (Men's and Women's clubs), UCL Cross Country and Athletics Club and UCL Rugby Club
Student housing
All first-year undergraduate students and overseas first-year postgraduates at UCL are guaranteed university accommodation.
Notable alumni
Notable UCL alumni include:
– engineers and scientists including Alexander
Graham Bell (inventor of the telephone), Colin Chapman (founder of Lotus Cars), Francis Crick (co-discoverer of the structure of DNA)
– politicians including Mahatma Gandhi (leader of the Indian independence movement and "Father of the Nation"), Jomo Kenyatta (first Prime Minister, first President and "Father of the Nation" of Kenya), Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (first Prime Minister and "Father of the Nation" of Mauritius), Chaim Herzog (President of Israel), Itō Hirobumi (first Prime Minister of Japan)

Alexander Graham Bell
Mahatma Gandhi
Imperial College London was established in 1907. Imperial College London is a public research university located in London, England which specialises in science, engineering, medicine and business.
Imperial is organised into four main faculties within which there are over 40 departments, institutes and research centres. Imperial has around 16,000 students and 3,330 academic and research staff and had a total income of £822 million in 2012/13, of which £329.5 million was from research grants and contracts.
There are currently 15 Nobel laureates and two Fields Medalists amongst Imperial's alumni and current and former faculty.
South Kensington

Imperial's main campus is located in the South Kensington area of central London. It is situated in an area of South Kensington, known as Albertopolis
Other campuses

Imperial has two other
major campuses – at
Silwood Park and at Wye

Faculties and departments

Imperial currently has the following three
constituent faculties:
•Imperial College Faculty of Engineering
• Imperial College Faculty of Medicine
• Imperial College Faculty of Natural Sciences.

The Imperial Faculty of Medicine is one of the largest faculties of medicine in the UK. It was formed through mergers between Imperial and the St Mary's, Charing Cross and Westminster, and Royal Postgraduate medical schools and has six teaching hospitals
St. Mary's Hospital
Student media
Imperial College Radio

Imperial College Radio (or ICRadio) was founded in November 1975 with the intention of broadcasting to the student halls of residence from a studio under Southside, actually commencing broadcasts in late 1976.

In 2006 IC Radio received two nominations in the Student Radio Awards: Best Entertainment Show for Liquid Lunch and Best Male Presenter for Martin Archer.
Student housing
Imperial College owns and manages twenty halls of residence in Inner London, Ealing, Ascot and Wye.
Beit Hall (student housing)
Notable alumni
Nobel laureates of Imperial include, in medicine, Sir Alexander Fleming (pharmacologist), Sir Ernst Boris Chain (biochemist), Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley, Rodney Robert Porter
Other notable people associated with Imperial include; H. G. Wells, author, Nicholas Tombazis, Ferrari's Chief Designer, Brian May, guitarist of rock bandQueen, Julius Vogel, former Prime Minister of New Zealand and Hong Kong singer-songwriter and actor Aarif Rahman

Sir Alexander Fleming
Home education, where parents choose to educate their children outside school, remains a legal option for families - as long as they provide a suitable full time alternative.

Children's education in England is normally divided into two separate stages. They begin with primary education at the age of five and this usually lasts until they are eleven.

Then they move to secondary school, there they stay until they reach sixteen, seventeen or eighteen years of age.

Teachers in primary schools ( 4 - 11 year olds) are always addressed by their surname by parents and pupils alike, always Mr, Mrs or Miss Smith...

In secondary schools (11 - 16 years), teachers are usually addressed as Miss or Sir.

Find out what year (grade) you would be in England
The school year runs from September to July and is 39 weeks long.

The dates for school terms and holidays are decided by the local authority or the governing body of a school, or by the school itself for independent schools.

The School Year

The main school holidays are:
Christmas- 2 weeks
Spring - 2 weeks
Summer - 6 weeks
There are also one week holidays:
end of October
mid February
end of May

School holidays

Compulsory education in England is divided into primary (5 to 11 years old) and secondary (11 to 16 years old).

In the UK, the first level of education is known as primary education. These are almost always mixed sex, and usually located close to the child's home.

Children tend to be with the same group throughout the day, and one teacher has responsibility for most of the work they do.

Children attend primary school for seven years, where they study English, mathematics, science, Religious education, history, geography, music, art and crafts, physical education, information technology (computers) and a foreign language.

Pupils in compulsory education follow the National Curriculum. The National Curriculum is organised on the basis of five key stages, one applies to children aged 3-5, two are applicable to primary schools and two to secondary schools.
Primary education generally begins when children are four to seven years of age.

However, many children begin their education at the Foundation Stage, which begins when children reach the age of three, and lasts until they reach 5 years old.
The start of the Foundation Stage is generally referred to as the Nursery stage and the last year is often referred to as the 'Reception Year‘.

A nursery school (also known as preschool )is a educational establishment offering early childhood education to children between the ages of three and five, prior to the commencement of compulsory education at primary school.

Nursery School
Schools for children under the compulsory age for school attendance were motivated by a combination of a desire for moral regulation and social control. Demand for the provision of care for young children increased as women were increasingly drawn into the labor market.

An infant school forms part of the local pattern of provision for primary education. In England and Wales children start at infant school between the ages of four and five in a Reception class.

Infant School
Samuel Wilderspin opened his first infant school in London in 1819.

His work became the model for infant schools throughout England.

The infant schools were followed by infant school societies.

They lacked a uniform purpose, curriculum or pedagogy, but preparation for the subjects taught in elementary schools came to predominate.

Infant and junior schools were often separate schools, but the final three decades of the 20 th century saw many infant and junior departments coming together as single primary schools.

Junior School
Secondary education , or secondary school , is a period of education which follows directly after
primary education
, and which may be followed by tertiary or "post-secondary" education.

The purpose of a secondary education can be to prepare for either
higher education
or vocational training .

The first public secondary schools started around 1910 within the wealthier areas of similar income levels.

After Secondary Education, the students must pass the GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) assessment.

If the students choose to continue their education at further education, they will continue for two more years and take A-Levels or a similar qualification, which is essential to continue to higher education.

Compulsory education in England is divided into primary (5 to 11 years old) and secondary (11 to 16 years old).

Compulsory education ends at the end of Year 11, but students aged 16 to19 can move on to further education at schools or Further Education (FE) colleges.

The 1944
Education Act
created the first nationwide system of state-funded secondary education in England and Wales, echoed by the
Education (Northern Ireland) Act 1947.

The new tripartite system consisted of three different types of secondary school:
grammar schools, secondary technical schools
secondary modern schools.

Tripartite System
One of the three types of school forming the
Tripartite System
was called the grammar school, which sought to spread the academic ethos of the existing grammar schools.

Grammar schools were intended to teach an academic curriculum to the most intellectually able 25 percent of the school population as selected by the
eleven plus

The Education Act 1944
changed the education system for secondary schools in England and Wales. Called the
"Butler Act"
after the Conservative politician
R.A. Butler
, it introduced the
Tripartite System
secondary education
and made all schooling--especially secondary education, free for all pupils.

It raised the school leaving age to 15 but kept age 11 as the decision point for sending children to higher levels.

Every school was required to begin the day with a nondenominational religious activity, and Anglican schools were continued.

Historians consider it a "triumph for progressive reform," even though the principal sponsor was the Conservative minister and president of the Board of Education,
R. A. Butler
. He expressed the
"One Nation Conservatism"
in the tradition of Disraeli, which called for paternalism by the upper class toward the working class.

Local Education Authorities were required to submit proposals to the new Department of Education for reorganizing secondary schooling in their areas.

Most LEA s aimed to establish the three main 'streams' or categories of school - grammar, secondary modern and technical - which had been recommended in a Report by Sir William Spans in 1938.

Local Education Authorities (LEA s)
Children would be allocated on the basis of an examination at the age of 11, known as the '11 plus'. This was intended to provide equal opportunities for children of all backgrounds.

1)Grammar School
2)Comprehensive School
3)Secondary Modern School

Secondary Education is divided into three
Entrance is based on a test of ability

State grammar schools at the secondary level were created by the 1944 Education Act and provided an academic training for those pupils between the ages of 11 and 18 who had passed the 11-plus examination,and who wished to enter higher education or professions.

Grammar School
Some grammar schools have an ancient history in England as part of the independent sector.

Today the state grammar schools have been largely replaced by the comprehensive school system and only a small minority of state school pupils attend the remaining grammar schools.

Comprehensive schools, are non-selective, they do not select pupils on grounds of ability.

Most comprehensives are secondary schools for children between the ages of 11 to 16.

Comprehensive School
The first comprehensives were set up after the Second World War.

More comprehensive schools were established under Mrs Thatcher than any other education secretary.

In 1946, for example, Walworth School was one of five 'experimental' comprehensive schools set up by the London Country Council.

A secondary modern school is a type of secondary school that existed in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, from 1944 until the early 1970s, under the
Tripartite System
, and was designed for the majority of pupils.

Very few students at
secondary modern schools
took public examinations until the introduction of the less academic
Certificate of Secondary Education
(known as the CSE) in the 1960s.

Secondary Modern School
Pupils do not achieve scores in the top 25% of the
eleven plus

They were replaced in most of the UK by the
Comprehensive School
system and now remain in place mainly in
Northern Ireland
, where they are usually referred to simply as Secondary schools.

In counties still operating a selective system, there are still schools fulfilling the role of the secondary modern by taking those pupils who do not get into grammar schools.

Secondary Modern Schools Today
These schools may be known colloquially (though not officially) as high schools (Medway and Trafford), upper schools (Buckinghamshire) or simply all-ability schools.

Grammar Schools were generally funded at a higher per-student level than Secondary Modern Schools.

Secondary moderns were generally deprived of both resources and good teachers

In England and Wales, the government introduced a National Curriculum in 1988. This provides a framework for education between the ages of 5 - 18.

All state schools are required to follow it. But it does not apply to independent schools, which by definition are free to set their own curriculum.

Each school organizes its timetable differently. Lessons might last 35, 40, 45, 55 or 60 minutes!

For each subject, a student will attend classes for about 5 hours a week, and is also expected to undertake at least 6 hours private study.

Students will usually also attend classes in General Studies, or Philosophy, or other similar subjects.

There will also be time given to Physical Education or Sport, whether or not these are taken as subjects for studying.

School Uniforms in England
Typical uniform of an English comprehensive school
There are three core subjects in the curriculum:

ENGLISH, MATHS and SCIENCE and seven foundational ones: TECHNOLOGY, HISTORY,

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