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Attracting the 'creative class'

GEOG 311 - Seminar #1

Leah Quin

on 31 October 2012

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Transcript of Attracting the 'creative class'

Attracting the creative class GEOG 311 - Seminar 1 Leah Quin Evan Holt Sydney Stelau Andrew Johnson In our seminar Neoliberalization and the Creative context The Creative Class Case Studies Conclusion/Policy recommendations - Richard Florida
- Transformation of North American economy
- Neo-liberal political backdrop - Description
- Using”the 4 Ts” to attract the Creative Class
- Seattle: A bustling Creative hub
- Toronto: An up-and-coming region
- St. John’s: Creative Class in peripheral regions
- Overall policy directions
- cluster development
- arts and design-based strategies
- sustainability-based strategies

Richard Florida - Notable author of books such as Rise of the Creative Class and Who's Your City A leading figure and public speaker in the field of economic development Director of the Martin Prosperity Institute and Professor of Business and Creativity at the University of Toronto (Florida, 2012; Rushton, 2006) Richard Florida argues that attracting members of the "creative class" will boost human capital and increase production and livability in cities The world is also getting spikier (Florida, 2012; Bellows, 2011; Rushton, 2006) Cities are more than just accumulations of capital and labour The transformation of the North American economy (Martin prosperity Institute, 2009; Florida, 2012b; Florida, 2002) Transition from brawn to creativity At the turn of the century: 5% creative class workers
Today: 30% of Canadian workforce in creative occupations Florida asserts that we are undergoing a transformation similar in scale to the shift from Agricultural to Industrial economies The creative economy has higher earning potential and plenty of economic influence Neo-liberalization and the creative economy (Peck, 2005) Cities are not merely sites where delegated actions take place Downloading of responsibilities to local government and authorities Competition no longer based on tax breaks & development schemes Capitalism based on human creativity, requiring supply-side intervention $$$$ THE CREATIVE CLASS About the creative class The "4 Ts" of attracting creative workers THE CREATIVE CLASS (Florida, 2002) highly educated, well-paid, highly mobile Thrive in "plug-and-play" communities Crave a stimulating mix of work culture and social culture Seek authentic urban experiences Drawn to locations with demonstrated openness to diversity and unique attributes The creative class is changing the way cities focus on economic development We must understand the desired amenities of this class so we can develop policies to attract creative workers Structure of the creative class Super- creative core: engineers, university professors, artists, designers, editors, cultural figures, think-tank researchers, analysts creative professionals: high-tech sectors, financial services, the legal and healthcare professions, business management (Florida, 2002) THE GEOGRAPHY OF COOL The Economist has outlined some of the desired features of a neighbourhood for creative people - cheap, solid housing - cultural diversity - edgy and unique street culture - surrounded by other "bohemians" and "fellow nerds" - thick labour markets: many job opportunities (The Economist, 2000) Richard Florida: "Today, it seems, leading creative centers provide a solid mix of high-tech industry, plentiful outdoor amenities, and an older urban center whose rebirth has been fueled in part by a combination of creativity and innovative technology, as well as lifestyle amenities." The "4 Ts" of attracting the creative class (McLaren, 2012; Peck, 2005; Martin Prosperity Institute, 2009) - Technology

- Talent

- Tolerance

- Territory assets
transforming research into marketable products Universities play a large role strategies to attract the creative class knowledge-intensive industries require education receptive to immigration & alternative lifestyles low entry barriers quality of place & social cohesion Case study: SEATTLE DEVELOPMENT -Early economic base revolved around the timber industry
-Rail access aided population growth in addition to economic diversification
-Canada’s gold rush results in economic boom
-World War I fuels the early development of transportation systems and public electrical power
-World War II creates economic growth resulting from Boeings increased employment
-Continued growth of existing businesses and development of high tech firms have steadied the economy
ROLE OF THE CREATIVE CLASS SEATTLE -Information and Communication Technology
-Smart Energy
-World class university
-Proximity to Canada and focus on the Pacific Rim
-Small Business Support
-Increased funding of Neighbourhood Business Districts
SEATTLE INVESTING IN SMART INFRASTRUCTURE -Building a broadband fiber network
-Increased public transit capacity
-Alternative transportation methods
-Utility investments
-Increased business financing
-Active retention
-Alternative land uses
Emphasis on educational, physical and social infrastructure implementation
Telecommuniction and automobile industries increased
Official Plan: Initiatives to maintain downtown core
Culture Plans: Funding for Arts and Culture
SECOND ERA 1970s- mid 1980s
Further emphasis on previous social infrastructures
financial and business services migration from Montreal- Toronto
Came to be known as Canada’s economic capital
THIRD ERA 1980s-mid 1990s
outsourcing of manufacturing jobs
Decrease of manufacturing jobs within the city
(24% manufacturing employment in 1981- 13.5% in 2006)
Rapidly increased expansion of creative and cultural industries
FOURTH ERA Transition into “World City”
already a leading technological hub in Canada and extremely multicultural
Focus directed to hoarding young talent; competing for title as creative city
City of Toronto Official Plan- 30 Year Plan:
Leadership in the International Scene
TORONTO THE ROLE OF THE CREATIVE CLASS Intensification of arts, culture and heritage:
will play a part in attracting educated/talented people, reducing “brain drain” which will lead to further and lasting economic prosperity
Define Toronto’s image
Put Toronto in the global competition of world creativity and innovation capitals
Alongside London, New York and Berlin
Toronto London TORONTO KEY ISSUE Toronto’s planning and governance is living in the past, while cultural development is in high gear development
- decentralizing city powers in order to cover necessary means to develop the creative city
- Creating new sources of revenue
- Solidifying data and information on development
- Revitalization of certain areas in order to enhance the overall usability and vibe
Gentrification or renewal of communities due to age, degradation, density, for social, environmental or economic reasons.
Tax Increment Financing (TIF)
increases property taxes on area of development and the surrounding areas to create more tax revenue to subsidize the costs of the newer developments
Urban Development Banks
Bridges gap between financial institutions and the final cost of the project
Municipal Cultural Planning
- Building capacity in important elements in development : Mapping, Governance and Engagement
TORONTO CREATIVE ECONOMY Economic Development Strategy (2001)
Arts and culture as main theme to develop city into global competitor
Focused on attractiveness of city and location
Prosperity Projects
Tourism Action Plan
TIFF, Nuit Blanch, Investments in existing cultural/heritage facilities
TORONTO CREATIVE CULTURE AND INDUSTRIES Culture Plan for the Creative City (2003)
Entails development in each sphere of the city- culture, environmental, economical
People, Enterprise, Space and Connectivity
MaRS Centre
TO Live With Culture
TORONTO CREATIVE DISTRICTS AND HUBS Creative Convergence Project (2007)
Initiatives to create cultural and economic hubs with in creative industries sector
Vibrancy in these places to improve quality of place
Municipal Cultural Planning
-Cultural Facilities Analysis (2003)
- Waterfront Design Review Panel
Business Improvement Area Program
Distillery District
Case study: ST. JOHN'S ESTABLISHED TODAY One of the first established areas in North America
Constantly fought over
Burned down in the great fire of 1892
First transatlantic wireless signal from England 1901
1990 collapse of the cod fishing industry
CURRENT STATE Currently a population of 196,966 which is an increase of 8% since 2006
This small city feel is what makes it desirable when compared to larger cities with strong creative centres
Small independent creative sector (Photography, film, music etc.)
ST. JOHN'S ROLE OF THE CREATIVE CLASS Highest ranking in Canada with 28.1% of the labour force employed in a creative class occupation
Definition of St. John’s, core of the area
Jobs are not stable in the area with a high layoff rate

Advantage to some using the time off to work on projects
ST. JOHN'S IDENTIFYING TALENT According to Florida, the talent index only includes those with bachelor degrees or higher and does not count community collage etc.
St John’s is currently average with nearby areas like Halifax being the second highest
Nationally, 24.3% of the labour force employed in a creative class occupation.
Atlantic Canada, St. John’s, Charlottetown and Halifax all surpassed the Canadian average
St. John’s had the highest proportion of creative workers with 28.1%, or 25,400 workers in the category (Halifax is at 27%)
(Barrieau, 2006) ST. JOHN'S POPULATION Very slow increase, about 3 people a year
Still in the average but places like Toronto, Vancouver, Montreal are dominating as creative cores
For a small area in Canada the steady increase is expected
The small town community and feel appeals to many
ST. JOHN'S CREATIVE COMMUNITY Creative downtown core
Community type festivals and events
ST. JOHN'S HOW DOES IT RANK? (Barrieau, 2006) ST. JOHN'S Can it hold up at a National level? Atlantic Level? The main draw to St. John’s is the small town feel
However, is more better?
Allows an intricate community with many relying on each other
Large cities = Large populations = more social networks
Smaller, more dense networks that have become highly developed is what attracts the creative to this area
Feeling of leaving a family group in order to go to a big city (makes it more difficult/less likely)
St. John's Toronto vs BIGGER CITIES, MORE OPPORTUNITY? Most end up heading to areas with a more developed creative class like: Halifax, Toronto, Calgary, Ottawa, Vancouver etc
(Lepawsky, P., Phan, C., & Greenwood, R., 2010) ST. JOHN'S WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD? Has St. John’s reached its capacity?
At what point does it become too developed and lose that small city feel
Limitations to a small city, many will want to proceed in their careers and can only do so to a certain extent
Attraction for specific types of people who are looking for that type of atmosphere


- large scale competition - competitive advantage
- knowledge-intensive - The 4 Ts - Attracting the creative class to thriving cities, up-and-coming regions, and peripheral regions ATTRACTING THE CREATIVE CLASS POLICY DIRECTIONS (Peck, 2005; Scott, 2006) Shift away from tax-breaks and short-term development plans towards new infrastructure to attract creative talent In neo-liberal context, changes must occur locally and include public participation Emerging equilibrium between work and social experience forwards cultural promotion activities alongside other development policies CREATIVE CLASS AND CLUSTERS CREATIVE CLASS AND ART/DESIGN SOLUTIONS CREATIVE CLASS AND SUSTAINABILITY - high-tech and other specialized clusters in creative economy - creative class responsible for many design innovations - creative class drawn to innovation clusters surrounding green technology Links: http://www.seattle.gov/economicdevelopment/maj_ind_sectors.htm http://www.toronto.ca/culture/creativecity2008.htm http://www.creativecity.ca/index.php http://www.creativeclass.com/ References:

Barrieau, N. (2006). University of Moncton, Creative Class and Economic Development: The Case of Atlantic Canada’s Urban Centres. The Canadian Institute for Research on Public Policy and Public Administration (CIRPPA)

Bellows, M. (2011) Cities are the key. National Geographic Traveller. Retrieved from http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/travel/traveler-magazine/one-on-one/richard-florida/
City of Toronto (2008). Creative City Planning Framework. AuthentiCity. Accessed 12 October 2012.

Florida, R. (2002). The rise of the creative class. Washington Monthly. Retrieved on October 4 from https://troymi.gov/futures/Research/Lifestyle/Rise%20of%20the%20Creative%20Class.pdf

Florida, R. (2005a) Cities and the creative class. Routledge, New York.

Florida, R. (2012). The rise of the creative class, revisited. National Journal. Retrieved from http://nationaljournal.com/thenextamerica

Florida, R. (2012b). Canada’s greatest competitive advantage? Our creativity. The Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://huffingtonpost.ca

Gertler, M.S. (2004). Creative cities: what are they for, how do they work, and how do we build them? Canadian Policy Research Network, Background Paper F/48.

Lepawsky, P., Phan, C., & Greenwood, R. (2010). Metropolis on the margins: talent attraction and retention to the St. John’s city-region. The Canadian Geographer, 54(3), 334.

McLaren, C. (2012). Resilient economies, resilient cities: An interview with Richard Florida. BMW Guggenheim Lab. Retrieved from http://blog.bmwguggenheimlab.org/2012/02/resilient-economies-resilient-cities-an-interview-with-richard-florida/

Martin Prosperity Institutue (2009). Ontario competes: Performace overview using the 3Ts of economic development. Accessed 20 October 2012 from http://martinprosperity.org/media/pdfs/Ontario_Competes.pdf

Peck, J. (2005). Struggling with the creative class. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 29(4): pp. 740-770.

Rushton, M. (2006). The creative class and urban economic growth revisited. Prepared for the14th International Conference of the Association for Cultural Economics International, Vienna, Austria 6-9 July 2006. Retrieved October 5 from http://www.fokus.or.at/fileadmin/fokus/user/downloads/acei_paper/Rushton.doc

Scott, A.J. (2006). Creative cities: conceptual issues and policy questions. Journal of Urban Affairs 28(1):1-17.
The Economist (2000) The geography of cool. The Economist 15 April, 91–3.
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