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Philosophers of education
Transcript of Philosophers of education
Kimberly Wolf bell hooks Jean Jacques Rousseau Philosophers Of Education Nell Noddings •Jacks Professor Emeriti of Child Education at Stanford University
•John W. Porter Chair in Urban Education at Eastern Michigan University
•bachelor’s degree in mathematics from Montclair State College, New Jersey
•master’s degree in mathematics from Rutgers University, New Jersey
•doctorate in educational philosophy from Stanford University
•From 1949 to 1972, Nel Noddings was an elementary and high school teacher and administrator in New Jersey public schools
•joined the faculty at Stanford in 1977
•At Stanford, she was recognized as an outstanding teacher and served in various positions including as the acting dean of the School of Education.
•went on to teach the philosophy of education at Columbia University until 2000
•In 2001 she held the A. Lindsay O'Connor Professorship of American Institutions at Colgate University
•Libra Professorship at the University of Southern Maine
•former president of both the Philosophy of Education Society and the John Dewey Society
• member of the Kappa Delta Pi Laureate chapter (Smith, 2004)
Interesting biographical information Nel is most noted for her contribution to the ethics of care and how they can influence ethical decision making. Her 1984 book Caring detailed a “feminine approach to ethics and moral education.” Her position begins with stating that care is basic in human life and that all people want to be cared for. Her approach is to examine how caring is perceived and ask “what are we like” when engaging in a caring experience. In opposition to Carl Rogers’ work in the field of empathy, she prefers to talk about sympathy. She places special emphasis on the home being the primary place of learning and caring and that the home has major contributions to developing young people. Her relationship of teacher and student and the need to sometimes design a curriculum based on the different needs of one’s students. Care but be an ongoing effort in a child’s education from the teacher.
Ways these contributions are still used today
•People who are poor, perhaps homeless, without dependable transportation cannot afford to run all over town seeking such services, and often they don’t know where to begin. Despite being aware of the overwhelming needs many students face, we force all children—regardless of interest or aptitude—into academic courses and then fight an uphill battle to motivate them to do things they do not want to do. (Noddings, 1996)
•Making sure a teacher cares for their students to provide them with the most valuable learning opportunity available
One critique, written by Sarah Hoagland, is that the mothering model creates an unidirectional description of caring and that she does not think mothering can be properly used as the model for the ethics of caring. Sarah argues that that this unidirectional nature of the analysis of one-caring reinforces oppressive institutions. She feels that the cared for student cannot understand what the one caring needs or wants, and that such a relationship is “ipso facto a diminished caring relationship.” (Hoagland, 1990) Critiques Major Educational contributions •bell hooks (intentionally un-capitalized) use of an alias honors both her grandmother and her mother, her real name is Gloria Watkins. She wanted to establish a voice separate of her own.
•She was born in Hopkinsville, Kentucky on September 25th, 1952.
•She received her B.A from Stanford University in 1973, Her M.A in 1976 from the University of Wisconsin and her Ph.D. in 1983 from the University of California in Santa Cruz.
•She is feminist thinker, anti-racist, and a democrat. She was educated in racially segregated public institutions before winning a scholarship to Stanford University.
•She’s a distinguished Professor of English at City College in New York, author, and activist. She’s published books on feminism, race, gender, and discrimination and has won The American Book Award. Biographical Information •She sees education as a practice of freedom. She is heavily influenced by Paulo Freire.
•bell hooks' first major book pertaining to education was titled Teaching to Transgress. It was published in 1994. In her book she contended for “progressive, holistic education-engaged pedagogy.” Holistic education is the idea that each person finds their identity and purpose in life through the community, natural world and spiritual values which is why she stresses the structure of the community in the classroom in her books.
•She believed in building a community within the classroom. In her books addressed the power structures essential in the classroom. She writes for a diverse audience. •Conservative writers have made bell hooks a target. Peter Schweizer has critiqued bell hooks, claiming she is a hypocrite when discussing sexuality and gender politics. David Horowitz critiques a passage in which bell hooks wrote about racial oppression. Major Educational Contributions Critiques • Rousseau's general philosophy tried to grasp an emotional and passionate side of man,
which he felt, was left out of most previous philosophical thinking.
• Felt that we become corrupted by the evils of our society.
• Rousseau contended that man is essentially good when in the "state of nature" -condition
man was in before the creation of civilization and society
• Believed that we are born good and that good people are made unhappy and corrupted by
their experiences in societyàhe believes society is corrupt which leads to unhappiness
• Had been called the “father of modern child psychology”
• Educational movement called naturalismàemphasis on freedom and the individual has
had a significant influence on educational theory and practice
• Believed in stages of children’s growth and development and in the educational necessity
of adapting instruction to the various stages
• Wrote a book called Emile
goal of education should be to cultivate our natural tendencies
his philosophy is not geared simply at particular techniques that best ensure that the pupil
will absorb information and concepts
• Pupil’s character be developed in such a way as to have a healthy sense of self-worth
and morality. This will allow the pupil to be virtuous even in the unnatural and imperfect
society in which he lives.