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Chapter 3, Microbial Growth and Nutrition
Transcript of Chapter 3, Microbial Growth and Nutrition
auto/hetero - source of carbon
photo/chemo - source of energy
chemolith/chemoorgan - source of electrons
How microbes make a living.... we can predict if a metabolism is possible....
Exergonic rxn - negative delta G, leaving the system, catabolism
Endergonic rxn - positive delta G, entering the system, anabolism
triangle = delta = "change in,"
o and ' mean under standard conditions"
products - reactants
Bioenergetics (boring name for cool subject)
Microbes employ many different strategies to meet their needs. What do they need?
Water, Carbon and energy and top tier, then other macronutrients, micronutrients
a source of electrons (often carbon, sometimes metals)
a place to dump them (any TEA O2, SO4, NO3-, fermentation = EtOH, acetate)
molecules are built from glycolysis, Kreb's, E.D and pentose PO4 intermediates
Microbial metabolism is an exotic odyssey into the wilds of biochemistry and biophysics....
In the same way human society has a division of labor, microbial micro-habitats do too
The framework is "how to make a living"
Anabolic, Catabolic, Macro/Micronutrients
(the rest we know from lab)
Keeping it Real.......
Enzyme binds substrate(s) in active site, conformational change, reactive substrate(s) -> product
Reversible but deltaG......
Acceptor-> Reduction = adding -electrons
Donor -> Oxidation =
stealing -electrons (think aerobic respiration O2 -> H2O)
CAC ie Krebs
2X (pyruvate from glucose -> 3 CO2)
needs the electron carriers recycled to continue (ETC)
Biosynthetic role of intermediates
ETC into PMF into ATP
iron-sulfurs, cytochromes, quinones, the electrons "fall" down by Eo' and some proteins pumps H+
(H+ from NADH, water (basic and
Activated glucose (UDPG, ADPG nucleotide +2 P + glucose)
Mostly pentose and hexose monomers
Saturated / unsaturated
Glycerol + esther
Phytanyl and biphytanyl
acyl carrier protein helps construct 2C at a time
Proteins - glutamate, glutamine and NH4
Nucleotides - purine and pyrimidine are modified amino acids and R5P
How much? When?
Two basic levels: how fast it works, how much enzyme
Allosteric, feedback inhibition
Covalent modification (adenylation)
we'll get heavy into it in chapter 8
Energy and Bonds
and ion channel (F0)
3-4 H+ -> 1 ATP
R is the ideal gas constant = 8.314 J/mol-K
T is the absolute temperature (Kelvin)
K describes concentrations when rxn is at equilibrium
ln includes the probability of the collision of particular atoms at a certain time
Getting the electrons to the place you need them
Shuttle, not terminal
Other ways to live
N2 into NH3, requires ATP
Almost always anaerobic because of the major enzyme nitrogenase
**assumption is that pressure is always the same, geologist**
LPS, ribosome, NAG, NAM, NAT, B 1-4, B 1-3, teichoic, lipotechoic, psuedomurien, phytanyl, biphytanyl, inner/plasma membrane, outer membrane, S layer, cell wall, porin, nucleoid, periplasm, glycolipids, glycerol esther lipids, glycerol ether lipids, flagella