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Exploration and Colonization

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by

Stephen Battise

on 8 October 2015

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Transcript of Exploration and Colonization

Age of Exploration and Colonization
Why explore?
1400's Europe's population booming
Asian resources
Moluccas - Spice Islands (find quicker route)
Portugal!
Spain
England
France
Cartographers
mapmakers
trained crews
built ships

Iberian Peninsula
First country to begin exploration
Henry the Navigator
Madiera and Azores Islands
North African Coast
Christianity to Africa
Easier way to reach Asia
Vasco de Gama
4 ships around Cape of Good Hope (southern tip Africa)
Reached india
On return many died of Scurvy!
lack of vitamin C
Christopher Columbus
Italian Navigator
Portugal did not sponsor
Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain sponsor for selfish reasons
wealth and prestige to nation
Wanted to sail west to reach China!
Americas in way (1492)
called Natives, Indians because he thought they had reached Indies
*1502 Amerigo Vespucci realized on journey it was new land
Ferdinand Megellan
He died on journey
crew circumnavigated globe
1519
France, England, and the Dutch also explored
Moluccas or Spice Islands
Treaty of Tordesillas
treaty between Spain and Portugal
land divided amongst them
other European countries saw as arrogance
Spain
Americas
Philippines, lands encountered by or to be encountered by Columbus
Portugal
Brazil
west and east coasts of Africa,
the southern and eastern shores of Asia
East Indies
Conquistadors
Conquerors from Spain
Motivated by...
GOD, GOLD, and GLORY!
Advantages
Spanish were few in number, but had better technology
Guns
Horses
DISEASE
Hernan Cortes
Mexico 1519
Aztec leader Moctezuma thought Cortes to be god Quetzacoatl
Allied with other native tribes
destroyed Tenochtitlan
disease destroyed much of Aztec population
Francisco Pizarro
Overran Incan Empire and later conquered Chile and Ecuador
Helped create Spanish South American Empire
Effects of Spanish Conquest
Huge South American empire
Millions in goods and gold
Slave labor
Treasure fleets

Trade routes now opened throughout world
World connected by sea routes
Not to be outdone...
New France
Fishing and trapping were the moneymakers
Farming was too difficult in Canada’s long winters (extremely cold climate)
French explorers claimed land down the Mississippi River, Louisiana, and to the Gulf of Mexico
King Louis XIV heavily taxed French inhabitants
Northwest passage
want all water route Asia
13 English Colonies
No all water route
Settled for Coastal colonies
Jamestown, VA 1607
Starvation and disease
Native Americans helped
Growing and selling of tobacco
1620 settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts
English protestants who rejected Church of England
Sought religious freedom
Conflict
British and French emerge as rivals
French and Indian War in 1754.
French lose and cede much of Canada to British
Columbian Exchange
widespread of exchange of plants, animals, and disease between Europe and the Americas
Changed much of what world looked like
early Globalization!
cows and coffee? native to Old World
Mercantilism
Nations strength depended on its wealth
Wealthy nation had strong military for protection and influence
Joint-Stock companies
high risk venture undertaken by wealthy investors to create colonies
high chance of failure - high startup costs
-Queen Elizabeth did not have English funds to invest in colonies
Full transcript