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Injury Management

Injury Management US 12546

Matt Parr

on 26 June 2016

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Transcript of Injury Management

Apply knowledge of injury management in physical activity

Level 2
3 Credits Unit Standard 12546
INJURY MANAGEMENT The cause of a sudden onset or acute injury can be located to a specific incident or event. Examples would be straining an ankle when running over rough ground, dislocating a shoulder when colliding with an opponent, or bruising when hit by a ball. Injuries that occur through gradual overuse develop slowly. They may develop over a match or a race or alternatively over a period of weeks. A typical scenario for this type of injury would be for a runner to feel slight tenderness in their Achilles tendon after a run. This often goes away overnight but returns after a subsequent training session. This cycle repeats itself with the injury getting progressively worse. Gradual Overuse (Chronic): Acute (sudden) onset Causes of Injury Contributing Factors to Injuries
Internal factors causing injury are concerned with the make up of the individual person. Eg. An imbalance between muscle groups, spinal injuries.
These intrinsic factors could lead to overuse injuries.
Preparation and training can alter some of these conditions. Internal / Intrinsic Extrinsic factors in injury are those derived from external forces. Eg. A bad tackle, a collision with an opponent, being struck by a piece of equipment being used by another player such as a cricket ball or hockey stick. These factors are external to the athlete. External / Extrinsic Important Factors that Contribute to Injury THE ATHLETE Age – affects the strength and resilience of the tissues.
Personal temperament – may affect the athletes tendency to take or avoid risks.
Experience – beginners often suffer more injuries.
Level of training – injuries often occur at the beginning of the season or as a result of over-training Equipment & Facilities Equipment – may be inadequate, poorly designed or defective.
Protective clothing – may be faulty or insufficient
Participation Environment – Poor playing surfaces or inappropriate areas may endanger the individual.
Climatic Factors – Sunburn is a major problem in NZ, Cold weather and hypothermia, more commonly causes injuries by cooling warm muscles. The Sport Different sports place different demands on the athlete. Therefore each sport has its own group of injuries that are specific to that sport. Types of Injury Soft Tissue 4 TYPES OF SOFT TISSUE INJURIES Injury to the muscle and/or tendons
The more the muscle fibres are torn the more severe the injury
Can become chronic without treatment Injuries to the ligaments
Ligaments can rupture completely
Ligaments can be pulled away from their point of attachment
Fractures may also occur Sprains Strains Contusions or common bruises are the most frequent sports injury
Result from a direct blow to the body
If not treated properly ossifications can occur. Contusions The displacement of bones in a joint
Can cause fracture and damage to the ligaments, tendons, blood vessels and nerves.
Two types of dislocations can occur – SUBLUXATION & LUXATION
Luxation – total dislocation, (articular surfaces are no longer in contact)
Sub Luxation – Incomplete dislocation, (may still be partial contact but not correctly aligned) Dislocation Hard Tissue Like other tissues of the body the bones may be damaged through a traumatic injury or overuse.
An example of a hard tissue injury is a fracture.
Skeletal injuries are relatively common in contact sports. The facilities are large enough for play
Perimeter and advertising boards are not too close to the playing area.
Spectators and vehicles are well away from the playing area
Facilities are clean and hygenic Cold
Players wear adequate clothing during warm up and cool down
Clothing is not excessively heavy of bulky
Polypropylene is worn
Hot – Clothing is light coloured
Clothing is loose fitting
Clothing is lightweight
Enough fluid
Sunscreen worn
Players wear hats if appropriate #5-SAFE EQUIPMENT 1) MANAGING THE ENVIRONMENT 6 keys to Injury Prevention Weather Conditions Indoor & Outdoor facilities 2) Personal Preparation A physical conditioning programme should be balanced and include training exercises for each of the following areas that are relevant to the activity Speed – Speed conditioning enables players to move the body rapidly Power – Power conditioning means players can combine speed and strength to produce explosive force. Strength – strength conditioning means players can apply force against resistance Make sure your training is planned, directed and purposeful.
Follow the F.I.T.T.E. (Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type and Enjoyment) principle of training. Each element should be specified in the training programme and developed for each player’s needs.
Progressively increase the intensity and/or duration of training as players improve their conditioning levels.
Make sure the training is specific to the players and the sport or activity.
Remember, when players stop training, their physical condition declines. Maintain physical condition with two to three workouts every week.
Reduce the amount of training during competition to prevent “burn out” and fatigue. General Conditioning Principles 3) Skill Execution Good technique is essential for players to fully participate in and enjoy their sport - safely.
Poor technique can expose players to the risk of acute injury e.g. rugby tackling with the head in front of the ball carrier’s leg rather than behind it.
Poor technique used for a prolonged time can cause persistent injuries such as sore shins, tennis elbow and lower back pain. It also increases the risk of strains and sprains. It's important to LEARN the correct techniques, PRACTISE them and USE them during the game. It's also important to learn the techniques early to ensure a long-term involvement in the sport, and to avoid developing bad habits.
Keep checking techniques to ensure they are always used and, if necessary, seek expert advice (e.g. a senior coach or perhaps a specialist in biomechanics).
Many sports have "risky" elements such as tackling, jumping, landing, stopping and catching. Identify the risky elements in your sport and make sure players learn and use the correct techniques at all times. 3 important points about technique 4) Rule Adherence It's important to LEARN the correct techniques, PRACTISE them and USE them during the game. It's also important to learn the techniques early to ensure a long-term involvement in the sport, and to avoid developing bad habits.
Keep checking techniques to ensure they are always used and, if necessary, seek expert advice (e.g. a senior coach or perhaps a specialist in biomechanics).
Many sports have "risky" elements such as tackling, jumping, landing, stopping and catching. Identify the risky elements in your sport and make sure players learn and use the correct techniques at all times. Some rules are designed and enforced just to reduce or remove the risk of injury. For example:
Hockey players aren’t allowed to raise their sticks above shoulder level, spear tackling in rugby is disallowed, and physical contact in non-contact sports is penalised. 5) Managing Equipment Protective Equipment Protective equipment is there to protect players against injury and should be used wherever possible.
Protective equipment includes personal equipment such as mouth guards and headgear, as well as equipment such as padding around goal posts. Be used for the intended purpose
Fit well
Be comfortable
Not restrict movement in the sport PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MUST Goal posts are padded
Equipment is regularly maintained
Nets are attached securely to avoid entanglement
Corner posts and marker flags will flex on impact with no sharp edges
Equipment is stable and will not fall over or collapse
Equipment is suited to the players’ size and ability. Equipment checks 6) WARM UP & DOWN The Warm Up
Warming-up before playing sport prepares the mind, heart, muscles and joints for the upcoming event. It improves performance, helps players get mentally prepared and is a great step towards injury prevention.
Cooling down is equally important. It helps the body to recover and gradually return to its normal temperature. This is also a good time to work on flexibility. Prepares the body for physical activity
prevents a rapid increase in blood pressure
improves blood flow to the heart
increases muscle temperature and makes muscles more pliable.
By warming up, players will improve their performance and reduce the risk of injury
Coaches should focus on the following 3 components of a warm-up… Do some easy exercise (such as jogging, cycling and skipping) continuously for 5-10 minutes to raise the body temperature so the body is sweating lightly.  a) Aerobic exercise Stretch all the major muscle groups used when playing sport.
Dynamic stretching involves stretching movements performed at gradually increased speed.
Static stretching involves placing a muscle in its most lengthened position and holding for at least 30 seconds. b) Stretching
Do the sorts of exercises frequently used in your sport, such as short sprints, shuttle runs, changing direction quickly, shooting drills and defensive exercises with a partner.   c) Sport-specific exercises
Cooling down and stretching after playing sport may reduce the risk of injuries happening. It also helps to promote flexibility. This low-intensity exercise should last for 5-15 minutes and include activity such as slow jogging and stretching.
Coaches should focus on the following components of a cool-down… The Warm Down Slow jogging round the field or court is one of the best ways to cool-down.
Alternatives to jogging include low-intensity cycling and brisk walking.    b) Stretching
Static stretch for 10 minutes after the light jogging  
For greater flexibility, hold the stretches for 60 seconds during the cool-down.  c) Recovery
After any exercise, make sure players rehydrate.
Treat any sprains, strains or bruises with the R.I.C.E.D. procedure. a) Aerobic exercise Injury Management What do you do when an athlete does sustain an injury Primary Assessment Airway Make sure the airway is clear Breathing Check if the athlete is breathing by observing chest movements and/ or air passing in or out of the mouth. Circulation Secondary Assessment
TOTAPS If the player is conscious, TOTAPS is the first procedure to follow. Follow this procedure for both hard and soft tissue injuries. This allows the coach to assess the severity of the injury and determine whether the player should continue or not. If it has been found that there is a soft tissue injury present then the RICED procedure should be employed.
The aim of this procedure is to:
Prevent further damage
Reduce swelling initially, later to remove swelling
Ease pain
Prevent loss of ROM (range of motion) Injury Treatment How to treat an injury Ongoing Management What to do after play finishes Medical Assessment Any moderate to severe injuries must be assessed by a qualified professional as soon as possible. Fractures and dislocations need special attention. Remove the athlete from the playing area, unless there is a risk that movement may cause further injury. If a neck or spinal injury is involved, do not move the injured athlete until professional help arrives. All head injuries are serious, possibly life-threatening, if not followed up. Rehabilitation -
Soft tissue injuries ACUTE stage (0 – 72 hours)
Apply RICED to minimise bleeding and swelling and to aid fast recovery.

HEALING phase (72 hours – 6 weeks hours)
Scar tissue forms, physiotherapy begins.

REMODELLING (6 weeks to several months)
Lots of repair occurs during this stage including the remodelling of muscle and ligament fibres. During the healing process, injured soft tissue tends to shorten, so gently stretching the damaged area during the healing will help to restore the range of motion.
Before the athlete can re-enter full competition he or she must ensure that full strength is regained. Appropriate resistance training is needed to build up the injured area. Getting back into training can be a slow process and athletes need to be careful not to go back too soon. Return to Play Bringing athletes back to full fitness is a gradual and progressive process that needs to be undertaken with patience and care. If, at any stage, athletes feel pain, rather that just a mild discomfort, they should immediately revert to the previous stage of rehabilitation.

Rehabilitation programmes and stand down periods are recommended on the basis of the medical assessments made after the injury. It is important that they are adhered to. Many athletes are reluctant to cut down their training, and strongly resist enforced rest.

It is important that the athlete is sufficiently recovered from the injury before returning to the activity. Too early a return to sport will expose the athlete to the risk of further aggravating the injury and, consequently, spending an even longer time recovering.
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