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Transcript of ILOCOS REGION
Ilokano literature or Iloko literature pertains to the literary works of writers of Ilocano ancestry regardless of the language used.
Ilokano literature in the Philippines is one of several regional Philippine literatures. It is one of the most active tributaries to the general Philippine literature, next to Tagalog (Filipino) and Philippine Literature in English.
Known Ilokano writers:
Pedro Bucaneg, Leona Florentino and Isabelo de los Reyes, Carlos Bulosan, Manuel Arguilla, Salvador P. Lopez, Carlos Angeles, F. Sionil Jose, Gregorio Brillantes and Jose Maria Sison. Also listed is former Philippine President Ferdinand E. Marcos.
C U L T U R E
A R T S
Q U I C K F A C T S
1) Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur, the twin hearts of Ilocano culture, are rugged and rocky, its narrow plains hemmed in by the mountains and the sea.
2) Ilocos Norte, its capital being Laoag, is bounded by China Sea in the North; and Luzon Sea in the West. Its population of 482,651 (as of 1995) speak generally in Ilocano and English and has a land area of 3,399 square kilometers.
3) Ilocos Sur, its capital being Vigan, has a land area of 3,399 square kilometers and is bounded by Ilocos Norte in the North; Benguet, Abra, Mt. Province in the East, La Union in the South and China Sea in the West. Its 545,385 people (as of 1995) speak fluently in Ilocano, English and Filipino.
4) LA UNION, its capital being San Fernando City, is bounded by Ilocos Sur in the North; Benguet in the East; Pangasinan in the South and China Sea in the West, has a land area of 1,493 square kilometer. It has a population of 597,442 (1995) and people speak in Ilocano, Tagalog and English.
Other Ilocos Crafts
Red Clay Industries
- Located at the Northwest tip of Luzon
- Comprises of coastal provinces: Ilocos Sur, Ilocos Norte, La Union and Pangasinan.
- Covers 17, 890 sq. km. of land; roughly 5.9 % of the Philippines
H I S T O R Y
Prior to the coming of the Spaniards, the coastal plains in the northwestern extremity of Luzon were as a whole known as a progressive region rich in gold. This region, hemmed in between the China Sea in the west and Northern Cordillera in the east, was isolated from the rest of Luzon.
The inhabitants built their villages near small bays called
in the dialect. The coastal inhabitants were referred to as Ylocos, which literally meant
"from the lowlands"
. The Spaniards later called the region as Ilocos and its people, Ilocanos.
Intramuros of the North"
, still retains the Castillan colonial architecture of the times. Lined along its narrow and cobble-stoned streets are old Spanish-type houses. These stately homes have huge, high-pitched roofs, large and rectangular living rooms with life-sized mirrors, old, wooden furniture and ornate Vienna sets.
The churches of the Ilocos Region are the enduring symbol of the triumphant transformation of the Ilocano from being practitioners of indigenous religions to practitioners of theistic Christianity. Some of its most impressive churches are: the Vigan Cathedral in Ilocos Sur with its massive hand-carved images of the via crucis; that of Magsingal (also in Ilocos Sur) with its centuries-old wooden altar; the St. Augustine Church in Paoay (Ilocos Norte) which takes the form of a baroque-type built with massive buttresses; and Sta. Maria Church (Ilocos Sur), nestled atop a hill with a stone stairway of 80 steps, are both listed in the UNESCO World Heritage sites.
Dances were mainly a reflection of the gracious ways of the Ilocano. The dinaklisan (a dance common to fisher folks), the agabel (a weaver's dance) and the agdamdamili (a pot dance) illustrate in simple steps the ways of the industrious Ilocano. Other popular dances among the Ilocanos are Tadek, Habanera, Comintan, Saimita, Kinotan, Kinnalogong.
A Burnay in the Making
This precolonial industry introduced by Chinese settlers predates the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores. An earlier type called mang-ging was a major export item to Japan for tea drinking ceremonies. The local bagoong (fish sauce), sugarcane vinegar and basi wine would not taste as good if not fermented in stoneware burnay jars.
The high demand for the famous handwoven abel Iloco nearly killed the Spanish weaving industry during the galleon trade era. Weavers in barangay Mindoro still produce geometrically patterned blankets called binakol, while Camanggaan and other eastern barangay have their own specialized woven products.
The Land and Its People
The people of the Ilocos Region are resourceful and industrious, their resilience, probably, stemming from their geographical location and extreme weather patterns. Their high inclination to save, misread by non-Ilocanos as characteristic of a typical tightwad, is evident in the high average savings rate of the region throughout the years. Ilocanos have an elaborate network of beliefs and practice which he applies when he deals with the people around him.
The backyard production of Vigan tiles, bricks, pottery, traditional stoves and well sidings in the picturesque setting of Bulala and neighboring barangays.
A status symbol in the olden days, the kattokong or gourd hat edged with woven nito and fine bamboo slats continue to be handcrafted in barangay Bongtolan.