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Transcript of COMMONWEALTH PERIOD
Let's do a Recap!
The Government Perspective
The Education Perspective
Department of Education
The Economy Perspective
Economic Condition of the Philippines during the Commonwealth Period
In summary :
Americans left their remarkable contributions:
(1935 - 1946)
the Fairfield Bill
Pre-Commonwealth Government (Insular Gov't.)
Commonwealth Act 1
The National Defense Act
Requiring all 21 year old able-bodied male citizens to render 5 and ½ months of military service through regular military force or through reserve force
Social Justice Program of
Manuel L. Quezon –
the Father of Social Justice
In May 1935 approximately 65000 Filipino peasants headed by Benigno Ramos surrounded Manila to dramatize their demands for genuine agrarian reform, abolition of unfair taxes, government policy against land grabbing and total independence from Americans
The OsRox Mission (1931) was a campaign for self-government and United States recognition of the independence of the Philippines led by former Senate President Sergio Osmeña and House Speaker Manuel Roxas.
The OsRox Mission was the 9th Independence Mission in a series of missions lasting from 1919 to 1933.
The mission secured the Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act, which was rejected by the Philippine Legislature and Manuel Quezon.
-would establish the Philippine Commonwealth as a transition government for 10 years before receiving independence on July 4, 1946
-reserved military bases from the US and let American goods into the country for free
The US passed this bill as a means of granting Philippine independence
A product of the OSROX mission (Osmena-Roxas)
On October 17, 1933 the legislature, through the concurrent resolution rejected the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Bill
In November 1933, Quezon embarked on the last Independence Mission to the US to try to secure a better independence bill for the Philippines.
He was not as successful as Osmeña and Roxas, as the result of the mission was a near copy of the Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act called the Tydings–McDuffie Act. It removed the provision of military reservations in the Philippines and substituted another for “ultimate settlement as to naval bases and fueling stations."
It was passed by US President Franklin Roosevelt and was unanimously passed by the Philippine Legislature.
Independence Mission Developments
Supporters & Critiques
To avoid being lost,
the entire period is
grouped into three perspectives:
The Government Perspective
The Education Perspective
The Economic Perspective
Another Journey back in History!
Significant Events to Remember
Claro M. Recto
was one of the four (4) Democrats elected
to the House in 1919.
the Nationalistas won 78 out of 82 seats during the Elections for the Members of the House of Representatives held on June 3, 1919 .
Economic Conditions were in a bad shape.
the price of rice went up and the Manila
Railroad also suffered losses because of
the rains and floods
In 1919, government expenditures exceeded income
by around P7,000,000.00
A year after, the Philippine National Bank (PNB) lost P38,000,000.
Many interest groups, especially in business had prospered from the special economic relations between the United States of America and the Philippines.
In the elections of 1922, the Democratas were able to increase their representation in the legislature to 26.
Claro M. Recto
Manuel L. Quezon had
decided to separate from
Sergio Osmena on the issue
of personal leadership
Candidates for Speakership
*with the support of Osmena, Manuel Roxas
won the speakership
which provided for a
period and many reservations of power for the United States
-General McIntyre claimed to be the main creator of this bill
*Photo not available, sorry!
first parliamentary mission was sent to U.S during the administration of Woodrow Wilson. Lead by Manuel Quezon
(parliamentary missions )
April 1922- second parliamentary mission was present on Washington lead by Osmena and Quezon
General Frank McIntyre- chief of Bureau of Insular Affairs of the War Department
He directly supervised the Philippines.
August 1922- the second parliamentary mission was returned w/ no more assurances from U.S
November 1923- new house speaker of the Philippines Manuel A. Roxas lead the special mission to asked for Woods relief the Philippine Independence.
February 21,1924- president Calvin Coolidge –delivered his reply to the memorial in serve letter.
-introduced on the house committee on insular Affairs on-April 1924
The Commonwealth Period was all about campaigns for Philippine independence and educating Filipinos
The 1935 constitution was approved by then President of America, Franklin Delano Roosevelt
The 1935 Constitution
Proponent Senators : Bronson Cutting, Harry Hawes, & Rep. Butler Hare
Jose P. Laurel
Minimum wage law and
eight-hour labor law
were strictly implemented
-FREE elementary and secondary education to all Filipino children
Commonwealth Act No. 570
as the basis of National Language
Sergio Osmena – head of the Department of Education, the first time a Filipino assumed this position
Rafael Palma – appointed as chairman of National Council of Education in 1936
The most important
Major Import and Export Partner
65 percent of the
40% of the
75% from the
value of exports
United States of
Critics of the 1934 Constitutional Convention particularly Jose P. Laurel claimed that the 1935 constitution is invalid for we don’t need any other country’s approval for our own constitution
the Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934 has its natural consequences in the Philippine economy where the practically free and limited only by congressionally set quotas and a fairly small processing tax which was returned to the Philippine government.
After the Second World War, twenty-five (25) percent of the American tariffs will be implemented by force in every Philippine product entering the United States of America and durinng the ten-year transition period from 1935-1946; there was no reciprocal limits on US products entering the Philippines.
-System of PUBLIC EDUCATION
- English Language
- Advanced system on public health and sanitation
-Improvements in the country's TRADING system
- Chance to participate in government affairs
-People enjoyed more human RIGHTS
- Political Parties were formed
- Emancipation of Women
( Economically DEPENDENT on American products)
-Partial loss of Filipino Culture
Thank you for listening!