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Maeve Munson

on 1 November 2014

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Transcript of Biomes

Bacteria thrives in the stomach of the Giraffes and the Giraffes are able to metabolize cellulose from the grass.

By: Maeve, Brenna, and Sonya
The Savanna, Tropical Forest, and Taiga Biomes


Food Webs and Chains
Human Impact


Food Webs and Chains
Human Impact
Human Impact
Works Cited:
Biotic Factors:
1. The Savanna is mostly made up of grasses like red oats grass and star grass. They can grow from 3-7 feet tall.
2. The savanna is known for it's hoove-footed animals like the giraffe, impala, antelope, etc...
3. An animal from the African savanna biome is the elephant, who has adapted to handle the dry winter season on the savanna.
4. These animals: lions, elephants, cheetahs, and giraffes are more commonly associated with the savanna biome because they can't be found in very many other places. They are all endagered species.
5. The savanna is the only place where you can find a Jackalberry Tree.
Abiotic Factors:
Temperature Range 68F-86F
Savannas are typically warm year round. There are two seasons in the Savanna, the wet, humid, rainy summer season and the dry, cool (not cold) winter season. Although this biome does not receive enough rainfall to be classified as a rain forest, it is not dry enough to be a desert.
A flat grassland with scattered trees and occasional hills, streams of water or lakes in some places.
Abiotic factors:
The Soil
becomes very fertile in the summer season because of animal grazing. In the winter season it becomes very unfertile and some grass/shrubs die off.
availability decreases incredibly in the winter, but it fine in the summer seasons letting grasses and shrubs thrive.
Acacia Tree
Lemon Grass

Biotic Factors
The biome stretching over Eurasia and North America, filled with coniferous forests, formerly glacier-covered areas, and frost. Cold and long winters (-65 degrees F as a low) and short, warm summers (may reach heights of 70 degrees F) make up this subarctic, varied temperature climate.
There are many of biotic factors in the tropic forests in fact there are more than 15 million species of animals, 5 biotic factors are:
rubber trees
poison dart frogs
Tertiary Consumer
Abiotic factors
Secondary Consumer
Primary Consumer
Coniferous trees compose the dominant plant life of this biome. They retain heat and water by growing straight up and close together, with many thin, waxy needles that retain water instead of drying out from the harsh cold. Begin photosynthesis as soon as any warmth arrives.
the Taiga biome is home to many predators, such as lynx, wolverine, bobcats, and mink. These species prey on herbivores like red squirrels and rabbits. Deer and elk can be found in locations with more deciduous trees and plant life.
In the tropical forest its hot year round and is usually between 70-90 degrees F. Its humid year round since it rains daily, also since things decompose rather quickly there, the dirt is rich with nutrients. Also barely any light gets through the thick top canopy to the ground.

Many birds call Taiga their migration destination due to the vast insect variety during the summer. Seed eaters and omnivorous flyers like ravens, reside year round.
Red Oat Grass
The taiga has very acidic, slow-decomposing soil due to the hardy trees and low temperatures.
primary consumer
secondary consumer
Tertiary consumer
primary consumer
secondary consumer
primary consumer
secondary consumer

Food Chain
Food Web
the human population has increased by hundreds and the animal’s population has decreased by thousands
The population density for humans is ranging from two to over 100 people per square mile.
The amount of people depends on the season, they most likely emigrate during the dry season and immigrate back in for the rainy season.
Food Chain in the Taiga
Snowshoe Hare
Food Pyramid in the Taiga
least energy
less energy
most energy
Taiga Food Web
wolves- top consumer/predator
secondary consumer-bobcat
primary consumers: deer and porcupine
producer: Cranberries
The tropical forest is densely populated by trees and without it being so densely populated the whole ecosystem would be thrown out of balance since the whole system is set up by layers depending on how big the trees are and how much light can get through them, many of the animal life would survive without the vegetation they are use to.
Humans haven caused a lot of changes to the landscape of and the animals in grasslands since a long time ago.
Large areas of grassland have been turned into farmlands for growing crops and for rearing cattle
Moreover, a large number of animals have been hunted for their valuable body parts
Also humans being in the grasslands increase the chance of fires.
-Leaf cutter ants and fungi,the ants protect the fungi from pests and mold and lay their eggs in the fungi.
-The strangler fig grows on a tree and as it grows it grows so that the tree cant get the proper light and taking up root space, the tree then dies.
-gaudy leaf frogs use vermiliad for protection against the sun and the rain while the vermiliad goes unaffected.
An example of parasitism is an tick on an elephant. Parasitism is when a parasite takes advantage of its host. In this situation, a tick is taking blood from an elephant.
-Giant Anteaters eat ants and can even eat up to 30,000 ants a day.
Ticks and Elephants
A lion serves as the predator, and catches and feeds on the gazelle that serves as the prey.
Lions and Gazelles
not a lot of people live in the tropical forest but its still being impacted by humans, many of the trees are being cut down, killing a lot of plant life and destroying many animals homes, also poachers are killing a lot of animals. As I said not a lot of people live in that biome but that number is increasing.
Bacteria and Giraffes
Cattle and Cattle Egrets
The cattle eats grass throughout the savanna,
they disrupt the insects hiding in the grass. The
Cattle Egrets eat the insects the come up
from around the cattle.
National parks have been developed around grasslands.
This is an effort to protect the very important food source for the savanna biome.
The government has enacted laws against hunting of endangered animals. To try to protect the animals of the savanna.
Effects of Population Density
Density-Dependent Limiting Factors
Density-Independent Limiting Factors
There are a lot of people trying to help the tropical forests there are many organization like The Rainforest Foundation US. What they are trying to protect the forest from being cut down further a way they do this is by giving land ownership to the indigenous groups of people living there. They are also trying to protect species that are being poached.
The savanna has limited resources, especially in the winter seasons. The limit of water makes the population go into a clumped population dispersion. Animals stay in groups around sources of water to not only stay near a vital resource, but to keep safe from predators. The population density of the populations in the Savanna could effect their survival rate. Depending on the animal, it would either be beneficial to live in large numbers for support and protection (Primary Consumers), or the have small numbers to eliminate the competition (Secondary Consumers).
The biggest Density-Dependent Limiting Factor in the Savanna, is water. When the animals drink the small amount of water there is available, it put's a limit on how many animals/ plants survive.
The most threatening Density-Independent Limiting Factor, would be wildfires. When there is less rainfall in the winter seasons, the grass dries up and many fires occur throughout the season.
The populations of the different organisms must stay in balance in order to successfully thrive in interaction with each other. If there is too much or too little of a certain species, the entire food web in which it is involved is usually affected until population density and dispersion balances out again. If many more snowshoe hares immigrated into the taiga, there might not be enough birch trees to support all of them in addition to the other species they feed. If there are no other food sources available that season for the snowshoe hares, many of them will die and their population will be restores to a lower number similar to the one before. This would be by the density-dependent limiting factor of competition for food.

Web. 05 Oct. 2014. <http://www.planetpatrol.info/savannah.html>.

Web. 05 Oct. 2014. <http://www.planetpatrol.info/savannah.html>.

"ABIOTIC FACTORS." The Tropical Grassland Savanna. Web. 23 Sept. 2014. <http://tropicalgrassland.wordpress.com/abiotic-factors/>.

"Alaska Impacts & Adaptation." Alaska Today. Web. October 7, 2014.="BIOTIC FACTORS." The Tropical Grassland Savanna. Web. 23 Sept. 2014. <http://tropicalgrassland.wordpress.com/biotic-factors/>.

"Earth Floor: Biomes." Earth Floor: Biomes. Web. 24 Sept. 2014. <http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/savannaha.html>.

"Energy Flow". Science Rules. Web. October 7, 2014.

"Human Impact - Grassland Savanna." Human Impact - Grassland Savanna. Web. 05 Oct. 2014. <https://sites.google.com/a/chs.coppellisd.com/grassland-savanna/home/human-impact>.

"Human Involvement." Savanna. Web. 06 Oct. 2014. <http://savannahbiomeinfo.weebly.com/human-involvement.html>.

"KDE Santa Barbara." KDE Santa Barbara. Web. 23 Sept. 2014. <http://kids.nceas.ucsb.edu/biomes/savanna.html>.="Mutualism, Commensalism, and Parasitism examples". Symbiosis World. Web. October 7, 2014.

"Mutualistic Relationships." Biome: Savanna. Web. 06 Oct. 2014. <http://thebiomesavanna.weebly.com/mutualistic-relationships1.html>.="Section 1": Climate change in Canada. Web. October 7, 2014.

"Symbiosis." Savanna. Web. 06 Oct. 2014. <http://savannahbiomeinfo.weebly.com/symbiosis.html>.="Symbiotic Relationships". National Geographic. Web. October 7, 2014.="Taiga (Coniferous Forest)".
Taiga. Web. October 7, 2014.

"Taiga Biome Facts". Biomes. Web. October 7, 2014.

"Taiga". National Geographic. Web. October 7, 2014.

"Watts Up With That.". Biomes. Web. October 7, 2014.

"What Is the Terrain of a Savanna?" Answers. Answers Corporation. Web. 25 Sept. 2014. <http://www.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_terrain_of_a_savanna>.=Nowicki, Stephen. McDougal Littell Biology. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell, 2008. Print.


Biotic Factors in the Animals of the Tropical Rainforest

Abiotic Factors of the Rainforest

Rainforest Food Chain - Tropical Rainforest Food Chain - Tropical Rainforest Food Web

Rain Forest -- National Geographic
National Geographic

Tropical Rainforest Biome
: Symbiotic Relationships in the Tropical Rainforest

Population Density
Limiting Factors of the Taiga
Density independent limiting factors include unusual weather, natural disasters, and human activity. Logging for wood is a very prevalent limiting factor for the organisms of the taiga, as it lowers the population of tree species such as birch, spruce, and pine every single year. Unusual weather is hardly ever a problem for the organisms of the taiga, as most emigrating immigrating ones are used to the extreme annual temperature changes from summer to winter, and those who stay for winter are hardily adapted to the cold. A very common limiting factor consists of forest fires, which happen often. This limits the population of all plants, and helps rid the taiga of old and sick trees.
Competition is a density dependent limiting factor in the taiga. As the ermine feeds the great horned owl, the arctic fox, and the snowy owl, these top predators are constantly at competition for this source of food. This keeps all three of their populations constant if they each get approximately the same amount of prey, while keeping the ermine population far from over-populating.
Population Dispersion
Population dispersion in the taiga is primarily dependent on the different feeding grounds of the different populations. The moose population, like all deer, is composed of herbivores, who enjoy the aquatic plants by the streams and rivers of the Taiga. Their population is based close to these nourishing sources of water. Lichens and moss live in the deeper, denser parts of the Taiga's forest, where the sun can't dry out the soil.
Symbiotic Relationships

Mutualism: Moss growing on a pine tree. This
gives the moss a place to live and thrive while
protecting the tree.

Parasitism: Ticks and fleas in the fur of wolves and on the backs of moose is predation, as the parasite sucks the blood of the larger animal, widening possibility for infection and other health problems.

Commencialism: Fungi growing on any dead trees in the Taiga. The fungi get nutrients from the tree that isn't affected, being dead.

Predation: The wolf hunts its prey- the snowshoe hare. It feeds off of the hare population.
Humans have a very noticeable impact on the Taiga biome, mostly visible in deforestation and in acid rain. 30% of this biome has been designated for logging, and companies continue to take wood illegally outside of these regulations. This takes away the habitats and food for thousands of species. The trees of the taiga are affected when the acid rain caused by pollution in places like Russia and Canada weakens the leaves and roots of trees, causing them to be more vulnerable to disease and to spread it to others.
Although a few major cities like Moscow are located in the Taiga biome, the human population in comparison to the size of this biome is rather small, due to the extreme cold during the long winters. The population of the entire world growing exponentially has caused only for the Taiga to have more resources taken out of it to satisfy more human beings and their want for wood. Russia's own decrease in population has little effect on this, as people all across the world order from the plentiful wood in the Taiga.
The solution for the entire world is to use less resources and to decrease pollution with practices such as decreasing driving and recycling. Individual consumers can support the health of the forests as opposed to supporting the logging industry more than necessary by buying excessive products made from wood from the Taiga boreal forests.
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