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Genetic Engineering Timeline
Transcript of Genetic Engineering Timeline
genetic engineering via artificial selection in
grey wolves, creating dogs. 11,000 BCE 10,500 BCE: Livestock
domesticated in Fertile Crescent 1800 1900 2000 1865: Genetic Inheritance
discovered by Gregor Mandel 1905: Term "genetics" coined
by William Bateson 1927: X-Rays used to deliberately
introduce plant mutations 1953: Watson and Crick identify double helix structure of DNA 1967: DNA ligases (enzymes that facilitate the joining of seperate DNA strands, vital in the formation of recombiant DNA) discovered. 1970: Restriction enzymes (enzymes that allow DNA to be "cut") discovered. Combined with DNA ligases, it became possible to "cut and paste" sections of DNA, resulting in recombinant DNA 1975: A reglatory framework regarding genetic engineering is developed 1976: DNA Advisory Committee formed by National Institute of Health 1979: Bacteria designed to synthesize human insulin developed 1976: Genetech, the first genetic engineering company, is created. 1980: US Supreme court rules that genetically altered life can be patented. 1982: Bacteria synthesizing human insulin used as treatment for first time 1982: Organization for Economic co-operation and Development releases a report on the topic of the potential hazards of releasing genetically modified organisms into the enviroment. 1984: Genetically modified mice created 1985: First transgenic livestock created 1988: First human antibodies produced in plants. 1983: Use of insect cells as a system of production for recombinant proteins was shown to be possible. 1989: First mouse with knocked-out genes created DNA-RNA/Protein Project Genetic Engineering Timeline Olivia Boudwin and James Hallberg 1986: Tabacco plants genetically engineered to resist herbicides * *Please note, that by stating that the following is a "timeline", it is in no way intended to indicate that time in itself is strictly linear. Also, please note that the gaps within time and the gaps between indicators are not strictly to scale, due primarily to the fact that doing so would take many hours that neither of us are willing to put into a relatively insignificant variable, and that time was instead spent obtaining information, a variable decidedly more important in our eyes, as well as the extreme concentration of developments within twenty years in the late 1900's, and the relatively few in the years past. 1990: Becomes possible to integrate foreign genes into chloroplast through the use of a biolistic particle delivery system, more commonly referred to as a gene gun. 1992: The Peoples Republic of China becomes the first nation to create commercialized transgenic plants, with the development of a strain of virus-resistant tobacco. 1994: Flavr Savr Tomato, a tomato genetically altered to have a longer shelf life, is commercially released. 1995: The first pesticide producing crop approved in the USA, the Bt Potato, is released. July 5th, 1996: Dolly the Sheep, the first cloned mammal, is born in the Roslin Institute. She suffered from many diseases throughout her life, including arthritis, which was treated, and jaagsiekte, a type of lung cancer, for which she was put to death. Please note, in the image, the ligase is the colored mass moving up the DNA strand December 17th, 2012: Work begins to create a genetically reprogrammed version of the pacemaker, via the use of genetically altered cells. An x-ray of a conventional pacemaker James: And now, upon deciding that a simple timeline* did not sufficiently cover the controversy involved within this topic, we have come to the conclusion that a debate would best address this issue. Please note that all views expressed are not necessarily the ones we personally hold, and are for the purpose of expression only. Also, the fact that the entirety of James's arguments are a poor imitation of old English is irrelevant. If you have a problem with that, please write it on a small piece of paper, fold it neatly, and attempt (and likely fail) to throw it into the recycling bin, located near the door,
Olivia: and you may congratulate Olivia because you actually understand what she is saying. ^_^ Olivia: Though I will most likely regret stating anything before I do research I will currently state that cloning is unethical. James: I beg to differ, as, all things thus far considered, cloning has been not the oppressor of any organisms that may have never chanced upon this miracle of life without it. Olivia: Not all cloning is unethical. Each situation in itself is unique. James: I find thy argument invalid, as but a pretense to avoid a true answer, as a use of the uncountable variables to deny thyself true thought. However, such a ruse is not without flaw. Dolly the Sheep. Was this situation against, in any way, the broken morality of man? Or if not his morality, his religions? Does the alternation of the genetic makeup of a being offend the many gods of man, be this(they) a G(g)od(s) of any faith? In cases not limited to the narrow scope of cloning, but of all altercations of the natural order of life? Olivia: Cloning is ethical when it is cloning something that does not have a soul. Such as plants. However I am not against further research. Many articles I have read show that cloning could later lead to infertile parents being able to have children who still have their DNA. James: This is true, however, do you state by this (as you indicate the cloning of humans for the purpose of reproduction) that cloning in all forms is ethical? And on a broader topic, genetic engineering in general: is it ethical to alter the genetic code of any living (or nonliving, as such views vary based upon your methods of classification of certain organisms) thing? Olivia: Cloning of humans in all forms is most definitely not ethical. Also it would depend on the situation when it comes to altering the genetic code.
P.S your responses aren't in old English. James: My most sincere of apologies, fair maiden. Now, in effort to return to the topic at hand, I must do not but request a simple explanation as to thy reasoning. Olivia: Before I explain further please, do tell what exactly you had in mind when you said altering the genetic code? James: Take, as an example, mice designed to be prone to cancer, in order to further research. I know this is not in old English. I DENY THEE MINE LANGUAGE. live with it. Olivia: -__- okay well I don't like testing on animals in general, but I understand its necessity in science. So I do not know much on this particular topic.... *guilty look* so enlighten me how does this altering of the genetic code affect the mice? James: The altercations to genetic encoding causes the mice to be prone to cancer, allowing scientists to study the cancer, without having to find a naturally afflicted mouse. Olivia: Besides what I stated earlier about being against the harming of animals, that is ethical because it is for research. James: It is not that it is ethical. It is not. However, if humanity was moral, we would not be where we are today. It is a necessary evil. Olivia: We are obviously getting no where with this and it can not be resolved in one project so let us end now. James: The End