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Carbohydrates and Nutrition
Transcript of Carbohydrates and Nutrition
_9 kcal per gram
-Structure contributes to physical properties
Carbohydrates and Nutrition
By: Michele, Eddie, and Samih
Chemicals in Everyday Life
Human body is a powerhouse of chemical reactions. Nutrients are taken in and turned into fuel that is used in the myriad of chemical reactions within the body.
-composed mainly of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen
_contributes 4 kcal per gram
-functions include producing vital body structure, maintaining fluid balance, forming hormones and enzymes, immune function, forming glucose, providing energy
Eddie: Samih: Michele:
Lipids Vitamins Glycolsis
Proteins Minerals Too much/little
Carbs Water Disease/problems
Unlike proteins, carbohydrates and fats vitamins do not yield usuable energy when broken down. Minerals must come into play and assist in order for these to be chemicallysynthesized in the body.
Through the glycolytic pathway, sugar molecules are catabolized. For example, glucose is oxidized and can be summarized as:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 +6H2O + energy
By releasing the energy in a series of small amounts, a large portion of the total energy can be used for nonspontaneous reactions and stored in the body.
When adequate amounts of carbohydrates are available in the system, both carbohydrates and small amounts of fats are used for energy. Problems occur when there is too much or too little in the system and the body cannot compensate.
Too Much or Too Little
Errors in the metabolism of carbohydrates, the body does not maintain a proper balance. Carbohydrate disorders include:
Glycogen storage diseases
Diseases and/or Problems
Saliva acts as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of starch to dextrins and maltose.
The intestinal digestive juices also contain maltase, lactase, and sucrose enzymes which also catalyze the hydrolysis of maltose, lactose, and sucrose and are secreted by the small intestine’s brush border cells, which then hydrolyze disaccharides into monosaccharides.
The body uses the intake of the many nutrients and carbohydrates to create the energy it needs to make new cells and for many other processes within the body.
Prior to the absorption into the body, carbohydrates are broken down into monosaccharides by the digestion process and the nutrients are absorbed through the small intestine into the bloodstream.
Breakdown of Nutrients
High intakes of dietary sugars may elevate blood glucose and cholesterol levels that in turn could lead to insulin resistance.
Hydrogenation of liquid oils to solid fats is a common food modification technique. Hydrogens are added to liquid oils, changing some carbon-carbon double bonds to single bonds and producing some trans fatty acids.
Hydrogenation of Lipids
Not enough carbohydrates available, fat is metabolized by the system to use as energy which results in the formation of ketones. The absence of normal levels of blood glucose is met with an increase in the regulatory peptide hormone, glucagon, over that of insulin.
Depending on the body’s energy requirements, the absorbed carbohydrates may be converted to glycogen and stored for future use, or they may be oxidized to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy.
Glycerol + 3 Fatty acids= Triglyceride
-Proteins help regulate acid-base balance in the blood. Proteins located in cell membranes pump chemical ions in and out of the cell. The result is a blood pH that is slightly alkaline. (pH-7.4)
-Some proteins are good buffers for the body.
-Composed of mainly carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
-Carbohydrates present in foods are in the form of polysaccharides, which must be broken down in order to be utilized in the body.
-Breakdown is a hydrolysis reaction and formation is a dehydration reaction.
The reaction for aerobic respiration is:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 >> 6CO2 + 6H2O
This reaction takes place over the course of four major reaction pathways.
Vitamins are organic compounds which are needed in order to promote growth and sustain life. Most vitamins come from plant and animal food sources however most are chemically synthesized.
Acts as a solvent, lubricant, a vehicle for transporting nutrients and waste, and as a medium for temperature regulation and chemical processes.Water is commonly overlooked as a nutrient, but has numerous functions in the body that are vital for survival. The chemical make-up of water is two hydrogen atoms attached to one oxygen atom