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SOC1: Social Change

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Michael Danza

on 25 February 2015

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Transcript of SOC1: Social Change

SOCIAL CHANGE Social change refers to the transformation of culture, behavior, social institutions, and social structure. TYPES OF SOCIETIES Hunting and Gathering Horticultural Societies Agrarian Societies Industrial Societies Service/Consumer Society Material Conditions Social Organization Culture Environment
Technology Family
Government
Economy
Demography
Division of Labor
Schools
Military Values
Norms
Meaning Plow
Climate Change
Agrarian Economy
Population Growth
Larger Families
Increased Urbanization
Increased division of labor: More specialization
Military Organization Land is valued
Male children are valued
Women need to have babies to work on farms
War is acceptable
Humans begin to worship the sun, moon, and rain Structural-Functional Perspective Conflict Perspective Society is in a natural state of equilibrium.
Gradual change is necessary and desirable
Change stems from such things as population growth, technological advances, and interaction with other societies that bring new ways of thinking and acting.
If one part of society experiences a sudden change, then the other parts of society must make appropriate adjustments.
Rapid social change is undesirable because it disrupts stability and harmony.

The status quo is characterized by inequality and injustice. The status quo is problematic.
Rapid social change is needed to reduce or eliminate inequality and other social problems. Sources of Social Change Population Growth and Composition
The Natural Environment Social Movements Overpopulation, Famines, and World Hunger Technology "All species are subject to famine everywhere in the world. When the population of any species outstrips its food resources, that population declines until it’s once again in balance with its resources…our culture values human rights…which means that humans should be exempt from that process, so when the UN finds a population that has outstripped its resources, the UN rushes in food from the outside, thus making it a certainty that there will be even more of them to starve in the next generation. Because the population is never allowed to decline to the point at which it can be supported by its own resources, famine becomes a chronic feature of their lives (edited by Mike Danza but heavily quotes from Quinn page 138)." Do you agree with Quinn's quote?

Based on the arguments presented in Chapter 6, how would the author of our textbook respond to Quinn's argument?

What is the cause of famine/hunger for Quinn?

What are the causes of famine/hunger discussed in our textbook? What evidence is offered?

Do the people who live in the California high desert outstrip their resources? Do people in cities like L.A. outstrip their resources? Think about it....what does this mean?

What might the conflict perspective say about overpopulation?
What might the functional perspective say about overpopulation? Structural-Functionalism: Cultural Lag Change occurs through evolution
Humans will develop new technologies to meet human need
Adapting to new technology requires time
There will always be a temporary period of maladjustment
Technology is created, problems surface, and culture eventually adapts Cultural Lag Examples:
Factories
Texting Conflict Perspective: Vested Interest Powerful groups have a vested interest in preventing new technology
The automobile industry and oil companies might have prevented alternatives forms of tranportation that challenged their profit


Powerful groups have a vested interest in persuading us to use new technology.
The field of genetic testing has a vested interest in persuading us to get tests before attempting to have a child because they will profit. Environment
Population
Technology
Social Movements Why do social movements emerge?
Structural-Functionalism:
Relative Deprivation and Structural Strain



Social movements emerge when the pace of change is too fast.
If a developer wanted to come into Joshua Tree and build a shopping mall and 6,000 new homes in the next 3 years, the pace of change would be too fast and people would protest.




Social movements emerge when social change occurs but it is not uniform across groups
Example: Social change occurs. The situation of group X improves. The situation of group Y stays the same or declines. Why do social movements emerge?
Conflict Perspective: Resource Mobilization, Political Opportunity, and Cultural Framing Conflict, competition, strain, and deprivation are common

Social movements emerge when people can gather the resources they need to effectively mobilize action.
Resources include: Money, time, media attention, organizational skills and connections, etc.

Social movements emerge when political opportunities are present.
Social movements emerge when the elite are divided and seek to make allies with the common-men and women.

Social movements emerge when people can be persuaded that change is needed and possible.
Social movement leaders use cultural framing to convince and persuade the people to seek change.
Social movements do not emerge when people are apathetic or cynical about the situation.
Under normal circumstances, society functions smoothly.
Example: If commercial and residential development in JT occurrted at a "normal" pace, then people might be less likely to protest. - an organized effort by a large number of people to bring about or stop social change
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