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Space Capsules and Shuttles: How astronauts launch into space and return to earth

by Melissa and Akshaniya

Melissa Chan

on 23 January 2012

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Transcript of Space Capsules and Shuttles: How astronauts launch into space and return to earth

Space Shuttles and Capsules how astronauts launch into space and return to Earth
transport instruments or humans to and from orbit around earth
land instruments or humans on surfaces of other planets/moons
study effects of space on human body
support humans in space
learn to make better equipment
advance medical and technology
set stage for future exploration
February 7, 2008 Columbus space lab
designed to stay in space
plucked from its berth by station's robotic arm
February 24, 2011 Discovery's last flight
"leader of the fleet"
flew 39 total missions
May 16, 2011 Endeavour's last flight
space station built by shuttle
July 21, 2011 the final flight
135th mission
Timeline allow astronauts to conduct space experiments
carry satellites and equiptment
Background first launch April 12, 1981
Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis, Endeavour (NASA)
Facts also called an "Orbiter"
previous spacecrafts could only be used once
37.24 meters long
crew cabin
cargo bay
main engines
rocket systems (two solid rocket boosters, three main engines)
external fuel tank
solid booster hold fuel on each side of shuttle

Flight deck mission commander and pilot control shuttle
crew seating Mid-deck eat, sleep, bathroom (living quarters) Utility Floor Levels of the space shuttle cargo bay: complete all missions, large enough to fit tour bus
laboratory: satellites and experiments
utility floor storage: water and air tanks
Heat shield tiles protect from heat when re-entering earth’s atmosphere
2300°F = safe enough for human to hold
Last for 100 missions
Crucial for survival
pick up satellites and astronauts
has three moving joints
50 feet in length
video cameras
used to build and repair space stations Robotic Arm Launching the shuttle launched in vertical position Changing Velocity, Orbit, and position
solid rocket booster (SRBs) ignited
power cannot be adjusted or turned off
supplies power needed for take off
fall off after use
space shuttle main engines (SSMEs) continue to supply power
burn for six mins until reaching altitude
cast off; not reused
orbital maneuvering system (OMS) activated once reaching orbit
velocity increases/decreases altitude
slows re-entry to Earth’s atmosphere
four tiny engines around nose and tail sections of orbiter
reaction control system (RCS) changes position (uses same fuel as OMS)
Re-entry OMS to descend to Earth
entering atmosphere = 26370km/h
tremendous heat (tiles protect)
wings and tails maintain stability
landing gear from shuttle’s underside
drops back to Earth like an airplane
Shuttle Accidents Challenger; 1986 to failed
killed all seven crew members
disintegrated seconds after liftoff
boosters redesigned
foam fell off; no harm
NASA resumed regular flight schedule after 2006
Columbia; 2003 Discovery; 2005 killed seven-member crew
insulating foam broke off external fuel
damaged heat resistant tiles
April 12, 1981 Columbia first launch November 11, 1982 Challenger launched
August 30, 1984 Discovery first flight August 8, 1985 Atlantis first launch January 28, 1986 Challenger explodes 73 seconds into the flight. Sept. 29–Oct. 3, 1988 first shuttle flight after Challenger disaster
return to flight
modifications introduced (back-flip manoeuvre at ISS) Columbus space lab
designed to stay in space
plucked from its berth by station's robotic arm
May 2–16, 1992 maiden flight Endeavour Columbus space lab
designed to stay in space
plucked from its berth by station's robotic arm
October 23, 2007 Discovery lanches for 14-day mission to ISS
expand living space in orbiting laboratory June 27–July 7, 1995 Atlantis docks with Russian Space Station, Mir Endeavour makes first human flight to International Space Station
December 4–12, 1998 February 1, 2003 Columbia accident February 24, 2011 Discovery launches on its final mission and docks with the International Space Station July 21, 2011 Atlantis returns to Kennedy Space Center
ending of space shuttle program Assessment Time Spent: Long Time

Money Spent: Billions of Dollars

Resourses Used: titanium, aluminum, thermal tiles Benefits
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Weather Forecast
Mineral & Mining
get introduced to new technology
more information about space
other essential neccesities for our future
may discover new life on other planets Worth it?? The space shuttle program retired in 2011. may abandon winged design; use capsules
take humans back to moon by 2020
possibly visit Mars and more distant destinations
...so what's next? Space Capsules
Unmanned Space Capsules: Unmanned space capsules have landed on Venus, the Moon, Mars, Jupiter and on Asteroid Eros. NASA's New Space Capsules: Orion Space Capsule ready for test flight in 2013
capsule weighs about 21,000 pounds
Why don't space capsules contiue
to accelerate as they fall: timing of when a space capsule falls is called "Terminal Velocity"
average terminal velocity is 200 to 300 km/h our or 125 to 185 mph

How do space capsules land on planets or moons without being destroyed?

capsules use parachutes to slow down the acceleration
Introduction Parts of a shuttle by Melissa and Akshaniya :) Difference between space shuttles and capsules? no wings to create drag
both manned and un-manned capsules
rounded shape called "blunt body" instead of pointed one
materials vary for different capsules
used in most manned space programs
what capsules have...
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