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The Teaching Profession: The Philosophies of Education

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King Radaza

on 17 July 2014

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Transcript of The Teaching Profession: The Philosophies of Education



Five Philosophies of Education:
1. Essentialism
2. Progressivism
3. Perennialism
4. Existentialism
5. Behaviorism

What is Essentialism?

Contends that teachers teach for learners to acquire basic knowledge, skills and values. Teachers teach “not to radically reshape society” but rather” to transmit the traditional moral values and intellectual knowledge that students need to become model citizens.

ESSENTIALISM: Teaching Philosophy
What to teach?

Essentialist programs are academically rigorous. The emphasis is on academic content for students to learn the basic skills or the fundamental r’s.
The four r’s.
1. Reading
2. ‘Riting
3. Rithmetic
4. Right conduct
These are essential to the acquisition of higher or more complex skills needed in preparation for adult life. The essentialist curriculum includes the “traditional disciplines such as math, natural science, history, foreign language and literature.

What is an essentialist?

Frown upon vocational courses or other courses with ‘watered down ‘academic content. The teachers and administrators decide what is most important for the students to learn and place little emphasis on student interest, particularly when the divert time and attention from the academic curriculum.
How to teach?

Essentialist teachers emphasize mastery of subject matter. They are expected to be intellectual and moral models of their students. They are seen as “fountain” of information and as “paragon of virtue”, if ever there is such a person. To gain mastery of basic skills, teachers have to observe “core requirements, longer school day, a longer academic year”.

What is

Accept the impermanence of life and the inevitability of change. For the progressivists, everything else changes. Change is the only thing that does not change.
Why teach?

Progressivist teachers teach to develop leaners into becoming enlightened and intelligent citizens of a democratic society. This group of teachers teach learners so they may live life fully NOW not to prepare them for adult life.

What to teach?

The progressivists are identified with need-based and relevant curriculum. This is a curriculam that “responds to students’ needs and that relates to students’ personal lives and experiences”.
How to teach?

Progressivist teachers employ experimental methods. They believe that one learns by doing.

John Dewey- the most popular advocate of progressivism, book learning is no substitute for actual experience. One experimental teaching method that progressivist teachers heavily rely on is the problem-solving method. This problem-solving method makes use of the scientific method.

Other “hands-on-mind-on” teaching methodology that progressivist teachers used are field trips which students interact with nature or society. Teachers also stimulate students through thought-provoking games, and puzzles.


Bilbao, P.B, Corpuz, B.B., Llagas, A.T, & Salandan, G.G. (2006).
Your Philosophical Heritage
. The Teaching Profession. pp.3-9. Lorimar Publishing Co., Inc.
PROGRESSIVISM: Teaching philosophy
Full transcript