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The control of blood glucose

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Pruthushaan Premakumar

on 12 November 2015

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Transcript of The control of blood glucose

The control of blood glucose
Effects of insulin on the cell...
More glucose channels are placed are placed into the cell surface membrane
More glucose enters the cell by diffusion.
glucose in the cell is converted into glycogen by a process called glycogenesis.
The increased entry of glucose into the cells reduces the blood glucose concentration.
Glucose too low?
Low blood glucose concentrations are detected by the alpha cells found in the Islets of Langerhans.
The response is the secretion of the hormone glucagon. The target cells are the hepatocytes. There are membrane-bound receptors specific to glucagon.

conversion of glycogen into glucose (glycogenolysis)
use more fatty acids in aerobic respiration
overall effect is the increase of blood glucose concentration.
Glucose too high??
A high concentration of glucose is detected by the beta cells. The response is the secretion of insulin into the blood stream. The target cells are the liver cells A.K.A the hepatocytes.
What happens next?
The target cells have membrane- bound receptors for insulin.
As blood passes past the target cells, the insulin binds to the receptors. This activates the adenyl cyclase inside each cell to convert ATP into cAMP also known as cyclic AMP. cAMP stimulates a series of enzyme-controlled reactions in the cell.
Introduction
The concentration of glucose in the blood is carefully monitored.
The Islets of Langerhans are responsible for monitoring the blood glucose concentration.
the normal blood glucose concentration is 90mg per 100cm^3.
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