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Chapter 4

ryan connors

on 6 November 2018

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Transcript of Consciousness

Consciousness: Sleep, Dreams, Hypnosis, and Drugs
4.3 The Stages of Sleep
4.4 Sleep Disorders
4.2 Why do people sleep, and how does sleep work?
The sleep-wake cycle is a
circadian rhythm
that takes about a day to complete.
The sleep-wake cycle is ultimately controlled by an area called the
suprachiasmatic nucleus
found within the hypothalamus, the tiny section that influences the glandular system.
Although people can do without sleep for a while, they cannot do without it altogether.
are brief sidesteps into sleep lasting only a few seconds and are a common cause of accidents while driving.
Sleep deprivation

any significant loss of sleep, resulting in problems in concentration and irritability. Students stay up too late at night during the week and get up before they've really rested to go to work or school, and then try to pay off the "sleep debt" on the weekend. Symptoms include trembling hands, inattention, staring off into space, droopy eyelids, and general discomfort.
Somnambulism (Sleepwalking)
- occurs during Stage Four sleep in about 20% of the population. More common in childhood and occurs more frequently in boys than in girls. Some episodes may include sitting up in bed, walking around the house, looking in the fridge, eating or even getting into the car. It is not dangerous to wake a sleepwalker and they will not remember their sleepwalking episode. Usually kids grow out of this as the time we spend in deep sleep declines.

- a rare Stage Four sleep disorder in which persons may groan loudly, masturbate, or even sexually assault a partner without waking and with no memory of their behaviour. This can be a defence for committing a crime if psychologists can prove it.

Night terrors
- a rare disorder more prevalent in children in which the person experiences extreme fear and screams or runs around during deep sleep without waking fully. Most people do not remember what happened during an episode.

- are bad dreams occuring during REM sleep, that are usually vividly remembered immediately upon waking. A person will actually be able to come awake and immediately talk about the bad dream.

REM behaviour disorder
- a rare disorder in which the mechanism that blocks the movement of the voluntary muscles fails, allowing the person to thrash around and even get up and act out nightmares.

- the inability to get to sleep, stay asleep, or get a good quality of sleep. Psychological causes include worrying, trying too hard to sleep, or anxiety. Physiological causes are too much caffeine, indigestion, or aches and pain.

Sleep apnea
- a disorder in which the person stops breathing for nearly half a minute or more due to excessive snoring. Apnea disturbs nightly sleep, making the person sleepy during the daytime. Treatments include weight loss, devices to open the nostrils, sprays, a CPAP device or surgery.

- genetic disorder affecting 1 in every 2000 persons. With this disorder a person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day without warning. This is brought on by emotional events. The sudden REM attacks are especially dangerous because of the symptom of cataplexy or a sudden loss of muscle tone.
4.5 Why do people dream, and what do they dream about?
What do people dream about?
Calvin Hall collected more than 10,000 dreams and concluded that most dreams reflect the events that occur in everyday life. His other conclusions were:
most people dream in colour
there are gender differences which are genetic and sociocultural.
high-end gamers had more dead and imagination characters with more dream bizarreness
click here to play these clips!
Don't click the big play button in the middle of my face or I will pause when you advance!
4.1 -
is a person's awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given moment. This includes thoughts, sensations, and feelings.

Waking consciousness
is a state in which thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized, and the person feels alert.
Altered state of consciousness
is a state in which there is a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness. There many pathways to this state; drugs, daydreaming, hypnosis, meditation and most common

The Hypothalamus
The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)
an internal clock that tells people when to
wake up and when to fall asleep.
Sensitive to changes in light.
Communicates with the pineal gland.
- As daylight fades, SCN signals pineal gland to secrete the hormone melatonin.
Melatonin increases, person feels sleepy.
- As light coming into the eyes increases, the SCN tells the pineal gland to stop secreting melatonin, awakening the person.
Serotonin in the regulation of sleep
As the day increases, serotonin levels in the nervous system increase and seems to produce sleepiness. This is why it is difficult to stay up past your normal bedtime.
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
a mood disorder caused by the body's reaction to low levels of sunlight in the winter months. Symptoms of this condition share similarities to that of normal depression, such as feelings of fatigue, worthlessness, and helplessness, and loss of interest and pleasure in normal activities.
Unlike depression, people with SAD seem to sleep more and have an increased appetite for food high in carbs, therefore gain weight during the winter months.
Twice as common in females, and more common in countries further away from the equator.
Daily exposure to bright lamps and anti-depressants such as Prozac are used in treatment.
Body Temperature
The SCN, as part of the hypothalamus, controls body temp.
The higher the temperature the more alert people are; the lower the temperature, the sleepier they
are. When sleeping at night, body temp is at its lowest level.
Hypnosis is a state of consciousness in which a person is especially susceptible to suggestion.
There are several key steps in inducing hypnosis.
1. The hypnotist tells the person to focus on what is being said.
2. The person is told to relax and feel tired.
3. The hypnotist tells the person to "let go" and accept suggestions easily.
4. The person is told to use vivid imagination.
The key is a heightened state of suggestibility. People can be hypnotized when active and alert, but only if they are willing. Only 80% of people can be hypnotized and 40% of people make good subjects.
Peter Tripp Sleep Deprivation Experiment
201 hour wakeathon (1959)
Theories for the purpose of sleep
The Adaptive Theory of Sleep - this theory of sleep proposes that animals and humans evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are most active. Lions sleep 15 hours a day, Gazelles only 4 hours in short naps.
The Restorative Theory of Sleep - this theory proposes that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body and serves to replenish chemicals and repair cellular damage. Children sleep more in periods of rapid growth, and sleep loss stunts this growth.
Most people require 7-8 hours of sleep each 24 hour period to function well.
There are two kinds of sleep:
REM (rapid eye movement) sleep - relatively active type of sleep when most of a person's dreaming takes place.
non-REM (NREM) sleep- is a much deeper, more restful kind of sleep.
An electroencephalograph (EEG) machine allows scientists to see the brain wave activity as a person passes through the various stages of sleep and to determine what type of sleep the person has entered.
Beta waves (small and very fast) - subject is wide awake and mentally active.
Alpha waves (larger and slower) - subject relaxes and gets drowsy
Theta waves (even larger and slower)
Stage One: Non-REM Stage (Light Sleep)
As theta wave activity increases and alpha wave activity fades away, people are said to be entering Stage One. If awakened during this stage, person will not believe that they were actually asleep. Vivid images are experienced called
hypnagogic images
Hypnic jerk
also occurs when your knees, legs or sometimes your whole body gives a big "jerk"
Stage Two: Non-REM Stage (Sleep Spindles)
As people drift further into sleep, the body temp drops, heart rate slows, breathing becomes more shallow and irregular.
Sleep spindles
occur which are brief bursts of activity lasting only a second or two, Theta wave activity and people will be aware of having been asleep if awakened.
Stage Three: Non-REM Stage
The delta waves roll in and make up 20-50% of the brain pattern.
Stage Four: Non-REM Stage
Once delta waves account for more than 50% of total brain activity, the person has entered Stage Four sleep, which is the deepest stage of sleep. Growth hormones are released from the pituitary, the body is at its lowest level of functioning, and eventually delta waves make up 100% of brain activity.
Stage Five: REM Stage
After spending some time in Stage four, the sleeping person will go back up through Stage Three, Stage Two, and then into a stage in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids, the body is almost as aroused as in a waking state. The brain waves resemble beta wave that usually signals wakefulness.

90% of dreams take place in this stage, and the dreams are longer, more vivid and detailed then the dreams occuring in Non-REM stages. After a physically demanding day more time is spent in Non-REM, but an emotionally stressful day leads to more REM sleep.
Freud's Interpretation: Dreams as Wish Fulfillment
Sigmund Freud believed that the problems of his patients stemmed from conflicts and events that had been buried in their unconscious minds since childhood. Freud attempted to understand these early memories by examining the dreams of his patients, believing that conflicts, events, and desires of the past would be represented in symbolic form in the dreams.
Manifest Content
- is the actual dream itself. Ex. Chad has a dream in which he is trying to climb out of a bathtub.
Latent Content
- Freud believed the true meaning of a dream lay hidden, or latent, and was expressed only in symbols. In the example above the water in the tub might symbolize the waters of birth, and the tub is Chad's mother's womb. Therefore Chad may be dreaming about being born.
The Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis
Using brain imaging techniques such as PET scan researchers have found evidence that dreams are products of activity in the lower brain stem. They devised this theory that the higher cortical centres of the brain create dreams in response to the random activation of brain stem cells that occurs during REM sleep periods.
The Activation-information -mode model (AIM)
A revised version of the activation-synthesis explanation of dreams in which information that is accessed during waking hours can have an influence on the synthesis of dreams.
4.6 What is hypnosis, and how does it work?
4.7 What is the difference between a physical dependence and a psychological dependence on a drug?
Psychoactive Drugs alter thinking, perception, memory, or some combination of those abilities. Although some drugs can be useful under certain circumstances, they all pose risks as well. One danger is their potential to create either a physical or psychological dependence, both of which can lead to a lifelong pattern of abuse and dependence or a drug overdose.

Physical Dependence
Drugs that people can become physically dependent on cause the user's body to crave the drug. After using the drug for some period of time, the body becomes unable to function normally without the drug and the person is said to be dependent or addicted.
Drug Tolerance
is one sign of physical dependence where as a person continues to use the drug, larger and larger doses of the drug are needed to achieve the same initial effects of the drug.
is another sign of a physical dependence where the user experiences symptoms when deprived of the drug. Depending on the drug, these symptoms can range from headaches, nausea, and irritability to severe pain, cramping, shaking, and elevated blood pressure. These physical sensations occur because the body is trying to adjust to the absence of the drug. Many users will take more of the drug to alleviate the symptoms of withdrawal. This is a classic example of negative reinforcement.

Psychological Dependence
The feeling that the drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being, which is a very powerful factor in continued drug use. Users continue to use the drug because they think they need it. In this case, it is the rewarding properties of using the drug that cause a dependency to develop.

Not all drugs produce physical dependence, any drug can become a focus of psychological dependence and these can last forever.
Theories of Hypnosis
Hypnosis as Dissociation: The Hidden Observer :
Ernest Hilgard believed that hypnosis worked only on the immediate conscious mind of a person, while a part of that person's mind (a "hidden observer") remained aware of all that was going on. ex. people driving to a destination and they don't remember the actual trip.
Hypnosis as Social Role-Playing: The Social Cognitive Explanation
Hypnotized individuals are not in an altered state but are merely playing the role expected of them in the situation. The expectancies of the hypnotized person play a big part in how the person responds and what the person does under hypnosis.
4.8 What are some examples of stimulants and the dangers associated with taking them?
Stimulants or uppers are a class of drugs that cause the sympathetic nervous system and many of the organs connected to it to increase their activity, at least temporarily.

- Stimulants that are made in laboratories rather than being found in nature.
Ex. Benzedrine, Methedrine, and Dexedrine. Truck drivers use amphetamines to stay awake and they are used as diet pills, and to treat ADHD, and narcolepsy. Stimulants won't give people extra energy, but they will cause people to burn up whatever energy reserves they do have. They depress the appetite and when the energy reserves are exhausted, a crash is inevitable. Physical dependency and tolerance is common to avoid this crash. Doses can become toxic and deadly causing nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure, and strokes.
Amphetamine psychosis
is a condition where addicts become delusional and paranoid.

- is a natural drug found in coca plant leaves. It produces feelings of euphoria, energy, power, and pleasure. It also deadens pain and suppresses the appetite. Throughout history it has been used by doctors and dentists and even found in the original Coca-Cola beverage. Cocaine is highly dangerous, it may cause convulsions in some people, and has devastating effects on the children born to mothers who are users. Cocaine causes chemical changes in the brain and users experience a severe mood swing into depression followed by extreme tiredness, nervousness, an inability to feel pleasure and paranoia. They also experience compulsive use, loss of control, and disregard for the consequences of use.
Drugged: High on Cocaine Documentary
- is a relatively mild but nevertheless toxic stimulant found in tobacco plant leaves. Nicotine produces a sense of arousal as it raises blood pressure, accelerates the heart and stimulates the release of adrenalin. Nicotine has a relaxing effect and seems to reduce stress in most people. Every year 46,000 Canadians die from illnesses related to smoking. Fewer Canadians smoke, but the rates of teen and young adult smokers remains high. Nicotine is more addictive than heroin or alcohol with withdrawal symptoms equivalent to these illegal drugs. Quitting methods include: delayed smoking, medications, and other devices containing nicotine.

- is a natural drug found in coffee beans, tea leaves, cacoa nuts, and at least 60 other types of plants. It is a mild stimulant, that helps maintain alertness, and can increase the effectiveness of some pain relievers such as Aspirin. Most widely used stimulant in the world found in coffee, tea, most sodas, chocolate, energy drinks and many over the counter drugs.
You're invited to a Mouse Party! http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/drugs/mouse.html
Depressants: Down in the Valley
4.8 What are some different types of depressants, and how can they be harmful?
Depressants are another class of psychoactive drugs that slow the central nervous system.

Barbiturates or Major Tranquilizers
- Commonly known as the major tranquilizers (drugs that have a strong depressant effect) or sleeping pills. These are drugs that have a sedative (sleep-inducing) effect. The effects, depending on dosage levels, range from mild sedation or sleepiness to unconsciousness or coma. Overdoses can lead to death as breathing and heart action are stopped.
Barbiturates are highly addictive and users can quickly develop a tolerance. Withdrawal can be as serious as convulsions, and barbiturates may cause death when taken with other drugs.

Benzodiazepines or Minor Tranquilizers
- These drugs are used to lower anxiety and reduce stress. They are considered safer than barbiturates and are used to treat sleep problems, nervousness, and anxiety. Examples include Valium, Xanax, Halcion, Ativan, and Librium. Very addictive and dangerous when combined with alcohol or other drugs, i.e. Rohypnol (date rape drug).
4.8 What kind of drug is alcohol, and what are the dangers of drinking too much?

- the most commonly used and abused depressant is alcohol, the chemical resulting from fermentation or distillation of various kinds of vegetable matter. Alcohol stimulates the release of GABA which slows down neural activity, first inhibitions are lowered, then motor skills, reaction time and speech are all affected. Estimated that anywhere from 600,000 -700,000 Canadians ages 15+ suffer from alcoholism.

Alcohol is associated with health risks to the liver, brain, heart, loss of work time, and combined with driving is the number one cause of death in ages 15-25. Signs of alcohol abuse include denial, drukenness, guilt, memory loss, black outs, lying about drinking, etc.
4.9 How do narcotics work and why are they so addictive?

are a class of drugs that suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system's natural receptor sites for endorphins. Deadly when taken with other depressants such as alcohol. All narcotics are a derivatitive of a particular plant-based substance, opium.

- is made from the opium poppy, has pain-relieving and euphoria inducing properties and has been used for 2000 years.

- was created by dissolving opium in an acid and then neutralizing the acid with ammonia. Thought to be a wonder drug, morphine is used today in carefully controlled doses and for short periods of time.
- a derivative of morphine that did not have many of the disagreeable side effects of morphine. Doctors soon realized that herion was more addictive than morphine and opium and its use as a medicine stopped.

Opiates duplicate the action of endorphins so well that the nervous system slows or stops is production of the neurotransmitter. When the drug wears off, there is no protection against any kind of pain so the withdrawal is severe.

is also a derivative of opium but does not produce the euphoric "high" of morphine or heroin. It is used to control heroin dependency. Other therapies include contingency management therapy and cognitive behavioural interventions.
4.9 How do hallucinogens work?

fall under the category of psychogenic drugs. They stimulate the brain into altering its interpretation of sensations and can produce sensory distortions very similar to synesthesia. False sensory perceptions called hallucinogens are often experienced especially with the more powerful hallucinogens.

Manufactured Highs- Hallucinogens manufactured in a laboratory setting and are often more potent.

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)
, is sythesized from a grain fungus called ergot. Ergot fungus commonly grows on rye grain. First made in 1938, LSD is the most potent hallucinogen taking only a very tiny drop to achieve a "high". Users believe LSD helps them expand their consciousness or awareness of the world around them. Dangerous as it takes people out of the real world and this trip may not always be a pleasant one. This may also lead to poor decision making such as driving while high.

Phenyl Cyclohexyl Piperidine (PCP)
useful only in veterinary medicine as a tranquilizer, this drug has wide ranging effects from hallucinogenic, stimulant, depressant, or an analgesic (pain killing) drug. PCP users experience hallucinations, distorted sensations, and very unpleasant effects which may lead to violence or suicide.

MDMA (Ecstasy)
This drug is classified as a stimulatory hallucinogen as it produces a mixture of psychomotor stimulant and hallucinogenic effects. One of the properties of this drug is its tendency to dehydrate the body and raise body temperature, so its important to drink water. Must avoid drinking too little or too much water when using this drug. Combining with other drugs poses more of a threat.

Non-Manufactured Highs - substances found in nature that produce hallucinogenic effects.

- comes from the buttons found on the peyote cactus and has long been a part of Native American rituals. Its hallucinogenic effects last longer than those of LSD. Sauna effect with this drug produces sensations of being out of one's own body or talking with spirits.

- referred to as magic mushrooms also used in spiritual rituals in native cultures. Neither Mescaline nor psilocybin create a physical dependency but psychological dependencies are possible.

4.9 Continued What is marijuana and what are the risks of using it? What are some medicinal uses for marijuana?

Marijuana comes from the leaves and flowers of the hemp plant called cannabis sativa. Hashish is the substance scraped from these leaves. The active ingredient in marijuana is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and it is best known for its ability to produce a feeling of well-being, relaxation, mild intoxication, and mild sensory distortions or hallucinations. Marijuana has powerful psychological dependency, and long term use can produce signs of withdrawal such as irritability, sleep difficulties, and aggression. It is not safe to operate heavy machinery or drive a car under the influence. Marijuana smokers get more carcinogens, carbon dioxide, and tar exposure than normal smokers because they inhale more deeply and hold the smoke longer.

Marijuana has some medical benefits. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions in Canada, including the nausea and vomiting that occur from cancer chemotherapy; eye swelling in glaucoma; and the seizures and muscle spasms associated with epilepsy, MS, or spinal cord injury. Around 200,000 Canadians benefit from medicinal marijuana today.
Sleep deprivation is a serious disorder responsible for a large portion of traffic accidents and fatalities as well as increased stress, depression, anxiety, reduced productivity, and risk-taking behaviour.
Causes of sleep deprivation include sleep disorders such as apnea and narcolepsy, failure of people to go to sleep or stay asleep for an adequate amount of time, worrying, and the influence of some drugs.

How can you tell if your sleep deprived?
actually need an alarm clock to wake up
find getting out of bed in the morning a struggle
feel tired, irritable, or stressed out for much of the day.
trouble concentrating or remembering
fall asleep watching TV, in meetings and lectures
fall asleep within 5 minutes of getting into bed.
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