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Learning Theories

SCI 610 Visual Organizer
by

Bethany Shaheen

on 12 November 2012

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Transcript of Learning Theories

In behaviorism a student is to learn from what others already know. As teachers we are supposed to give immediate feedback to our students. Behaviorism Knowledge is built. Constructing knowledge is like constructing a house: the strength and integrity of the final structure depend on the base or foundation. Constructivism How People Learn We study how people learn because, quite frankly, education is often ineffective. Learning Theories Information Processing The mind tends to store knowledge based on immediate feedback.

If they did something good they will get positive feedback and a reward.
If they do something bad they will be given negative feedback and punished.
Once they have seen that they were rewarded for doing something good they will remember that action and continue to do that task correctly. How students store knowledge... Learning from experience, however, behaviorists say people learn by being told information.
Operant conditioning: a term created by Skinner to describe why we act the way we do.
By receiving a positive reaction for one's action, one will continue to perform that action.
By receiving negative responses for one's action, one will perform it less and eventually drop that behavior.
Learners progress from simple to more complex, by demonstrating mastery of a behavior before advancing. The mind acquires knowledge by... Tabula Rasa Some theorists believed that people are born with blank slates- with a tablula rasa. Nature vs. Nurture Subscribing to the tabula rasa theory follows more closely with the nurture side of this argument.

People must learn and acquire all knowledge; they are not born with anything on their slates. Constructivists disagree. We are born with the scaffolding upon which knowledge is constructed. Acquisition of Knowledge Storage of Knowledge Retrieval of Knowledge So what about the actual construction of knowledge? Constructivist Constructivist Constructivist Active Learners are the best learners In order for students to acquire knowledge, they must solve complex problems and make discoveries for themselves. Accommodation Assimilation When building on their scaffold, if new information is similar to students' current understanding, occurs. If a student has a very different (or wrong) foundation of knowledge, he or she must enter a state of disequilibrium in order to accept and acquire the new ideas. This is called Knowledge is stored as a structure of information built upon scaffolds of prior information. Measurement of knowledge is similar for Constructivism and Information Processing theories. (See next section) If students are given a novel task or problem, can they solve it with application of knowledge? Can students show understanding? If given a complex problem, can students break it down into smaller manageable parts? Two people who saw it differently Jean Piaget Lev Vygotsky A person's learning is dependent on his or her development. Development happens in four stages:
1. Sensory-motor
2. Pre-operational Representation
3. Concrete Operations
4. Hypothetic-deductive operations. Vygotsky named four
key principles of learning Learning:
1. is social
2. is best in the zone of proximal development
3. develops from a cognitive apprenticeship
4. should be mediated Information processing and Constructivism are both types of Cognitive Science which sees the mind and how it works as something to be studied and understood. Similarities between Behaviorism and Constructivism Similarities between Behaviorism and Information Processing Three learning theories we have are Information Processing, Behaviorism, and Constructivism. Three men who had an influence on behaviorism... B. F. Skinner 1904-1990
Psychologist
"Operant Conditioning
Two types of feedback
Reinforcing (behavior becomes more common)
Positive
Negative
Extinguishing (behavior becomes less common)
Punishment Ivan Pavlov 1849-1936
Conditioned reflex on dogs and children-salivary responses. Edward L. Thorndike 1874-1949
Continuation of the congruence between animal and human behavior.
Cat and boxes-behaviors formed from trial and error.
Associations
Stimulus response=connectivism An observer can identify what knowledge a learner possesses by... Presenting the learner with a stimulus and observing the learners response to the stimulus. Their knowledge can also be measured through operant conditioning.
If the observer feels the learner has mastered that behavior the observer can give the learner a task that is a little more complex than the task they just completed. What does research say about how people learn? According to B. F. Skinner people learn from what others already know.
He feels that through behavior modification an undesirable behavior will become a desired behavior.
Through operant conditioning people can understand why their actions either receive positive or negative feedback. Practice through problem solving
Novice to Expert (simple to more complex)
Learners recognizing from past experiences or recently stored behaviors.
Pattern matching from previous experiences
Teachers building off of the prior knowledge of the learners. Learners build their understanding from prior experiences.
They learn in sequential order. Is a study of the science of the mind. Also Known as Computational
Theory The mind processes symbols like a computer. Miller suggested that "chunking" small bits of information allows the memory to store and encode more data.

In addition to codes, mental representations of one's environment
creates "associative structures" and "schema" . How does the mind acquire knowledge? How does the mind store knowledge? The mind uses short-term and long-term memory to manipulate and recall information. How does an observer measure the knowledge of the learner? The recall or recognition of stored information can be measured by the learners output or utterances during a "task" environment.

Dweck's research, allows us to recognize motivation of the learner by reactions to failure using helpless and mastery oriented responses.

Chi's research identified learners by the use of their domain knowledge. This offered from the 1956 MIT meeting by Newell and Simon. Therefore, both theories check for knowledge through think-aloud interviews in which a student verbalizes his or her thought process when solving a problem.
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