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The Gunpowder Empires
Transcript of The Gunpowder Empires
What are the gunpowder empires?
In the 1300's there were three empires that ruled Asia, Europe, and Africa. They were called the gunpowder empires because they conquered cities and towns from their new kind of weapons like rifles. The three gunpowder empires were called: The Ottoman Empire, The Safavid Empire, and The Mughal Empire.
Sunni and Shi'a
The Safavid empire made is worse between the Sunnis and Shi'a's by attacking the Ottomans, who were Sunnis, and continuing to compete against them and imitating them like Ghulam. While Azerbaijan helped the two different empires settled, they made borders to reduce the problems between both Muslims.
Map of the Gunpowder Empires
Green: Ottoman Empire
Pink: Safavid Empire
Purple: Mughal Empire
What did the three empires have in common?
There are are a few similarities but there is also a major difference between the empires as well. All three empires were ruled in an Islamic, well-organized government with loyal officials. The Ottoman and the Mughal empire both with Muslim Sunni, while the Safavid empire was Muslim Shi'a, causing quite the riot between the three. Another similarity between the three is: whenever they conquered an area, they would mix their religion with the citizens' religion easily.
How did the separation between Sunni and Shi'a happen?
In 632, people started to argue over who would take Prophet Muhammad's place. One group (Sunnis) said that the community should choose who would take the Prophet's place, while a smaller group (Shi' a) wanted someone from the Prophet's family to take the throne.
Qur'an and Religious Tolerance
The Ottoman Empire
The ottoman empire was a grand empire that lasted from the 14th century to the 20th century. It was first created by a man named Osman I. He had a dream, a magnificent dream of harmony and power, and somehow also about nature coming out of his navel. That started the empire. The Byzantine Empire which lasted for 1500 years was finally conquered by the Ottomans, causing the fall of Constantinople in 1453 with Mehmed II as the leader at that time.
The Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire had many different practices that would strengthen their armies, that would as well benefit to those who needed it. Devshirme was an Ottoman practice of taking christian boys and turning them into soldiers or government officials. They would convert them to Islam and educate them. Some of the christian- turned muslim boys would grow up to be a Janissarie. A janissarie is when the grown up boy would be a soldier and by the age of 40 would be allowed to raise a family.
The Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire was ruled by strong and powerful rulers. One of the longest reigning ruler was Suleiman the Magnificent. He took control and conquered many areas, expanding the empire. At one point his target was against the Safavid causing battles and war. With Suleiman's help, they won. Now that the empire has conquered so many places, that means new religions were joining and the ottomans found a way to create peace. It was called the Millet system. The Millet system was when each religious group was allowed to govern its own religion but had to respect the Muslim practices. The Ottomans treated the different religions with a way of saying: You don't mess with our practices, we won't mess with your practices. Their religious tolerance was normal, but it did determine by time and place.
The Safavid Empire
The Safavid Empire was founded in 1501 by a man named Ismail. in 1510, became Shah Ismail. He was the man that brought Shi'ism to Iran. The Ottomans were not very friendly with the Safavid Empire, causing a lot of battles and wars. In their first battle of Chaldiran, the Ottomans won causing many troubles to the Safavids and Ismail. In the first Ottoman-Safavid war in 1532, the safavids formed an alliance with Austria. The Ottomans won the first war sadly. In 1578 was the second Ottoman-Safavid war to take over Azerbaijan ended badly for the Safavids because they were already weak form their previous war against the Uzbecks. It was ruled by Abbas I during the end of the war. Abbas I was counted as the best Safavid ruler when he came at a time of need for the Safavids. While Abbas I was ruler, he moved his empire to the city of Isfahan.
The Safavid Empire
The third and final Ottoman-Safavid war began in 1623 and ended in 1639. It first began as Abbas the Great wanting to reconquer Azerbaijan. Unlike other empires, instead of finding a unique way to strengthen their armies, they had an imitation of janissaries that they called: Ghulam. The only difference is, ghulam was unsuccessful. The war between both of these empires ended by Azerbaijan making borders to settle down the empires. The safavids took Yerevan and a part of Azerbaijan while the Ottomans took most of Iraq.
By: Leen Harazallah.
In general all the empires didn't agree with the other religious ways and their practices, so they treated them as lower class people, and did not accept their ways of religion. But, later on, they had a way to accept them with new system such as the Millet System and Dhimmi. The gunpowder empires were all in line with what the Qur'an has said. They had given people their own religious ways on how to determine things. However, they also were not in line with the Qur'an because they would take young Christian boys to become slaves even though they were paid and were allowed to raise families.
Background Music: Traditional Ottoman Empire Rose Song
Connection to Modern-day time
All we learned in this chapter has some connection to the modern-day time. It is relevant to today time because till now, there are still problems between Sunnis and Shi'ites. This chapter helps us in the world, in recognizing the influence of the empires did to our time now. Till now the division of the Sunnis and Shi'ites is still alive. For example: Shi;ites can be found in Iraq, Iran, and Southern Lebanon. While Sunnis can be found someplace else. There are still small battles between the Sunnis and Shi'ites.
The Mughal Empire
A famous leader that ruled the Mughal Empire was Akbar. He was able to conquer countries surrounding India. He was famous for creating peace and harmony throughout the Hindus and Muslims. He did this by making social changes and new rules that would benefit all. It all got broken down to little pieces by the final leader of the Mughal Empire; Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb treated the non-muslims with hatred and cruelty. This caused the empire to get destroyed from the inside out.
Suleiman The Magnificent
The Mughal Empire
The first Mughal Emperor/Ruler was named Babur. Jahangir, the son of Akbar, with the help of his father, decided that they should put religioun differences aside to unify and create a stronger empire. During the Mughal Empire there were Delhi Sultanate which is five dynasties that lasted for a short time during the empire: The first was Mamluk dynasty which lasted from 1206 - 1290. Khiliji dynasty that lasted from 1290 - 1320, Toughlaq dynasty from 1320 to 1414, and lastly, the Sayyid dynasty which lasted from 1414 to 1451.