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Copy of Copy of Federalists v. Anti-Federalists
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Federalists v. Anti-Federalists
New Nation George Washington became the first
president of the United States after
the Constitution went into effect. He faced a new challenge: creating an entirely new government. The Constitution provided a strong foundation
for what Washington & Congress would create. Judiciary Act of 1789 Created a judicial system Supreme court consisting of: 1 Chief Justice & 5 associate justices 3 federal circuit courts & 13 federal district courts Section 25: allowed state court decisions
to be appealed to federal courts if something
seemed unconstitutional Washington
Executive Branch Department of State
to deal with
foreign affairs Department
military matters Department
Jefferson Secretary of State Secretary of the Treasury Henry
Knox Secretary of War ... Edmond Randolph Attorney General The Cabinet President's Chief
Advisers Hamilton & Jefferson Debate! Jefferson did not agree with Hamilton's plan for the country or other philosophies.
Hamilton: strong central government led by wealthy, educated Jefferson: strong state, local government; people’s participation Hamilton has Northern support; Jefferson has Southern & Western As the Secretary of the Treasury.
Hamilton came up with an Economic Plan
to build up America after the war: The nation was deep in debt, and
the value of the new currency was low. The federal government should take on the debts of the states from the war.
To make money and strengthen the economy, Hamilton wanted to:
Place an excise tax on whiskey
Impose tariffs to strengthen & protect business
Create a national bank Southerners were against tariffs
& opposed Hamilton's plan.
They also did not want to pay
the debts of other states. As a result... The Whiskey
Rebellion In 1794, Pennsylvania farmers refuse to pay excise tax on whiskey
Beat up federal marshals, threaten secession
Federal government shows it can enforce laws by sending in militia In his farewell address,
Washington warned against
forming political parties Despite the warning,
political parties formed. The Federalist Party Alexander Hamilton is a key figure
Strong national government
Power should be given to the upper class
Supported business over agriculture
Loose interpretation of the Constitution The Democratic-
Republicans Thomas Jefferson is the leader
Stronger state governments
Favor the interests of small farmers & debtors
Strict interpretation of the Constitution Federalists Democratic-
Republicans Favored states retaining
Power in the hands of the people
Economy should be based on agriculture
Strict interpretation of Constitution Favored a strong central government
Power in the hands of wealthy
and well educated
Economy should be based on manufacturing, shipping, & commerce
Loose interpretation of the Constitution Hamilton also proposes creating the Bank of the United States:
funded by government, private investors
issue paper money, handle taxes
Why Jefferson had a problem?
Said it wasn't the federal gov't's job to establish a bank-- not in the Constitution
Hamilton says it falls under the Necessary and Proper Clause Federalists and
Democratic-Republicans Split in Washington’s cabinet leads to first U.S. political parties:
Jefferson’s allies: Democratic-Republicans
Hamilton’s allies: Federalists
Two-party system established as two major parties compete for power Foreign Affairs Trouble
the Nation Events in Europe sharply divide American public opinion in the late 18th century. European Events The big argument going on:
How should the US respond to
foreign affairs? The French Revolution Neither party wanted war... but...
Hoped that French Revolution would produce a gov't close to America's political leanings
Federalists pro-neutrality-- French Revolution=bad influence!
Washington declares neutrality, will not support either side As a result... Congress
several laws: Required 14 years of residency before US citizenship could be obtained. Naturalization Act Alien Act Allowed the gov't to
arrest, detain, or remove
untrustworthy. Sedition Act REALLY limited
free speech & expression. Federalists used the Alien & Sedition Acts of 1798 to silence critics
Jefferson saw these acts
as abuses of power! The acts kept the poor immigrants from
having any power/say in gov't. In response to the
Alien & Sedition Acts,
Thomas Jefferson & James Madison
came up with: The Virginia & Kentucky
Resolutions If a state believed that a federal law
was unconstitutional, it did not have
to follow it... The idea that states
have such rights
came to be known as the Doctrine of Nullification Eventually the Federalist party
will fade away, though political
parties continue today. Too little, too late: His political backers had
fallen from power and he stayed in the US, fearing for his life. The French sent Edmond Genêt to get Americans to agree with the French cause. By that time, Washington had already declared neutrality. Genêt caused trouble in the US and Washington declared that France take him back ASAP! Frustrated by people calling him a radical
& his ongoing feud with Hamilton,
Jefferson resigned from the cabinet
in 1793. Treaty with Spain Spain negotiates with Thomas Pinckney, U.S. minister to Britain
Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795, or Treaty of San Lorenzo, signed:
Spain gives up claims to western U.S.
Florida-U.S. boundary set at 31st parallel
Mississippi River open to U.S. traffic
Allowed American traders to use the port at New Orleans Fights in the Northwest Native Americans do not accept the 1783 Treaty of Paris and demand direct talks
Settlers are moving westward and laying claim to Native American land.
Attacks on American settlers, encouraged by British troops still in NW territory.
In 1790 Miami tribe chief, Little Turtle, defeats U.S. army Battle of Fallen Timbers Gen. "Mad" Anthony Wayne, appointed by Washington, defeats the Miami Confederacy at Fallen Timbers in 1794.
Miami sign Treaty of Greenville, get less than actual value for land.
Ended the Native American resistance in Ohio. Jay’s Treaty Chief Justice John Jay makes treaty with Britain
Who would get territories west of Appalachian Mtns?
British evacuate posts in Northwest
They may continue fur trade... Americans don't like this part! After all of this,
that he won't be back
for a third term. Washington's VP, John Adams,
was voted the 2nd President of the USA. Thomas Jefferson becomes the new VP. Adams Tries to Avoid War •French see Jay’s Treaty as violation of alliance; seize U.S. ships
•XYZ Affair—French officials demand bribe to see foreign minister
•Congress creates navy department & Washington is called to lead army
•Undeclared naval war rages between France, U.S. for two years Thomas
Jefferson In 1800, Thomas Jefferson
became the new president, beating
our 2nd president, John Adams. electors cast separate ballots for president, vice-president Electoral Deadlock Jefferson beats Adams Ties running mate, Aaron Burr House of Representatives casts 35 ballots; still tied. Hamilton talks up Jefferson = VICTORY! Reveals flaw in electoral process; 12th Amendment: Simplifying the Presidency Favors free trade over government-controlled trade, tariffs Replaces some Federalists in office with Democratic-Republicans Reduces size of armed forces Eliminates internal taxes; reduces influence of Bank of the U.S. (Hamilton's plan rolled back!) Just before leaving office, Adams pushed
Added 16 new federal judges. The Judiciary Act of 1801. Promptly filled the spots with Federalists!
Adams appointed them late in his last day
as President. Midnight Judges Marbury v. Madison Judicial Review: The ability of the Supreme Court to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional. 1803 William Marbury (a midnight judge) never received his official papers-- Sues. Enforce Judiciary Act of 1789 James Madison, Jefferson's Secretary of State withheld them. Chief Justice Marshall says the provision is unconstitutional The Louisiana Purchase •Louisiana returned to France; Jefferson fears strong French presence would cause alliance with Britain
•Jefferson buys Louisiana Territory from Napoleon
Doubts he has constitutional authority
•Louisiana Purchase doubles size of U.S. Jefferson appoints Lewis and Clark to lead Corps of Discovery:
explore new territory, find route to Pacific
gather information about people, plants animals
Native American woman, Sacajawea, serves as interpreter, guide Lewis and Clark The War
1812 After the Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson became very popular and won reelection in 1804. Soon after, Britian & France
are fighting again
threatens American shipping Great Britain-- blockades French ports!
By 1807- Britain has seized 1,000+ American ships/cargoes; France has half that. 1806- Napoleon decides to exclude British goods from Europe. Americans decide to take
their anger out on the British
for a few different reasons.. 1. Impressment British seize American
ships and force sailors
to fight for British 2. The Chesapeake
British Commander demands
the right to search US ship U.S. Captain refuses! British open fire on
U.S. ship.-- Kill 3, Wound 18 Jefferson convinces Congress
to declare an embargo
ban on exports Embargo, meant to hurt Europe, also hurts U.S.
Congress lifts it, except with Britain, France More trouble arrises when
Gen. William Henry Harrison,
Gov. of the Indiana 1808: James Madison is elected to be
the 4th President of the USA. many tribes don’t join Tecumseh’s Confederacy •William Henry Harrison makes land deal with Native American chiefs •Shawnee chief Tecumseh tries to form Native American confederacy: tells people to return to traditional beliefs, practices presses Harrison to leave Native American land negotiates British help with war? A group of young congressmen,
call for war against Britain. War
Hawks Shawnee attacked Harrison and his troops. People learn that the arms are supplied
by the British! Rallied behind the motto: "On to Canada!" Tired of Britain trying to hurt America,
Madison decided to go to war.
Congress approved the war declaration
in early June. War in Canada Native Americans fight on both sides. U.S. army unprepared Suffer losses at Detroit & Montreal Oliver Hazard Perry defeats British on Lake Erie; U.S. win battles & take back Detroit. The War at Sea Started with the Chesapeake and Delaware bays-- slowly extended. U.S. navy has only 16 ships; Three 44-gun warships sail alone, score victories British blockade U.S. ports along east coast The USS Constitution By 1814, British raid & burn towns along Atlantic coast
British burn The White House in retaliation for the burning of the Govenor's Mansion in York, Canada The Battle of New Orleans General Andrew Jackson gains national fame for victories against Native Americans In 1815, defeats superior British force at Battle of New Orleans Hundreds of British die, only a few American casualties. The victory comes after the war
has already ended. Andrew Jackson The Treaty of Ghent jointly occupy Oregon Territory for 10 years Treaty of Ghent, peace agreement signed Christmas 1814 Declares armistice or end to fighting; does not resolve all issues Eventually agreements: reopen trade between Britain and U.S. limit war ships on Great Lakes set northern boundary of Louisiana Territory at 49th parallel The Monroe Doctrine 1823. Spain & Portugal trying to reclaim old colonies Russia pushing in from the west Monroe warns all foreign powers to stay out of the Western Hemisphere American continents were no longer open for colonization Monroe did not want a European power moving in on newly independent Latin American countries. Monroe really didn't have the power to enforce his proclamation. If a European country attempted to colonize in the Western Hemisphere, we would see that as a threat. Territory and Boundaries •Nationalism—national interests come before region, foreign concerns •Secretary of State John Quincy Adams guided by nationalism -makes treaties with Britain; demilitarize Great Lakes, borders, territories... •Spain cedes Florida to U.S. in Adams-Onís Treaty
-gives up claim to Oregon Territory The American System Two economic systems developed in the US
North: Factories & Manufacturing
South: Cash crops!-- Cotton. A plan to unite a country that seemed to be divided became top priority. 1815, President Madison sends a plan to Congress hopeful that it will unite US regions & create strong economy:
develop transportation systems; make internal improvements
establish protective tariff
revive national bank (reduced under Jefferson, remember?) John C. Calhoun
backed up the
new idea. Henry gives it the name... -Unite the nation's economic interests
-North produces manufactured goods
-South and West produce food, cotton
-National currency & improved transportation: facilitate trade
-All regions sustain the others making U.S. economically independent
-Is this theory possible? Or destined to fail? Railroads not yet in common use; first steam engine built 1825
Need to be able to transport goods.
Federal government funds highways to connect different regions 1838, National Road extends from Cumberland, MD to Vandalia, IL Erie Canal links Hudson River to Lake Erie; in effect, the Atlantic to Great Lakes.
Completely paid for the canal in 12 yrs with tolls. Tariffs and the National Bank •Northeast welcomes tariff; South, West resent higher prices
•Most leaders agree national bank & national currency benefit all... so...
•In 1816, Second Bank of the United States chartered
•James Monroe elected president (1816), begins “Era of good Feelings”
Why might it be called that? Madison proposes Tariff of 1816—tariff on imports
increases cost of foreign goods
people more likely to buy American goods
helps pay for improvements •Gibbons v. Ogden: Ogden claims he has sole right to ferry between NY & NJ
Federal government controls interstate commerce Strengthening Government
Economic Control •McCulloch v. Maryland: State adds a heavy tax onto 2nd US Bank
State cannot overturn laws passed by Congress-- bank is constitutional
Does the state have that power? Why/why not? Most settlers go west for land, economic opportunity The Missouri Compromise •Missouri Compromise—preserves balance between slave, free states
•Maine admitted into Union as free state, Missouri as slave state
•Divides Louisiana Territory at 36 degree 30’ line: slavery legal in south
•What were reasons for this compromise? ManifestDestiny The US's destiny was to expand to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican Territory.
It was the belief that the Americans had a God-given right to all of the land in North America. The abundance of land in the West was a huge draw-- encroach upon Native American land.
Natives try to hold onto land and customs, but some begin to assimilate. The Black Hawk War -A native prophet had a vision that Sauk Indian, Black Hawk, would lead the natives to reclaiming their land.
-Illinois to Wisconsin- Rebellion led by Black Hawk
-Ended in 1812 with Illinois militia slaughtering 200+ Sauk and Fox-- forcibly removed- west of Mississippi Santa Fe Trail Independence, MO to Santa Fe, NM
Each Spring, traders would pack up and travel to New Mexico
Est. the 1st visible American presence in NM and AZ Oregon Trail Independence, MO to Portland, OR
Letters from the Whitmans (missionaries) of the fertile land convinced others to migrate west.
Death and disease along the way
By 1844, 5000 settlers living in Willamette Valley. Mormon Migration Move west to avoid persecution-- Brigham Young
Settled in Utah-- Salt Lake City. "Fifty-Four Forty of Fight!" Slogan in the 1844 election- James K. Polk
Wanted to claim what little land the British still held (now MN and ME) for US
Britain & US agreed to move Canadian-US boundary to 49th parallel-- Current US boundary. The Age of
Jackson 1824- Jackson v. John Quincy Adams
Jackson won popular vote; but both lacked majority of electoral.
Jacksonians leave Republican party, form Democratic-Republican Party During Adams' presidency, voting laws change.
Land owning is no longer a requirement.
3x as many white males vote in 1828 (as compared to 1824. Andrew Jackson 1828- Jackson wins Presidency
Appeals to the common man; claims humble beginnings
Nicknamed "Old Hickory" The Spoils System Jackson limits appointees to federal jobs to four-year terms
Uses spoils system—replaces former appointees with loyal Jacksonians.
Friends become primary advisers, dubbed “kitchen cabinet”-- unofficial cabinet. 1830 Congress passes the Indian Removal Act of 1830.
funds treaties that force Native Americans west Removal of Native Americans 1832 Cherokee Fight Back Worcester v. Georgia— Cherokee Nation gains recognition as political community
Ruling: Georgia cannot rule Cherokee or invade their land
Jackson said: "John Marshall made his decision, now let him enforce it." 1838 Still 20,000 Cherokee in the East
Martin Van Buren (8th President) orders the forced removal of the Cherokee. Trail of Tears Cherokee forced west ; 800-mile trip, mostly made on foot
Cherokee are robbed by government officials & outlaws
1 out of 4 Cherokee die on the journey "Tariff of Abominations"
John C. Calhoun (VP to Jackson)
1828 tariff hated by Southerners
High tariff on manufactured goods
British export less; must buy from North Nullification Crisis! Calhoun: sovereign states should be able to declare a federal law null if it is unconstitutional,
SC legislature says Tariffs of 1828 & 1832 unconstitutional.
Force Bill of 1833- Fed govt can use army & navy against SC if they don't pay up.
Clay compromises for now... but never solved fully. 2nd Bank of the US 1832- Jackson vetoes bill to recharter 2nd BUS.
Clay thought Jackson would lose support.
Public did not like the rich profiting as stockholders; Bank favors people with high status.
"Pet Banks"-- banks that held govt funds; loyal to Democratic party.
2nd BUS fails 5 years after charter expires. Whig Party- 1834; forms from members who are discontent with the Democratic Party (Clay, Adams...)
Back the American System & federal control of banks; national currency. Martin Van Buren Elected in 1836-- inherits all of Jackson's issues
Bank war & money policies
Pet Banks- printing bank notes wildly!-- didn't have gold/silver to back it up.
Rush on banks lead to Panic of 1837
Businesses bankrupt; unemployment 1/3 of population Trails West Santa Fe Trail
Oregon Trail Santa Fe Trail Independence, MO to Santa Fe, NM
Spring- Missouri traders load up goods & travel west.
Establish first visible American presence in NM and AZ (Mexican province) Oregon Trail 1833- Whitmans head west to convert
Independence, MO --> Portland, OR
Trip took months-- many walked.
Caravans- Protection against possible attacks.
5000+ settlers by 1846. Mormon Trail Church founded by Joseph Smith- 1827
Fleeing persecution-- headed west!
Brigham Young leads community to Great Salt Lake in Utah-- Salt Lake City. California Gold Rush 1848- Gold is discovered at Sutter's Mill, CA. "the whole country 'resounds with the sordid cry of gold, GOLD, GOLD! while the field is left half-plowed, the house half-built, and everything neglected by the manufacture of shovels and pickaxes. Population skyrockets! 400--> 44,000 in 2 years
Forty-niners: prospectors who flocked to CA
The Gold Rush brings diversity! --Chinese, Mexicans, Whites, Free African Americans.
CA's statehood debated between N & S- gains it in 1850. How can you tell where they are going? Humor used? Expansion in
Texas Native Americans threaten thinly spread population-- Mex gov attempts to strengthen provinces
**1821, 1823 & 1824: Mexico offered land grants to agents-- offered those to Americans.
Obey Mexican laws & observe Roman Catholicism
Americans jump at the chance!-- live as Mexican citizens until 1830's Word of Texas spreads!-- "GO TO TEXAS!" posters; G.T.T.- "Gone To Texas"
**US has tried to purchase Texas before-- Mexico refuses;
**Mexico beginning to resent their hospitality toward Anglo settlers **Stephen F. Austin
**Est. a colony--
"no drunkard, no gambler, no profane swearer, no idler" allowed
**Issues land grants- Farmland or grazing land, 10-yr exemption from taxes
Texas's Old Three Hundred **Cultural differences cause tensions in Mexico
**Mexico abolished slavery 1824-- settlers still use slaves for farming.
How does this violate their agreements for land grants?
**Mexico seals borders 1830-- settlers still sneak through! **1833- Stephen asks president, Antonio Lopez Santa Anna, for greater self-govt for Texas
Austin heads home with no luck; arrested along the way; "Inciting Revolution"
**Revokes local powers of Texas & others-- rebellions start: Texas Revolution. "Remember the
Alamo!" Austin tells Texans to get armed!
**1836- Texans drive Mexican forces from The Alamo (abandoned mission/fort)
**Santa Anna retaliates-- kills all 187 US defenders, including Jim Bowie & Davy Crockett. Led by Sam Houston (future gov of TN), Americans defeat Santa Anna @ Battle of San Jacinto-- "REMEMBER THE ALAMO!"
Treaty of Velasco- Independence to Texas!; Houston becomes president of Republic of Texas-- "Lone Star Republic" ** 1838- Houston invites US to annex Texas
1845- Polk (a slave owner) gives Texas the ok- becomes a state.
Angers Mexico... Pulls back Mex ambassador. **Instability of Mex gov & territorial aspirations of James K. Polk (US President) keep tensions high.
Issues over TX border- Rio Grande or Nueces River?
**Polk sends emissary to make negations with Santa Anna-- refused. **Zachary Taylor-- Rio Grande blockade!, John C. Fremont leads exploration party.
**Mexico sees this as invasion & attack
**Polk urges Congress to declare war
Slave issue rises again.
How does the North see this possible gain of territory? The South? 1846- Stephen Kearny leads troops to both NM and CA (with Fremont's help)-- both fall to the United States.
Polk hatches a deal with Santa Anna to end the war; S.A. goes against his word & attacks US troops.
US army retaliates, takes Mexico City. Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago -Rio Grande is TX-Mex border
-US gets NM & CA
-US pays $15mil for Mexican Cession (-present day CA, NV, NM, UT, AZ, CO, WY)
-Mexicans in those regions get freedoms of US Gadsden Purchase 1853- Pay Mexico $10mil for another piece of territory.
Helps to establish the current borders of lower 48 states. ** **