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Transcript of Oculesics
Eye contact can signal that you are paying attention.
You respect the person you are speaking with as well as a variety of different emotions.
It must be noted that culture plays a role in oculesics, for the necessity of eye contact and the civility it provides in a certain culture differs greatly from the other cultures.
DIMENSION 4: GAZE DIRECTION
- Gazing deals with communicating and feeling intense desire with the eye, voluntarily or involuntarily.
Hierarchies are much more visible in their society than in Western cultures, and their social behaviors mirror this.
In countries such as China and Japan, eye contact is not considered an essential to social interaction, instead it is often considered inappropriate.
refers to the study of eye contact and pupil dilation in terms of nonverbal communication. Eye contact indicates interest, openness, and sometimes even arousal, though aggressive eye contact--or staring--can be interpreted as a sign of hostility. In addition to this, lack of eye contact also transmits a message, oftentimes that the listener is bored and/or is not paying attention.
DIMENSIONS OF OCULESICS
DIMENSION 1: EYE CONTACT
There are three levels of eye contact:
Direct Eye Contact
Indirect Eye Contact
Duration of Eye Contact
DIMENSION 2: EYE MOVEMENT
Eye Movement occurs voluntarily or involuntarily. It can include changing eye direction, changing focus, or following objects with the eyes.
DIMENSION 3:PUPIL DILATION
Pupillary response is change in the size of the pupil, voluntarily or involuntarily. This change happens at the appearance of real or perceived new objects of focus, and even at the real or perceived indication of such appearances
When your lecturer sees most of his students are not looking at him, he might conclude that his class is not paying attention.
If your friend shares something with you in confidence, your friend may glare at you to signal your transgression.
Intense eye contact could also mean you want to dominate someone (Pearson, West & Turner, 1995).
THE ROLE OF EYE CONTACT IN DIFFERENT CULTURES
The UK, USA, Australia and Western Europe all have fairly similar social expectations of when and where eye contact is appropriate – which is most of the time.
Studies show that in Western culture, speakers hold eye contact for about 40% of the time while listeners take up nearly 70% of the time (Knapp & Hall, 2006).
Eye contact is expected in Western culture, it is a basic essential to a social interaction which shows a person’s interest and engagement with your conversation.
In Western cultures eyes are considered to show the central point of a person’s focus. So if somebody doesn’t give any eye contact during a conversation, it may be considered insulting.
In other, more formal, circumstances in Western cultures a lack of eye contact can be seen in another way.
MIDDLE EASTERN CULTURES
Eye contact is less common, and considered less appropriate than in Western cultures. There are strict gender rules, whereby women should not make too much eye contact with men as it could be misconstrued as a romantic interest.
Intense eye contact is often a method used to show sincerity. Long, strong eye contact can mean ‘believe me, I’m telling you the truth’.
AFRICAN AND LATIN AMERICAN CULTURES
In many circumstances intense eye contact is seen as aggressive, confrontational and extremely disrespectful.