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Chapter 8 - Motivation and Emotion

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Grace Wang

on 1 May 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 8 - Motivation and Emotion

Chapter 8 - Motivation and Emotion
Theories of Motivation
Hunger Motivation
Sexual Motivation
Drive Reduction Theory
Drive Reduction Theory: theory that our behavior is motivated by
biological needs
(requirements for survival)
Bodies need
homeostasis
, a balanced internal state. When out of homeostasis, we have a need that creates a drive. (
Hull
)
Drive Primary Drive:
biological needs
Secondary Drive:
learned drives
Sometimes, we are motivated to perform behaviors unconnected to needs, drives, primary, or secondary.
Arousal Theory
Motivations that do not go into biological theories are arousal theories.
Arousal theory: humans seek an optimum level of
excitement or arousal.
To achieve need for arousal, we are motivated by activities that will
settle arousal levels.

High optimum levels


Low optimum levels
Incentive Theory
When behaviors are not
pushed by a need
, it is
pulled by a desire
.
Incentives: stimuli that we are drawn to
due to learning
-stimuli can be associated with
rewards/punishments
-example: studying alone vs with friends
Biological Basis of Hunger
Psychological Factors in Hunger Motivation
To explain the feeling of hunger, researchers
inserted balloons into participants' stomachs.
-
Inflating/ deflating
balloon determines that hunger is caused when stomach feels empty. Contracts when stomach feels full.
Brain:
- Hypothalamus:
monitors and helps control body chemistry
. Makes us feel hungry when we need to eat.
- researchers used
electric stimulation
to rats' brains to indicate different parts of hypothalamus acts to control hunger.
-
Lateral
hypothalamus: (stimulated) eat
(destruction) destroys hunger
-
Ventromedial
hypothalamus: (stimulated) stops eating
(destruction) never stops eating
-
Normal
hypothalamus: 2 areas oppose each other and signals impulses to eat/stop eating at appropriate times.
Set-point theory: how hypothalamus might decide what impulse to send. Shows that hypothalamus maintains a certain optimum body weight.
-
Drop below
: hypothalamus tells to eat/ lowers metabolic rate
-
Set point reached
: hypothalamus tells to stop eating/ raises metabolic rate to burn excess food.

Eating Disorders
-Bulimia: eating large amounts of food in a short period of time (
binging
), then getting rid of it (
purging
). Includes
vomiting, excessive exercise, and laxatives.
Hard to identify.
-Anorexia nervosa:
starving below 85%
of normal body weight while refusing to eat.
-Obesity: overweight, to the point where the excess weight can become threatening to your life. Some people may be
genetically predispositioned
to obesity.
Sexual Response Cycle
Sexual Response Cycle:
William Masters
and
Virginia Johnson
documented the sexual response cycle. Sexual response progress has four stages:
- Initial excitement: Genital areas become engorged with blood,
penis becomes erect, clitoris swells, respiration and heart rate increase
.
-
Plateau phase
: Respiration and heart rate continue at an elevated level, genitals secrete fluids in preparation for coitus.
-
Orgasm
: Rhythmic genital contractions that may help conception, respiration, and heart rate increase further, males ejaculate, often accompanied by a pleasurable euphoria.
- Respiration and heart rate
return to normal resting states
, men experience a refractory period--- a time period that must elapse before another orgasm, women do not have a similar refractory period and can repeat the cycle immediately.
Psychological Factors in Sexual Motivation
Sexual motivation is controlled to a great extent by psychological rather than biological sources.
-Sexual desire can be present
even when capability to have sex is lost
.
-
Erotic Material
can inspire sexual feelings and physiological responses in both genders, including elevated levels in hormones.
Sexual Orientation
Barron's Quiz
How would drive reduction theory explain a person accepting a new job with a higher salary but that requires more work and responsibility?
A. Money is a more powerful incentive for this individual than free time.
B. This person seeks a higher activity level and takes the job in order to satisfy this drive.
C. The person takes the job to satisfy the secondary drive of increased salary
D. Humans instinctively seek greater resources and control over their environment.
Which aspects of hunger are controlled by the lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus?
A. Contraction and expansion of the stomach, indicating too much or too little food.
B. Body temperature and desire to eat
C. Desire to eat and psychological processes needed for eating and digestion (such as salivation)
D. The binge and purge cycle in bulimics
E. The desire to eat and the feeling of satiety, or fullness, that makes us stop eating
All of the following are identified by researchers as important factors in the causes of eating disorders EXCEPT
A. Cultural attitude toward weight
B. Lack of willpower
C. Genetic tendencies
D. Family history of eating disorders
E. Food obsessions
The Yerkes-Dodson law predicts that most people would perform an easy task best if they are at
A. a high level of arousal
B. a low level of arousal
C. a baseline state
D. a level of self-actualization
E. a state of homeostasis


Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Self- actualization needs:
to fulfill your unique potential
Esteem needs: to
achieve
and
to gain approval and recognition
Belongingness and love needs: to be
accepted
and
belong
Safety needs: to feel
safe, secure, and out of danger
Physiological needs: to satisfy drives for
hunger, thirst, and sex
Social Motivation
Stress: Either certain life events (
stressors
) or how we react to these changes in the environment (
stress reactions
).
What is the principle difference between how achievement motivation theory and arousal theory explain human motivation?
A. Achievement motivation is a specific example of arousal motivation
B.Arousal theory describes the optimum level of general arousal an individual seeks, while achievement motivation describes what type of goals the individual is motivated to achieve
C. Arousal theory describes motivation by referring to stages in our responses to stress. Achievement motivation is not used to describe motivation due to stress
D. A person with low optimum level of arousal according to arousal theory would have a high achievement motivation
E. Arousal theory is an older, outdated precursor to achievement motivation theory
Which of the following are reasons why intrinsic motivation might be more advantageous than extrinsic motivation?
A. Intrinsic motivation might be more enduring since extrinsic motivations are usually temporary
B. Intrinsic motivations are easier and more convenient to provide
C. Intrinsic motivations are higher on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, so we are motivated to meet them before extrinsic needs
D. Intrinsic motivations are more likely to be primary drives. Extrinsic motivations are secondary drives
E. Intrinsic motivations are more effective with a wider range of individuals
Which sentence most closely describes the difference between theory X and theory Y types of management?
A. Theory X managers are more active in work groups. Theory Y managers are more hand-off, letting groups work out problems on their own
B. The management theories differ in regard o what tasks they delegate to workers
C. Theory Y managers regard employees as intrinsically motivated. Theory X managers see them as extrinsically motivated
D. Management theory X is dominant in collectivist cultures. Theory Y is more prevalent in individualist cultures
E. Theory Y is used with workers who have high optimum levels of arousal. Theory X is used with those whose arousal levels are low
What does Schachter's two-factor theory state about the relationship between emotion and physiological reaction?
A. Emotions are caused by physiological reactions. For example, we feel excited because our heart begins to race
B. Physiological reactions are caused by emotions. For example, our experience of fear causes our breathing rate to increase
C. A combination of physiological reactions and our cognitive interpretation of an event produces emotion
D. Physiological reactions and emotional response occur simultaneously
E. Cognitive emotions occur independently of physiological states and are unrelated
Excessive time spent in the resistance phase of Seyle's general adaptation syndrome can contribute to
A. increased time needed to adapt to new emotional situations
B. decreased motivation to perform novel tasks
C. stress-related diseases like ulcers or heart conditions
D. a reduction in the drive to achieve goals
E. resistance to learning skills needed for novel tasks
Percieved control over a stressful event tends to result in
A. less reported stress
B. more frustration regarding the stressful event
C. more motivation to solve the stressful problem
D. increased arousal
E. higher heart and respiration rates
The balanced physiological state we are driven to attain by satisfying our needs is called
A. equilibrium
B. homeostasis
C. self-actualization
D. secondary satisfaction
The Garcia effect describes
A. the increased motivation felt by individuals with high levels of arousal
B. the increased susceptibility to illness experienced in the exhaustion phase of the stress response
C. classical conditioning associating nausea with food or drink
D. the effect of a theory Y management style
E. the effect the hypothalamus has on perceiving hunger
Which of the following factors does research indicate may influence sexual orientation?
A. parenting styles
B. degree of masculinity or femininity expressed in childhood
C. traumatic childhood experiences
D. genetic influences
E. being raised by homosexual parents
Seyle's general adaptation syndrome describes
A. how the central nervous system processes emotions
B. the effect of low levels of arousal on emotions
C. our reactions to stress
D. our reactions to the different levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs
E. the sexual response cycle in humans
A high score on Holmes and Rahe's social readjustment rating scale correlates with
A. high optimum levels of arousal
B. level of need reduction
C. incidence of eating disorders
D. incidence of stress-related illnes
E. levels of perceived control



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---Motivation--- feelings or ideas that cause us to act
towards a goal
. Some are obvious, while some are subtle.
Instinct: topic of debate after
Darwin's
publication of
natural selection.
Psychologists thought all human behaviors were the result of instincts.
Examined and found that behavior is motivated by both
biological
and
psychological
factors.

Seemingly simple motivations, such as hunger motivation, relies of several
biological, psychological, and social factors
Hunger motivation: is
not only limited
to physiological or brain/body chemistry
-
Externals
: tend to eat by external food cues.
Attractiveness/ availability of food
-
Internals
: less affected by presence/ presentation of food.
Responds to internal hunger cues
Garcia effect
: effects what type of food creates hunger.
- Example: nausea paired with food/ drinks (taste aversions)
Culture/background
: creates certain preferences with foods.
- Foods raised with become most appetizing
- Preference towards foods included in:
family, region, culture

Motivated by both biological and physiological factors

Sexual Orientation: A person’s preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the
same or opposite sex
.
Researchers believe that both
environmental
influences and
biological
influences affect sexual orientation.

Your
attitudes and goals, the society you live in, and the people you surround yourself
with also affect what you are motivated to do.


Extrinsic Motivators:
Rewards that we get for accomplishments
from outside ourselves. (grades, salary, and so on)
- Extrinsic motivations are very effective for a
short period of time
.
Intrinsic Motivators: Rewards we get
internally
, such as enjoyment or satisfaction.
- To achieve advantageous behavior, intrinsic behavior is most effective

Management Theory: Management behavior is closely related to extrinsic/intrinsic motivation.
- Theory X: When managers believe that employees will work
only if rewarded with benefits or threatened with punishment
- Theory Y: When managers believe that employees are internally
motivated to do good work
and policies should encourage this internal motive


When Motives Conflict
- Approach-approach conflict: Choosing between two
desirable outcomes
- Avoidance-avoidance conflict: Choosing between two
undesirable outcomes
- Approach-avoidance conflict: An event or goal has
both un/attractive features
- Multiple approach-avoidance conflicts: Choosing between
two or more things
, each of which has both desirable and undesirable features

Theories about Emotion:
Emotion influences motivation
, and motivation influences emotion
-
William James
and
Carl Lange
(early theorists about emotion): Theorized that we feel emotion because of biological changes caused by stress.
-
James-Lange VS Cannon-Bard
: Thought WJ + CL was wrong; demonstrated that similar physiological changes correspond with drastically different emotional states.
- Thought
thalamus
was responsible for
biological/cognitive
awareness in change.
- Thalamus + environment ----> cortex/ autonomic nervous system = awareness of emotion and change
Two-Factor Theory
: explains emotional experiences in a more complete way.
Schachter
pointed out that both physical and cognitive labels combine to cause any particular emotional response. Shows that
emotion depends on the interaction between biology and cognition.
- Experiment: Showed that people who were already physiologically aroused experience
more intense emotions
than unaroused people when both groups are exposed to the same stimuli.

Measuring Stress: Psychologists
Thomas Holmes
and
Richard Rahe
designed one of the first instruments
to measure stress
.
- Developed a social readjustment rating scale (
SRRS
) measured in stress using life-change units (
LCUs
).
-
High score
in SRRS is more likely to have a higher stress-related disease than a person with a low score.
Seyle's General Adaptation Syndrome: (
GAS
) describes the general
response
animals (including humans) have
to a stressful event
.
- Explains some of the documented problems associated with
extended period
of stress, which can contribute to
physical diseases
.
- Our bodies can only contribute so long before resources are depleted and we are vulnerable to disease due to
exhaustion
. His theory has 3 stages:
-
Alarm reaction
: Heart rate increases. organism readies itself to meet the challenge through sympathetic nervous system.
-
Resistance
: The body remains physiologically ready (high heart rate).
Hormones are released
to maintain the state of readiness. If the resistant stage lasts too long, the body can deplete its sources.
-
Exhaustion
: the parasympathetic nervous system returns our physiological state to normal. More
vulnerable to diseases
in this stage if resources are depleted by an extended resistant stage.
Perceived Control: Lack of perceived control results in the
harmful effects of stress
.
- Experiment: a patient given control of the levels of morphine will report to a better pain control than a patient given the mandated levels of morphine even if both patients get the same amount of morphine overall.
-
Control over situations/events tend to lessen stress
, while a perceived lack of control generally makes the event
more stressful
.

Grace is
Full transcript