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A Cell is Like......

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Rebecca Pister

on 13 May 2014

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Transcript of A Cell is Like......

A Cell is Like......
The nucleus is the part of the cell that organizes and controls everything that happens in it's cell.
The Nucleus
Imagine that an animal cell was the setting in the book Divergent: Chicago. The 'Nucleus' would be Jeanine Matthews. She controls everything that happens in the city and monitors all activity in it.
Think of it this way...
The nuclear membrane is the organelle in the cell that acts as a protective coat for the nucleus, similar to the cell membrane. It has nuclear pores that allow proper nutrients and ribosomes to enter and exit the nucleus.
The Nuclear Membrane
In Divergent,the nucleus would be Jeanine Matthews. The Erudite, particularly Caleb, look after her, and protect her so that no one can find out her plans and so no one can hurt her. So that means the Erudite would be her nuclear membrane!
Hey! I thought of another analogy...
The Cell Membrane
Cells are the basic building blocks of life, with many different parts called organelles. I'm going to try to make these parts seem less complicated by relating them to a book called Divergent.
This is a cell.
Do you remember the fence in Divergent? It was built to keep all of the citizens inside the city. The fence offered them protection from the 'monsters' that lived beyond. The Amity also brought their crops that were grown outside the fence inside the city. Just like a cell membrane! Actually, that reminds me of osmosis...
Did you know there is a second type of membrane? It's the cell membrane. The cell membrane keeps all of the organelles of a cell contained in the cell. The membrane also prevents things like viruses coming in from outside the cell while letting certain nutrients in. If a nutrient is small enough to fit through small pores in the membrane, it is one that will not hurt the cell. This means that the cell membrane is semi-permeable.
So how can we relate this to Chicago?
Well, if you simply NEED to know, osmosis is when water enters and exits a cell to create an equilibrium. You see, cells need water to survive, but if they get too much water, they have too much Turgor Pressure (they get 'bloated'), and vice versa. Osmosis solves all of that. The cell will try to make it so that there is an even amount of water particles on each side of the cell membrane.
Whuzzat? Who's Osmosis?
DNA resides inside of the nucleus, and acts as a code for how your body is supposed to be made. All DNA in your body works the same way and looks the same way as one another. The DNA contains information that determines how you look, how you speak,how you think, just about everything about you.
Deoxyribonucleic acid, A.K.A DNA
That's a good question. Well, let's go back to the nucleus; Jeanine Matthews. DNA would be like her ultimate plan. She wants to kill off the Divergents so that she can continue to control the other factions. She wants to control how they look, how they think, and how they act. Just like your DNA controls things about you.
What could we relate that to?
Do you remember how the citizens of Chicago would sometimes get around? By the trains that run all across the city. These trains are accessible almost everywhere in Chicago and are especially used by the Dauntless. The only thing is that they weren't often used to deliver food to citizens, but hey, close enough.
Cytoplasm, or cytosol is the organelle that is used for filling up the cell, keeping other organelles stable, and is mainly used for transporting nutrients to organelles. The cytoplasm is everywhere in the cell, and you will often find ribosomes freely floating around in it.
So how does this relate to Divergent?
Ribosomes are the main organelles that produce proteins for the cell and it's body. Protein is vital for our systems to function, which is why there are so many ribosomes in every cell. Ribosomes are microscopic little dots and you can find them floating in the cytoplasm or on the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (an organelle that transports proteins to the Golgi Body).
Yes, it does! The Amity faction in Divergent would make food from their farms outside the fence, and bring it inside the city limits to share it with everybody in the city. This is similar to ribosomes, if you considered protein to be food.
Does that remind you of anything?
The Golgi body receives proteins from the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum and packages them into little vesicles, and transports them out towards different parts of the body that need protein.
Golgi Body/ Golgi Apparatus
The Abnegation! The Abnegation are the selfless, and they get their food from the Amity. However, the Amity doesn't necessarily give food out to the Factionless (the book's version of the homeless). However, the Abnegation would often share their limited supply of food with the Factionless, similar
to how the Golgi body gives proteins to other parts of
the cell.
And this relates tooooo...
The mitochondrion is considered the main 'powerhouse' of the cell. The mitochondrion produces ATP, which is the energy used by the cell.
Well, let me answer that with another question: what keeps the Dauntless Initiates thriving to become the best? Well, two things: fear of becoming Factionless, and because their instructors encourage them to. You could say that the instructors hold the
to decide who becomes successful. To clarify, the initiation instructors are like the mitochondrion.
How could you

relate this to Divergent?
Lysosomes are the 'clean up crew' of animal cells (they are never found in plant cells). They are small sacs full of digestive enzymes that will break down or 'eat' organelles that don't live up to their full potential (they are worn out). They also destroy their own cells if the cell is defective or if it is worn out. Finally, the lysosomes degrade waste created by the cell. In a sense, they protect the cell.
Lysosomes act as protection to the cell, right? And what protects Chicago in Divergent? The Dauntless! The Dauntless will fight off anything that shouldn't be in the city, similar to the lysosome.
What's the next analogy?
Last but not least, the vacuole stores food and water for all of the organelles in the cell when they need it. In plants, the central vacuole is what gives the cell its rigid, firm structure.
This is the last analogy? Phew!
The Vacuole can closely relate to to library in the Erudite's headquarters. Just like the vacuole, information about almost everything can be accessed by everybody in Chicago whenever someone needs it. The library stores information, just like a vacuole stores nutrients.
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