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# Get into Perspective

Introduction to this old, but still highly relevant discipline including some basic techniques in 1 and 2pt perspective

by

Tweet## Tony Martin

on 12 November 2012#### Transcript of Get into Perspective

G e t i n t o . . . P e r s p e c t i v e Concepts, Techniques & Jargon 1pt Perspective 2pt Perspective Creating a 1pt Interior Space Step 1: Horizon Line or Eye-Level

Draw a horizontal line in a rectangle. This represents your eye-level. In this case it is high, but it doesn't have to be. Step 2: Add a Vanishing Point (VP)

Choose a point on the eye level and make a mark. VP Step 3: Vanishing Point Lines

Draw 4 VP lines to corners of rectangle Step 4: Distant Rectangle (Wall)

Draw a rectangle whose 4 corners touch the 4 VP lines you've just drawn

Start from one VP line and use vertical and horizontal lines to complete the rectangle. They won't meet if they are not really vertical and horizontal We've got a sense of an interior, but we can add detail to increase the illusion of space: a checked floor. Use an X to find the middle of the floor Add the cross to complete the Union Jack

Note that the highlighted line is a vanishing point line. You can then X and Union Jack each quarter of the floor in the same way as you did to the whole floor like this......(press the arrow key) Shade in the floor how you like... Here's another interior, but seen from 3 different points of view, but with same low eye level.

Except for the lower eye level and different VPs, they were all constructed in exactly the same way as the first Let's add an arch door way

Step 1: Draw 2 vertical lines on a wall from the floor to above the eye level as above (click)... ...then add a line from the VP across the top of the 2 vertical lines; this is the top of the doorway. Draw another VP line somewhere below the eye level as in the example. This will determine the point where the curve of the arch starts. To keep things simple, I've separated the arch doorway from the rest of the room In the top part of the arch door way, put a 'Union Jack' Add half the arch. This part of the curve is 'made up'. To draw the other side of the arch, you need to project it from the side you have drawn.

Where the curve drawn has cut through the X of the Union Jack, draw a VP line and extend it forward to the near arm of the X: this is where the curve will pass through. To find out where the curve cuts through the cross of the Union Jack on the near side, drop a vertical line down to the X arm below.... ... then draw a VP line through X arm, where the vertical line touches it, to the near X arm and draw another vertical line up to the cross. This is where the curves passes through. We now have the outline of the arch on the room wall, but we need to make it 3D To do this, we need to create a box using the rectangle we used for the arch Here's the box without the rest of the room to make things clearer. Vertical lines remain vertical. Horizontal lines stay horizontal. The rest are VP lines. The arch we've already drawn is on the front of this box, but we need to draw another on the back.

Draw horizontal lines from the bottom of the Union Jack on the front to the back of the box. We now have a rectangle on the back surface of the box (see highlighted lines) in which we can draw the back of the arch. We draw the arch in the same way as before (click)

X, Union Jack, draw a curve and project it to other half using VP lines. Put it all together again (click) Jargon: Horizon Line or Eye Level

This is the distance from your eyes to the ground. Imagine being in a room full of still water up to the level of your eyes. The surface of the water would cut through all the objects in your view at your eye level. This also forms the horizon line. Vanishing Point

Parallel lines in the real world appear to converge on a point, a vanishing point (VP) In many ways, a 2pt perspective drawing is similar to a 1pt. You start with the eye level And then add 2 VPs rather than one on the eye level. For the purposes of this drawing we are going to keep them wide apart to make the drawing as large as possible Next we draw 2 lines from each VP so that they cross each other.... ....and form a sort of diamond shape which is a rectangle in 2pt perspective Next, we draw 4 vertical lines from each corner of the 2pt perspective rectangle as in the drawing above. These are going to represent the 4 corners of a building, but it could easily be any type of box structure of any scale. In 2pt perspective, all vertical lines in the real world remain vertical in the drawing. We need to put a top on this structure. By choosing a height on one of the 4 vertical lines, the corners, and then, using the VPs, draw the lines that represent the top. Click to see. It is worth understanding why the lines are drawn in this way. As all these lines would be parallel in the real world, they should go to the same VP.... ...and this is true for these 4 lines as well. We will now add some details by adding features and cutting away, a sort of sculpting process First, we will add a pyramid to the top with peak of the pyramid at the centre. Click to see the process Find the top of the building and then find its centre using an X Draw a vertical line up from the centre of the X as in the drawing above We can choose somewhere on this vertical centre line and this will be the peak of the pyramid Then, all we need to do is draw a line from each of the top corners of the building to the centre line to establish the pyramid. We're now going to cut the top of the pyramid off to create a flat area on which we can add another feature We choose a point on one of the pyramid lines and then project it round to the other pyramid lines using the VPs. This will be where we cut the top of the pyramid off. Click to see We use the VPs because these are parallel lines..... ...and these are parallel lines. Next we erase the pyramid lines above the cut off line we've just drawn. Click to see Next we're going to build a box on top of the whole structure We draw 4 vertical lines from the 4 corners of the cut off pyramid like this... Decide on a height for the top of the box with one of the vertical lines, then project it around to the others using the VPs like this... We're going to build some steps at the front of this building in the centre. I've put an X on the front plane (surface) of the lower box. This finds the middle Then I choose a point on an arm of the X to determine the width of the steps and take a VP line to the other are of the X. Like this Where this VP line cuts through the X arms, as indicated above, I am going to put 2 vertical lines. These will be the width of my steps From the 4 corners of the rectangle these lines have created on the front plane, I can project out a box using VPs Here's a tidied up version Using the left VP, I project out 4 lines from the corner of this rectangle like this.... Then we determine the end of the box using the right VP like this.... To make things clearer we will isolate the box We can then X and Union Jack the near plane of the box to get a step pattern like this.... ...and then X and Union Jack again.... ....what we do to one plane we can do to another... ....highlight the step pattern.... Then you join the step pattern at both ends

Full transcriptDraw a horizontal line in a rectangle. This represents your eye-level. In this case it is high, but it doesn't have to be. Step 2: Add a Vanishing Point (VP)

Choose a point on the eye level and make a mark. VP Step 3: Vanishing Point Lines

Draw 4 VP lines to corners of rectangle Step 4: Distant Rectangle (Wall)

Draw a rectangle whose 4 corners touch the 4 VP lines you've just drawn

Start from one VP line and use vertical and horizontal lines to complete the rectangle. They won't meet if they are not really vertical and horizontal We've got a sense of an interior, but we can add detail to increase the illusion of space: a checked floor. Use an X to find the middle of the floor Add the cross to complete the Union Jack

Note that the highlighted line is a vanishing point line. You can then X and Union Jack each quarter of the floor in the same way as you did to the whole floor like this......(press the arrow key) Shade in the floor how you like... Here's another interior, but seen from 3 different points of view, but with same low eye level.

Except for the lower eye level and different VPs, they were all constructed in exactly the same way as the first Let's add an arch door way

Step 1: Draw 2 vertical lines on a wall from the floor to above the eye level as above (click)... ...then add a line from the VP across the top of the 2 vertical lines; this is the top of the doorway. Draw another VP line somewhere below the eye level as in the example. This will determine the point where the curve of the arch starts. To keep things simple, I've separated the arch doorway from the rest of the room In the top part of the arch door way, put a 'Union Jack' Add half the arch. This part of the curve is 'made up'. To draw the other side of the arch, you need to project it from the side you have drawn.

Where the curve drawn has cut through the X of the Union Jack, draw a VP line and extend it forward to the near arm of the X: this is where the curve will pass through. To find out where the curve cuts through the cross of the Union Jack on the near side, drop a vertical line down to the X arm below.... ... then draw a VP line through X arm, where the vertical line touches it, to the near X arm and draw another vertical line up to the cross. This is where the curves passes through. We now have the outline of the arch on the room wall, but we need to make it 3D To do this, we need to create a box using the rectangle we used for the arch Here's the box without the rest of the room to make things clearer. Vertical lines remain vertical. Horizontal lines stay horizontal. The rest are VP lines. The arch we've already drawn is on the front of this box, but we need to draw another on the back.

Draw horizontal lines from the bottom of the Union Jack on the front to the back of the box. We now have a rectangle on the back surface of the box (see highlighted lines) in which we can draw the back of the arch. We draw the arch in the same way as before (click)

X, Union Jack, draw a curve and project it to other half using VP lines. Put it all together again (click) Jargon: Horizon Line or Eye Level

This is the distance from your eyes to the ground. Imagine being in a room full of still water up to the level of your eyes. The surface of the water would cut through all the objects in your view at your eye level. This also forms the horizon line. Vanishing Point

Parallel lines in the real world appear to converge on a point, a vanishing point (VP) In many ways, a 2pt perspective drawing is similar to a 1pt. You start with the eye level And then add 2 VPs rather than one on the eye level. For the purposes of this drawing we are going to keep them wide apart to make the drawing as large as possible Next we draw 2 lines from each VP so that they cross each other.... ....and form a sort of diamond shape which is a rectangle in 2pt perspective Next, we draw 4 vertical lines from each corner of the 2pt perspective rectangle as in the drawing above. These are going to represent the 4 corners of a building, but it could easily be any type of box structure of any scale. In 2pt perspective, all vertical lines in the real world remain vertical in the drawing. We need to put a top on this structure. By choosing a height on one of the 4 vertical lines, the corners, and then, using the VPs, draw the lines that represent the top. Click to see. It is worth understanding why the lines are drawn in this way. As all these lines would be parallel in the real world, they should go to the same VP.... ...and this is true for these 4 lines as well. We will now add some details by adding features and cutting away, a sort of sculpting process First, we will add a pyramid to the top with peak of the pyramid at the centre. Click to see the process Find the top of the building and then find its centre using an X Draw a vertical line up from the centre of the X as in the drawing above We can choose somewhere on this vertical centre line and this will be the peak of the pyramid Then, all we need to do is draw a line from each of the top corners of the building to the centre line to establish the pyramid. We're now going to cut the top of the pyramid off to create a flat area on which we can add another feature We choose a point on one of the pyramid lines and then project it round to the other pyramid lines using the VPs. This will be where we cut the top of the pyramid off. Click to see We use the VPs because these are parallel lines..... ...and these are parallel lines. Next we erase the pyramid lines above the cut off line we've just drawn. Click to see Next we're going to build a box on top of the whole structure We draw 4 vertical lines from the 4 corners of the cut off pyramid like this... Decide on a height for the top of the box with one of the vertical lines, then project it around to the others using the VPs like this... We're going to build some steps at the front of this building in the centre. I've put an X on the front plane (surface) of the lower box. This finds the middle Then I choose a point on an arm of the X to determine the width of the steps and take a VP line to the other are of the X. Like this Where this VP line cuts through the X arms, as indicated above, I am going to put 2 vertical lines. These will be the width of my steps From the 4 corners of the rectangle these lines have created on the front plane, I can project out a box using VPs Here's a tidied up version Using the left VP, I project out 4 lines from the corner of this rectangle like this.... Then we determine the end of the box using the right VP like this.... To make things clearer we will isolate the box We can then X and Union Jack the near plane of the box to get a step pattern like this.... ...and then X and Union Jack again.... ....what we do to one plane we can do to another... ....highlight the step pattern.... Then you join the step pattern at both ends