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American Industry Gets The Job Done

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Jerry Victor

on 11 February 2013

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Transcript of American Industry Gets The Job Done

Industry gets the job done Tanks replace cars Other arms Henry Kaiser Vehicles Jeeps:In 1939, the army was in need of something new. Frustrated with the antiquated motorcycle and sidecar, and looking to replace the Model T Ford, which was (astonishingly) still in use for combat situations, the Army put out a call to auto manufacturers to develop a new brand of durable, rigorous, fast, light, and strong cars for use in combat, hauling, personnel movement, and a great deal of other applications. There was a list of requirements, the most important of which were the gross vehicle weight (1200 lbs.), hauling capability (600 lbs.), four wheel drive, speed capabilities of at least 50 mph, and a rectangular-shaped body. Three automobile manufacturers entered the bidding (out of 135 invitations), with the Willys-Overland company’s prototype (left) winning out over Bantam and Ford after rigorous testing which included fully loaded Jeeps run through a wide variety of troublesome terrain. In fact, in order to achieve the durability the Army desired, the army instructed their test drivers to break the cars if possible. Pistols:The legendary Colt .45, showing the unique pistol grip safety. It was a fearsome weapon to fire, especially for a conscript unfamiliar with firearms.
The Colt 'Forty Five' seemed to personify the US Army - big, loud and powerful. The Colt was a standard single action weapon, with both a slide and a grip safety, the latter locking the action unless the grip was firmly held. Three magazines were carried, one loaded and two in a twin belt pouch. Issue was widespread, the Colt being carried by many infantrymen who served mortars and machine guns, and by all officers from the rank of Major and above. Company officers, Captains and Lieutenants, were officially issued a Carbine, however many also acquired a Colt. Was an American Industrialist who became known as the father of modern American shipbuilding. He establish the Kaiser shipyard which built Liberty ships during World War II, after which he formed Kaiser Aluminum and Kaiser Steel. Building the Liberty Ships Liberty vs Riveted Ships Time of Build War Production Board What they Did? Problems and Solutions Work Cited http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanks_in_World_War_II
http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/tassava.WWII February 1942, American civilian automobile factories only made weapons and military vehicles. Automobile manufacturers such as General Motors and Chrysler used their experience with mass production to quickly build tanks. The country manufactured as many tanks in the first half of 1942 than in all of 1941, with 1,500 in May 1942 alone. American production equipped not only its forces, but through Lend Lease also bolstered the tank inventories of the free French (after 1942), Britain and other Allied nations. Similarly to the Soviet Union, the United States selected a few good basic designs and standardized on those models. Given the lack of tank design and
production experience, it is remarkable that the United States designs were as good as they were.
The first tanks of the United States to fight in the war were the Light Tank M3 called the "General Stuart" by the British Army and Medium Tank M3 (the "Grant" version had a British-designed turret and a six-man crew; the "Lee" version used the original turret and seven-man crew). They were deeply flawed in many ways, yet were the best tanks available to the Western Allies and were superior to most of their German counterparts in Armour protection and firepower. The Light Tank M3 was about as well-armed as the (2 pdr-armed) British cruiser tanks in the desert, yet was much more reliable mechanically. Its 37 mm main gun was more powerful than the main guns carried by German reconnaissance tanks. The official name given to the Light Tank M3 was '
Stuart'; a nickname used was 'Honey'. The M3 and its improved derivative, the Light Tank M5 series, remained in service throughout the war. By 1943, its 37 mm gun
made it a very dangerous tank to serve in, but no better replacement was available. The Light Tank T7 design was proposed as a successor in 1943, armed with a 57 mm gun and with better Armour; however, the design was never standardized for production. Jerry Guerrier - Victor Tasado
p.4-A 5. (pp. 486-493)
The Liberty ship was superior to many warships because it was
A.Welded instead of Riveted.
B. Riveted instead of welded.
C. Painted in camouflage colors.
D. Painted in red, white, and blue. " The greates advantage the United States enjoyed on the ground in the fighting was... the jeep and the two-and-a-half ton truck. These are the instruments that moved and supplied United States troops in battle, while the German army... depended on animal transport.... The United States, profiting from the mass production achievements of its automotive industry...had mobility that completley outclassed the enemy."
-General George Marshall What does this passage above tell us about the way World War II was won?

F. Having superior equipment intimidated the enemy.
G. Moving troops and supplies quickly was critical.
H. Ground troops had the most difficult job.
J. Without jeeps and trucks, soldiers had to walk. Eighteen American shipyards built 2,710 Libertys between 1941 and 1945, easily the largest number of ships produced to a single design. Early Liberty ships suffered hull and deck cracks, and a few were lost to such structural defects. During World War II, there were nearly 1,500 instances of significant brittle fractures. Twelve ships, including three of the 2,710 Liberties built, broke in half without warning, including the SS John P. Gaines,which sank on 24 November 1943 with the loss of 10 lives. Suspicion fell on the shipyards which had often used inexperienced workers and new welding techniques to produce large numbers of ships in great haste. Length: 441 ft 6 in (134.57 m)
Beam: 56 ft 10.75 in (17.3 m)
Draft: 27 ft 9.25 in (8.5 m)
Propulsion: Two oil-fired boilers, triple-expansion steam engines,single screw, 2,500 hp (1,900 kW)
Range: 20,000 nmi (37,000 km; 23,000 mi)
Capacity: 10,856 t (10,685 long tons)
Armament: Stern-mounted 4-in (102 mm) deck gun for use against surfaced submarines, variety of anti-aircraft guns Sub Machine Guns:The M3 'Grease Gun', nicknamed for its resemblance to the mechanics tool. It could be adapted to fire 9 mm ammunition by replacing barrel, magazine and breech.The M3 was greeted with the same enthusiasm as the Sten, and was nicknamed the 'Grease Gun'. It fired the same heavy .45 cal round as the Thompson, but was far easier to produce. The rate of fire was particularly slow, and there was no function to select single shots as in the Sten. There were numerous design flaws which only showed up in combat, and refinements were constantly made culminating in the M3A1 which officially replaced the Thompson in 1944. Grenades:The grenade existed in a seemingly endless variety of forms during World War Two. Anti tank, anti personnel, smoke, phosphorous, hand thrown and rifle launched all featured.The classic hand grenade is the best known of these many weapons. The principle is almost as simple as sticking a blade on a rifle, but the technology required is slightly more complex. The basic grenade consists of a metal casing containing an explosive charge. This is detonated by a time delayed fuse activated when the safety device is disengaged. This gives the operator approximately four seconds before detonation, in which time he has to break cover, throw the thing and, perhaps most importantly, get back into cover before the ensuing explosion. Because of the uncontrolled nature of the explosion, fragments of the casing are just as likely to reach his position as they are the target. United States model (Mk II 0.6kg 4-5sec fuse-fragmentation casing)&(Mk III 0.4kg 4-5sec fuse blast or concussion effect). Liberty Ships:Early Liberty ships suffered hull and deck cracks, and a few were lost to such structural defects. During World War II, there were nearly 1,500 instances of significant brittle fractures. Riveted ships:The Titanic sank because substandard rivets failed to hold its hull together. These popped on impact with the ice and allowed icy seawater to flood inside the ship. The War Production Board (WPB) was established as a government agency on January 16, 1942, by executive order of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
The purpose of the board was to regulate the production of materials and fuel during World War II in the United States. The WPB converted and expanded peacetime industries to meet war needs, allocated scarce materials vital to war production, established priorities in the distribution of materials and services, and prohibited nonessential production. It rationed such things as gasoline, heating oil, metals, rubber, paper,and plastics. It was dissolved shortly after the defeat of Japan in 1945, and was replaced by the Civilian Production Administration in late 1945.
The first chairman of the Board was Donald M. Nelson from 1942 to 1944 followed by Julius A. Krug from 1944 until the Board was dissolved.
The WPB and the nation's factories effected a great turnaround. Military aircraft production which totaled 6,000 in 1940 jumped to 85,000 in 1943. Factories that made silk ribbons now produced parachutes, automobile factories built tanks, typewriter companies converted to machine guns, undergarment manufacturers sewed mosquito netting, and a roller coaster manufacturer converted to the production of bomber repair platforms. The WPB ensured that each factory received materials it needed to operate, in order to produce the most war goods in the shortest time. EOC Practice Questions ? After the December 7, 1941, Japanese attack on the American naval fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, the U.S. was thrust into World War II (1939-45), and everyday life across the country was dramatically altered. Food, gas and clothing were rationed.

During World War II, as an alternative to rationing, Americans planted “victory gardens,” in which they grew their own food. By 1945, some 20 million such gardens were in use and accounted for about 40 percent of all vegetables consumed in the U.S. "Conversion" was the key issue in American economic life in 1940-1942. In many industries, company executives resisted converting to military production because they did not want to lose consumer market share to competitors who did not convert. Conversion thus became a goal pursued by public officials and labor leaders. In 1940, Walter Reuther, a high-ranking officer in the United Auto Workers labor union, provided impetus for conversion by advocating that the major automakers convert to aircraft production. Though initially rejected by car-company executives and many federal officials, the Reuther Plan effectively called the public's attention to America's lagging preparedness for war. Still, the auto companies only fully converted to war production in 1942 and only began substantially contributing to aircraft production in 1943. In 1944, unemployment dipped to 1.2 percent of the civilian labor force, a record low in American economic history and as near to "full employment" as is likely possible (Samuelson). Scientific and Technological Innovation:As observers during the war and ever since have recognized, scientific and technological innovations were a key aspect in the American war effort and an important economic factor in the Allies' victory. While all of the major belligerents were able to tap their scientific and technological resources to develop weapons and other tools of war, the American experience was impressive in that scientific and technological change positively affected virtually every facet of the war economy. The Manhattan Project:American techno-scientific innovations mattered most dramatically in "high-tech" sectors which were often hidden from public view by wartime secrecy. For instance, the Manhattan Project to create an atomic weapon was a direct and massive result of a stunning scientific breakthrough: the creation of a controlled nuclear chain reaction by a team of scientists at the University of Chicago in December 1942. Under the direction of the U.S. Army and several private contractors, scientists, engineers, and workers built a nationwide complex of laboratories and plants to manufacture atomic fuel and to fabricate atomic weapons. This network included laboratories at the University of Chicago and the University of California-Berkeley, uranium-processing complexes at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Hanford, Washington, and the weapon-design lab at Los Alamos, New Mexico. The Manhattan Project climaxed in August 1945, when the United States dropped two atomic weapons on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan; these attacks likely accelerated Japanese leaders' decision to seek peace with the United States. By that time, the Manhattan Project had become a colossal economic endeavor, costing approximately $2 billion and employing more than 100,000. Aerospace:Aerospace provides one crucial example. American heavy bombers, like the B-29 Superfortress, were highly sophisticated weapons which could not have existed, much less contributed to the air war on Germany and Japan, without innovations such as bombsights, radar, and high-performance engines or advances in aeronautical engineering, metallurgy, and even factory organization. Encompassing hundreds of thousands of workers, four major factories, and $3 billion in government spending, the B-29 project required almost unprecedented organizational capabilities by the U.S. Army Air Forces, several major private contractors, and labor unions (Vander Meulen, 7). Overall, American aircraft production was the single largest sector of the war economy, costing $45 billion (almost a quarter of the $183 billion spent on war production), employing a staggering two million workers, and, most importantly, producing over 125,000 aircraft Shipbuilding:Shipbuilding offers a third example of innovation's importance to the war economy. Allied strategy in World War II utterly depended on the movement of war materiel produced in the United States to the fighting fronts in Africa, Europe, and Asia. Between 1939 and 1945, the hundred merchant shipyards overseen by the U.S. Maritime Commission (USMC) produced 5,777 ships at a cost of about $13 billion (navy shipbuilding cost about $18 billion) (Lane, 8). Four key innovations facilitated this enormous wartime output. First, the commission itself allowed the federal government to direct the merchant shipbuilding industry. Second, the commission funded entrepreneurs, the industrialist Henry J. Kaiser chief among them, who had never before built ships and who were eager to use mass-production methods in the shipyards. These methods, including the substitution of welding for riveting and the addition of hundreds of thousands of women and minorities to the formerly all-white and all-male shipyard workforces, were a third crucial innovation. Last, the commission facilitated mass production by choosing to build many standardized vessels like the ugly, slow, and ubiquitous "Liberty" ship. By adapting well-known manufacturing techniques and emphasizing easily-made ships, merchant shipbuilding became a low-tech counterexample to the atomic-bomb project and the aerospace industry, yet also a sector which was spectacularly successful. http://www.manythings.org/voa/history/194.html
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