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Infiltration and Percolation: Process and Measurements

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Joebert Jongoy

on 20 January 2016

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Transcript of Infiltration and Percolation: Process and Measurements

Flooding type
The ring infiltrometer is a simple device used to measure the infiltration capacity of a soil. An open cylindrical ring is forced a few centimeters into the soil and filled with water. By measuring the rate at which the level of ponded water decreases, one can obtain an estimate of the infiltration capacity as a function of time.

I. Infiltration
It is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil. 
B. Measurement
A. Process
The process of infiltration can continue only if there is room available for additional water at the soil surface. The available volume for additional water in the soil depends on the porosity of the soil and the rate at which previously infiltrated water can move away from the surface through the soil.

Rainfall simulators
Single Ring Infiltrometer
In simple/single ring infiltrometer infiltrated water spreads out in outer adjoining area leading to over-estimation.
They give lower values off than flooding type. This is due to effect of the rainfall impact and turbidity of the surface water.

II. Percolation
is the process of a liquid slowly passing through a filter.
comes from the Latin word percolare, which means "to strain through."
Double Ring Infiltrometer
In double ring type the outer ring provides water jacket to the infiltrating water from the inner ring and hence prevents the spreading out of the infiltrating water from the inner ring.

Infiltration and Percolation: Process and Measurements
A. Process
The maximum rate that water can enter a soil in a given condition is the infiltration capacity.

I. Infiltration
Its rate in soil science is a measure of the rate at which soil is able to absorb rainfall or irrigation. It is measured in inches per hour or millimeters per hour.
It is governed by two forces, gravity, and capillary action.
I. Infiltration
I. Infiltration
It is the downward entry of water into the soil or rock surface.
Information about the infiltration characteristics of the soil at a given location can be obtained by conducting controlled experiments on small area through infiltrometers. There are two types: Flooding type – simple and double ring type infiltrometers and Rainfall simulator.

II. Percolation
It happens when liquid is strained through a filter

the flow of water through soil and porous or fractured rock

II. Percolation
It is the movement of water though the soil, and it's layers, by gravity and capillary forces.

A. Process
Usually the direction of water movement is changed from downward and a horizontal component to the movement is added that is based on the geologic boundary conditions.
A. Process
The movement of water is possible because of the voids or pores in the geologic formations.
B. Measurement
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