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Chapter 1 Biology
Transcript of Chapter 1 Biology
"bio" meaning life and "logos" meaning study
Chapter 1- The Study of Life
photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
They study the diversity of life- through observations,
biologists learn from species in their natural environments.
Research disease- through questioning, biologists make new gains in medicine and disease research; questions lead to research.
Develop technologies- known as the application of scientific knowledge to solve human needs and to extend our capabilities.
Improve agriculture- i.e. Plant biologists study ways to improve plant growth in poor soils.
Preserve the environment- study and create ways to improve and preserve what we have.
What do biologists do?
All living things have certain characteristics; an organism is anything that has or once had all the following characteristics:
The Characteristics of Life
1. Made of one or more cells: **Cells are the basic unit of life!!**
Bacterium is unicellular (one cell) Humans and plants are multicellular (more than one cell)
2.Displays organization: arranged in an orderly way;
**Atom, molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism**
3. Grows and develops: most organisms grow in mass
and develop structures that give specific abilities.
4. Reproduces: the ability to produce offspring, but is not essential to live, but is necessary for a species to continue to exist.
5. Responds to stimuli: an organisms external and internal
environment can react to stimuli, something happening in either
environment. The reaction to a stimulus is called a response.
An organisms response
is critical to its safety and
survival, if it cannot respond
then it might not stay alive
long enough to reproduce.
Use your book to fill out the rest (pg.10)
Do not copy everything, but make sure you have the most important information. Read and then put into your own words. THIS IS YOUR EXIT PASS FOR TODAY!! :)
6. Requires energy-
7. Maintains homeostasis-
8.Adaptations evolve over time-
What is Science??
Section 2: The Nature of Science
Methods of Science
Biologists use specific methods when conducting research. Do you remember the Scientific Method??
Scientific inquiry begins with observations. An observation is a direct method of gathering information in an orderly way.
Ex. photos, drawings,
detailed notes, remember
the 5 W's?? This is observing too!
Inferring is a big part of the scientific process, it's combining what you know with what you've learned in order to draw logical conclusions.
Now let's jump into the
It's important to know that all scientists use similar methods to gather info and answer ?'s.
Form a Hypothesis
State the Problem
What do you want to find out? Look at your problem
and express it as a question. Be sure to make the problem
as specific as possible.
What do you think is the cause of your problem? Develop a logical answer to your problem; this will become your hypothesis. Your answer should include one explanation for the cause to your problem.
Plan your Experiment
The goal of any experiment is to test a hypothesis.
Determine your variable and control;
then write a clear step-by-step procedure so that
anyone can repeat the process of the experiment.
Make a Prediction
Using your hypothesis, make and record
a prediction about the outcome of your experiment.
Gather and Organize Data
Determine what kinds of data you will collect. Will it be measurements, observations, or estimates? Will you use tables, graphs, or drawings to organize this data?
Once you have collected your data, determine if you see any trends or patterns. Does the data support your hypothesis? Do you still need to collect additional information.
Use your data to state your conclusion. Your data should either support your conclusion or lead you to another hypothesis. Have any new questions or problems developed?
Remember that you have a vocabulary test on Friday...
Be sure to know
the VOCABULARY ON PAGE 19!!
What is Science?
Knowledge of everything around us; our natural world.
Theory: Explanation of natural phenomenon--evidence and observations support it.
Law: Describes relationship under certain conditions, but does not explain why something occurs.
REMEMBER!!! Theories do not become laws, nor do laws become theories. Theories are well supported explanations and laws are well supported descriptions.
Think about your lab activity yesterday. Recall the process of asking a question, forming a hypothesis, designing how you were going to test your hypothesis, data collecting, analyzing data, and then drawing your hypothetical conclusion...
Now if you were to complete and run that experiment in its entirety, before you published your work you would submit your procedures and findings to something called a peer review.
Peer Review: Evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field.
This is how scientists give and receive credibility and this also prevents false information from being printed in scientific journals. VALIDITY!!
Do you have ethics??
Do you function with a set of moral principles or values?
Science literacy- being aware!! Scientifically literate combines a basic understanding of science and its processes with reasoning and thinking skills.