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Play and Cognitive Development
Transcript of Play and Cognitive Development
Benefits of play assessment.
Dress Up and Fantasy Play
Associate & Cooperative play
What is play?
What now for play?
"A dynamic, active & constructive behaviour. An essential & integral part of all children's healthy growth, development and learning across all ages, domains and cultures."
Activity: Case Study
Physical - Movement
“Movement enhances all aspects of young children’s development. It contributes to physical development via strengthening heart and lung fitness and building strong bones;”
Distinguishing factor in noticing difficulties that are associated with learning.
Moving or fidgeting can indicate poor foundations in development (proprioception phase).
Poor balance & dislike in movement activities/excessive movement can indicate poor development in vestibular phase
"Play is very important to social, emotional and cognitive development of children" (Cherney
2003; Hughes 2010; Moyles 1995)
Many educational settings beyond the early school years include both free & structured play
Above what happens spontaneously in play at lunch & recess time.
Three different children at three different ages and stages of play.
Highlights the importance of understanding that play occurs in many different forms
We needn't classify a child's play into a direct age or stage.
Types of Play
Games with rules
"The process of information. How one understands the world"
Vital part of building a set of mental representations (Schemas).
Develop understandings of the world bit by bit.
Creating a "cognitive map"
As a tool for assessment:
Natural piece of the assessment pie.
Offers perspectives on children's progress in all areas of development.
Seen as the ultimate integrated curriculum.
Play occupies a privileged role in constructivist theories of learning and development.
Play enhances the reliability and validity of assessment.
Dramatic & Fantasy play
Today, much of play is done virtually.
Virtual Play is a realistic stimulation of the real world produced using technology.
Whilst virtual play is a safe alternative to physical play does it have the same benefits?
: An existing schema to deal with a new experience.
: Create a new schema to deal with a new experience.
: Balancing related schemas to reality.
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)
Zone of Proximal Development:
The level of learning with assistance from an adult or collaboration with students.
ZPD and the practitioner:
Only useful if it is ahead of development.
Awaken a whole plethora of functions that are developing within the ZPD
Assistance provided by an adult in context to aid a child's learning.
Characteristics of play
Pleasurable, enjoyable and engaging
Learning to comprehend other point of view
Sharing of resources
“Physical development influences all other aspects of development: mobility, social and emotional relationships, self-concept on how one looks, forming a sense of self.”
Play can help to develop:
Relationship of the body.
Fundamental skill, crucial for posture, movement & centering the body.
Sense that overseas the knowledge of the body & body parts in relation to each other.
Vestibular Sense -
Sense of movement & our relationship with the ground.
Motor Skills -
Actions that occur & involve the movement of muscles.
Gross motor skills -
Actions which involve larger movements of the body
Fine motor skills -
Actions which involve smaller movements of the body.
There are many ways to assess play
Anecdotal records -
Take note of the time & place
Details actions of child
Recounts every word said and every action taken.
Helps to assess development through play
Provides teachers a quick glance into the child's development to help provide assessment feedback.
Samples of children's work are gathered and placed into individual files for each child
Showcases the child's understanding and development.
Documentation Assessment -
Through taking photographs, writing captions, questions and insights.
Integrating play into classroom activities.
Pre-Primary – science:
playground to notice movement and Simon says to do the same:
Role play (home corners or shops).
Allows teacher to see development in social skills, and cognitive skills (coinciding with curriculum).
Year 2s - science:
playing with toys to focus on forces of pushing and pulling.
Any Year Level:
Using a game or variation of silent ball to help concrete understandings of mathematical concepts
Year 6’s -
Mathletics fun competitive way to learn mathematics, Mastermind – to help recognise patterns.
Year 6's -
Construction of Objects: such as Baskets/ crates to help guide the learning
Penn Interactive Peer Play Scale
Instrument developed for teachers to assess children's interactive skill and social competence in play.
Specifically designed to be responsive to strengths in the play of young children who live in urban environments.
Characterized by poverty.
Guides teachers in ways to identify techniques children use to sustain play with one another.
Helps to provide descriptors for negative and positive play and interactions.
Three Dimensions to the PIPPS:
• Play Interaction is an indication of children’s play strengths.
• Play Disruption describes aggressive, antisocial behaviors that interfere with on-going peer play interactions.
• Play Disconnection reflects withdrawn behavior and non participation in peer play.
Useful resources that can be implemented in the classroom.
Free website with dozens of brain breakers.
References & Resources
What can travel around the world while staying in a corner?
Stages of Cognitive Development
- Intelligence demonstrated through motor activity.
(Toddler & early childhood
- Intelligence demonstrated through symbols, maturing language & developing memory & imagination.
Concrete operational stage
- Intelligence is demonstrated through logical/systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects (weight, mass, length etc.)
Formal operational stage
(Adolescence & adulthood
- Intelligence demonstrated through logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. Only 35% of high school graduates obtain formal operations.