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Summary, Synthesis, Paraphrasing, Patchwork, and Plagiarism

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Tricia Van Sickle

on 30 October 2015

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Transcript of Summary, Synthesis, Paraphrasing, Patchwork, and Plagiarism

Using Sources: Summary, Paraphrasing, Patchwork, and Plagiarism

What is Plagiarism?
Faigley:
1) Everyone knows: "copying someone else's paper word for word or taking an article off the Internet and turning into yours"
2) Less frequently discussed: "taking the ideas, melodies, or images of someone else without acknowledging them" (560)
Council of Writing Program Administrators (Stark State): “In an instructional setting, plagiarism occurs when a writer deliberately uses someone else’s language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source.”


Summary
SUMMARY - "stat[ing] the major ideas of an entire source or part of a source in a paragraph or sentence. The key is to put the summary in your own words." (Faigley 563)
Paraphrase
PARAPHRASE - putt[ing] an author's ideas--including major and minor points--into your own WORDS and SENTENCE STRUCTURES
Patchwriting vs. Synthesis
PATCHWRITING - the process of stitching a paper together from Web or online materials that have been copied or only lightly reworked
Why it happens: genuine deceptiveness, lack of careful citation, inadequate paraphrasing, the source's use of "academic-sounding" wording the writer can't replicate
Recognizing Sources: Framing and Signaling
What if you do want to include some direct quotations?
Why use a direct quotation: distinctive and powerful wording, introducing technical language, just the best way you can think of to make that particular point
Quotations should be:
used sparingly (At least twice as many of your words as quotations of others' words per page)
as short as you can make them (keep it under 4 lines if you can. Use block quotes--quotes over 4 lines--sparingly. NOT every page)
Quotations over 4 lines (MLA) or 40 words (APA) require different formatting: see Faigley p. 565
Okay, but what is it really?
Buying and/or submitting a paper not written by you as your own work (or allowing your paper to be submitted by someone else)
Submitting a paper written by you for another class (self-plagiarism)
Including text from a source with no quotation marks around the text.
Including text from a source that is not correctly cited--both in-text and Works Cited
Including ideas from a source without correct citation of those ideas--both in-text and Works Cited
Failing to adequately paraphrase
Penalties at SSC for Plagiarism
May include but are not limited to the following:
One documented instance of plagiarism:
A letter grade of F, the numerical grade of zero, or a reduced grade for any project, paper, quiz, or interim or final examination, or any other portion of the course.
A letter grade of F for the entire course.
3 documented instances of plagiarism can get you dismissed from the college
In Conclusion: Don't Plagiarize!
How do you avoid plagiarism? Do you own work, take good notes, pay attention to citations, and know the difference between summary, paraphrase, and patchwork.

Teachers tend to try to scare students with plagiarism, but it's really very easy to avoid, just stay alert.

If you have any questions at any time about whether a citation, paraphrase, etc. is correct, double check and ask.
Example
Summary of my discussion of plagiarism: Plagiarism is a form of academic dishonesty where you claim someone else's work that is often intentional, but sometimes unintentional if you're not paying close attention to how you use someone else's work. Miami Universities disciplinary measures for plagiarism can be as severe as suspension, so you should get in the habit of double checking yourself and cultivating good research habits.
Examples
"Tellingly, a recent Time magazine cover story has pointed out a marked generational difference in how people view these matters: 70 percent of those age 18 to 34 sampled in a poll said they believed that Snowden “did a good thing”" (Ludlow)
NOT A PARAPHRASE: Interestingly, a current story in Time magazine tells about a significant generational difference in how people think about this issue: 70 percent of people age 18-34 answering a poll said they thought Snowden "did a good thing."
PARAPHRASE: According to a Time magazine article, young adults polled about their opinion of hacker Edward Snowden were much more likely to support him than older participants. This data is suggestive of a similar age gap between supporters and naysayers of the growing trend of hacking as activism.

What's the difference?
The author's own words
Do you need to say "Time Magazine?" Do you need to say "generational difference"?
The author's own sentence structures

Summary vs. Paraphrase
The difference between summary and paraphrase:
Faigley: Paraphrase is "represent[ing] the idea of the source in your own words at about the same length as the original" while summary represents the idea of the source in your own words "in a paragraph or perhaps even a sentence." (563)

Summary is best for: Communicating the main idea of a long passage or entire article very quickly. The shorter the better.

Use paraphrase when: You want to communicate the details & intricacies of a point from your source but don't want to use yet another long quotation to do it. Not about length.
Example
SOURCE TEXTS:
"It requires unfathomable courage and conviction for a single individual—like Snowden—to stand up against the might, power and singularity of the American Government." (Picone)
"Clearly, there is a moral principle at work in the actions of the leakers, whistle-blowers and hacktivists and those who support them. I would also argue that that moral principle has been clearly articulated, and it may just save us from a dystopian future." (Ludlow)
PATCHWORK: Because
it requires unfathomable courage for an individual to stand up against the might, power, and singularity of the American govenrment
, there is
clearly a moral principle at work in the actions of leakers

and people
who support

them
.
Framing
When you use someone else's words, it's important to frame them as such by the way you introduce them
To do:
1) Mark the source of this quotation and the speaker:
One of the hostages who escaped, Mark Lijek
, said after he had watched
Argo
that he was "impressed with how Ben Affleck stages the taking of the US embassy" (Dowd).
According to critic Jian Ghomeshi
, the way the film depicted Iran was in accordance with the way many Americans perceive Iranians. He states that Iranians were "treated as hordes of hysterial, screaming, untrustworthy, irrational, bearded, and lethal antagonists" (45).
2) use signal verbs (suggests, claims, asserts, criticizes, disputes, emphasizes, etc.):
Ian Bromwell
suggests
that we can view these fantasy sequences as Ofelia "retreating from the horrors of war into her own mind" (86).
Integrating quotations
Part of a quotation integrated into the sentence:
Conversely, King suggests that using violence to stop injustice is universally “immoral" (67).
Full-sentence quotation connected to the sentence:
Malcolm X recognized revolution as violent by necessity: “Revolution is bloody, revolution is hostile, revolution knows no compromise, revolution overturns and destroys everything that gets in its way” (“Message”).
DO NOT just throw a quotation into your paper without introducing what it is and why it's here:
NO: Although he looks up to Gatsby, Gatsby is not a good role model for Nick. "Can't repeat the past, why of course you can."
YES: Fanon is perhaps best known for his unblinking advocacy of violent revolution and decolonization: “In its bare reality, decolonization reeks of red-hot cannonballs and bloody knives” (3).
Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
Synthesis
Synthesis
: pulling information from different sources and stitching it into your own argument
while using correct citation and paraphrasing
Despite often being portrayed as traitors to their country, people who leak government information could be viewed as heroes who prevent the government from having too much power (Ludlow). The government--a wealthy, powerful, well-connected organization with almost unlimited resources--would be an intimidating enemy, so the leaker must feel that what they are doing is morally right on some level in order to take the risk (Picone).
In-Text Citations
Whether using their actual words or just their ideas, you MUST cite everything in your paper not directly from your own brain using in-text citation.
Basic format: MLA: (Author last name page #). APA: (Author, Year, pp. page) If there is no author, use the title of the article. If no page # or year, leave the # or year out.
Ex: (Klein 40)= MLA; (Klein, 2014, p. 40)= APA
If you're citing a person's words that were mentioned in someone else's article, your citation might look like this:
Bob Person suggested, "Quotation full of smart things" (qtd. in Warner).
Author already mentioned in the sentence
: Ian Bromwell suggests that we can view these fantasy sequences as Ofelia "retreating from the horrors of war into her own mind" (86) or (2010, p. 86)
Author not mentioned by name in this sentence
: While Ofelia's retreats into fantasy are often full of scary monsters, the horror she sees in the real world such as the General's torture of his enemies is treated by the film as much more disturbing (Bromwell 90) or (Bromwell, 2010, p. 90).
Put your in-text citation at the end of the information from that source.
Integrating quotations
DO NOT use a quotation without afterwards linking it to your argument.
NO: Nick suggests that both reliving and escaping the past are impossible : "And so we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past." He also believes that Gatsby is a great man.
YES: When Mookie comments on his new knuckle rings spelling out HATE and LOVE, Raheem gives a direct to camera address telling the “story of hate and love”: "One hand is always fighting the other. Left Hand Hate is kicking much ass and it looks like Right Hand Love is finished. Hold up. Stop the presses! The Right Hand is coming back! Yes, it’s Love. Love has won. Left Hand Hate KO’ed by Love." In Raheem’s story, Love is presented as a surprisingly active player capable of killing hate through a show of violence, emphasized by Raheem boxing at the camera.
References/Works Cited Page
Citation with both APA and MLA requires 1) in-text citations and 2) A Works Cited (MLA) or References (APA) page
Requirements for a Works Cited/References page
On its own page
Works Cited (MLA) or References (APA) at the top, centered
Double spaced
Alphabetized by the first word in the citation
Second+ line in each citation is indented
Includes only the sources that actually appear in your essay
Includes secondary and primary sources (e.g. your film or film(s))
For how to cite your sources using APA and MLA, see Purdue OWL MLA or APA, or your textbook.
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