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Poetic Devices

Investigate poetic devices by looking at specific examples.

Robin Finlay

on 22 October 2015

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Transcript of Poetic Devices

What are.....
"A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds in two or more words and is most often used in poetry and songs. The word "rhyme" may also refer to a short poem, such as a rhyming couplet or other brief rhyming poem such as nursery rhymes"
"Rhythm is a musical quality produced by the repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables. Rhythm occurs in all forms of language, both written and spoken, but is particularly important in poetry

The most obvious king of rhythm is the regular repetition of stressed and unstessed syllables found in some poetry.

Writers also create rhythm by repeating words and phrases or even by repeating whole lines and sentences, as Walt Whitman does in "Song of Myself":

I hear the sound I love, the sound of the human voice,
I hear all sounds running together, combined, fused, or following,
Sounds of the city and sounds out of the city, sounds of the day and night,
Talkative young ones to those that like them, the loud laugh of work-people at their meals..."
Poetic Devices

"Poetry has emotion, imagery, significance, beauty, dignity, rhythm, sometimes rhyme, a different arrangement which can include inversion, and concreteness in its images.

One way to attain the qualities so essential to making words poetic is through the use of poetry devices."
Sound Words
Similes and
and how do Poets use them?
What makes a poem?

Poetic Devices in Poetry
By Vivian Gilbert Zabel

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/110584
Silly rhymes can have serious origins
"From 1996 the website of Colchester tourist board attributed the origin of the rhyme "Humpty Dumpty" to a cannon recorded as used from the church of St Mary-at-the-Wall by the Royalist defenders in the siege of 1648.[9] In 1648 the town of Colchester was a walled town with a castle and several churches and was protected by the city wall. A huge cannon, colloquially called Humpty Dumpty, was strategically placed on the wall. A shot from a Parliamentary cannon succeeded in damaging the wall beneath Humpty Dumpty which caused the cannon to tumble to the ground. The Royalists, or Cavaliers, 'all the King's men' attempted to raise Humpty Dumpty on to another part of the wall, but because the cannon was so heavy ' All the King's horses and all the King's men couldn't put Humpty together again.'"
"In Flanders Fields"
from The teachers and Writers Handbook of Poetic Forms, edited by Ron Padgett.
and your text, Elements of Literature, Second Course (Holt, Rinehart)
'Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night'
"A rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhyme between lines of a poem or song. It is usually referred to by using letters to indicate which lines rhyme. In other words, it is the pattern of end rhymes or lines. A rhyme scheme gives the scheme of the rhyme; a regular pattern of rhyming words in a poem (the end words).

Bid me to weep, and I will weep
While I have eyes to see;
And having none, and yet I will keep
A heart to weep for thee. A

Tith its own associations and resonances to cause a particular effect on the reader. A basic distinction is between rhyme schemes that apply to a single stanza, and those that continue their pattern throughout an entire poem (see chain rhyme). There are also more elaborate related forms, like the sestina - which requires repetition of exact words in a complex pattern.

In English, highly repetitive rhyme schemes are unusual.[citation needed] English has more vowel sounds than Italian, for example, meaning that such a scheme would be far more restrictive for an English writer than an Italian one - there are fewer suitable words to match a given pattern. Even such schemes as the terza rima ("aba bcb cdc ded..."), used by Dante Alighieri in The Divine Comedy, have been considered too difficult for English."
Rhyme Schemes

From the second stanza:

Hear the mellow wedding bells,
Golden bells!
What a world of happiness their harmony foretells!
Through the balmy air of night
How they ring out their delight!
From the molten-golden notes,
And an in tune,
What a liquid ditty floats
To the turtle-dove that listens, while she gloats

From the fourth stanza:

What a world of solemn thought their monody compels!
In the silence of the night,
How we shiver with affright
At the melancholy menace of their tone!
For every sound that floats
From the rust within their throats
Is a groan."
"Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds and is used to set the mood or add to the meaning of the writing. It is hard to spot sometimes as it is very subtle.

Examples of Assonance Poems
The way you use assonance can change the mood of the poem:

•Long vowel sounds will decrease the energy at that point in the poem and make the mood more serious.
•Higher vowel sounds will increase the energy and lighten the mood.
The first of the examples of assonance poems is an excerpt from “Bells” by Edgar Allan Poe:
"Consonance is achieved by repeating the final consonant sounds of words. Writers usually focus on the accented syllables or the more important words to use in this technique."(LoveToKnow, Corp)
(LoveToKnow, Corp)
A metaphor, as defined in our glossary, is a figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between two unlike things that actually have something important in common. The word metaphor itself is a metaphor, coming from a Greek word meaning to "transfer" or "carry across." Metaphors "carry" meaning from one word, image, or idea to another.
A simile is a figure of speech that directly compares two different things, usually by employing the words "like", "as".[1] Even though both similes and metaphors are forms of comparison, similes indirectly compare the two ideas and allow them to remain distinct in spite of their similarities, whereas metaphors compare two things directly. For instance, a simile that compares a person with a bullet would go as follows: "Chris was a record-setting runner as fast as a speeding bullet." A metaphor might read something like, "When Chris ran, he was a speeding bullet racing along the track."

A mnemonic for a simile is that "a simile is similar or alike."
"Imagery is the name given to the elements in a poem that spark off the senses. Despite "image" being a synonym for "picture", images need not be only visual; any of the five senses (sight, hearing, touch, taste, smell) can respond to what a poet writes. Examples of non-visual imagery can be found in Ken Smith's 'In Praise of Vodka', where he describes the drink as having "the taste of air, of wind on fields, / the wind through the long wet forest", and James Berry's 'Seashell', which puts the "ocean sighs" right in a listener's ear. "
Alliteration is the use of the same consonant sounds in words that are near each other. It is the sound, not the letter, that is important: therefore 'city' and 'code' do not alliterate, but 'kitchen' and 'code' do. Strictly, it is alliteration when these same sounds come at the start of the words, or at the start of their first stressed syllable; it becomes consonance when the similar sounds are found in other places within the word.
As defined in a glossary created by Richard Nordquist, "personification is a figure of speech in which an inanimate object or abstraction is given human qualities or abilities. At times, as with this personification of the micro-blogging service Twitter, a writer may call attention to her use of the figurative device:

Look, some of my best friends are tweeting. . . .

But at the risk of unilaterally offending 14 million people, I need to say this: If Twitter were a person, it would be an emotionally unstable person. It would be that person we avoid at parties and whose calls we don't pick up. It would be the person whose willingness to confide in us at first seems intriguing and flattering but eventually makes us feel kind of gross because the friendship is unearned and the confidence is unjustified. The human incarnation of Twitter, in other words, is the person we all feel sorry for, the person we suspect might be a bit mentally ill, the tragic oversharer.
(Meghan Daum, "Tweeting: Inane or Insane?" Times Union of Albany, New York, April 23, 2009)"
While it is sometimes argued that the roots of sound poetry are to be found in oral poetry traditions, the writing of pure sound texts that downplay the roles of meaning and structure is a 20th century phenomenon. The Futurist and Dadaist Vanguards of the beginning of this century were the pioneers in creating the first sound poetry forms. Marinetti discovered that onomatopoeias were useful to describe a battle in Tripoli where he was a soldier, creating a sound text that became a sort of a spoken photograph of the battle. Dadaists were more involved in sound poetry and they invented different categories:

Bruitist poem it is the phonetic poem, not so different from the futurist poem. Invented by Richard Huelsenbeck.
Simultaneous poem a poem read in different languages, with different rhythms, tonalities, and by different persons at the same time. Invented by Tristan Tzara.
Movement poem is the poem accompanied by primitive movements.
Wordsworth defined poetry as "the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings;"
Dylan Thomas defined poetry this way: "Poetry is what makes me laugh or cry or yawn, what makes my toenails twinkle, what makes me want to do this or that or nothing."
"Poetry is the chiseled marble of language; it's a paint-spattered canvas - but the poet uses words instead of paint, and the canvas is you."
Grasping at the Indefinable, By Mark Flanagan, About.com Guide
"One of the most definable characteristics of the poetic form is economy of language. Poets are miserly and unrelentingly critical in the way they dole out words to a page. Carefully selecting words for conciseness and clarity is standard, even for writers of prose, but poets go well beyond this, considering a word's emotive qualities, its musical value, its spacing, and yes, even its spacial relationship to the page. The poet, through innovation in both word choice and form, seemingly rends significance from thin air."
Grasping at the Indefinable,
By Mark Flanagan, About.com Guide
Rhyme is...
the use of words with matching sounds, usually at the end of line.
Poets use....
Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water
Jack fell down and broke his crown
And Jill came tumbling after.
Up got Jack, and home did trot
As fast as he could caper
He went to bed and bound his head
With vinegar and brown paper.
Exécution de Marie Antoinette le 16 octobre 1793
The French Revolution (French: Révolution française; 1789–1799), sometimes distinguished as the 'Great French Revolution'[1] (La Grande Révolution), was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years. French society underwent an epic transformation as feudal, aristocratic and religious privileges evaporated under a sustained assault from radical left-wing political groups, masses on the streets, and peasants in the countryside. Old ideas about tradition and hierarchy - of monarchy, aristocracy and religious authority - were abruptly overthrown by new Enlightenment principles of equality, citizenship and inalienable rights.
The Reign of Terror (5 September 1793, to 28 July 1794) (the latter is date 10 Thermidor, year II of the French Revolutionary Calendar),[1] also known simply as The Terror (French: la Terreur), was a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between rival political factions, the Girondins and the Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution."

The death toll ranged in the tens of thousands, with an estimated 16,000 to 17,000 executed by guillotine, and another 25,000 by firing squad in summary executions across France. There were a large number of additional victims who were not executed, but killed in a number of massacres across the country, such as the infernal columns organized by Louis Marie Turreau, which resulted in an estimated 20,000 to 50,000 deaths, or the Battle of Le Mans (1793) where the revolutionaries killed an estimated 20,000 non-combattants (on top of 15,000 soldiers killed in the battle itself).[2]

The guillotine (called the "National Razor") became the symbol of the revolutionary cause, strengthened by a string of executions: Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, the Girondins, Philippe Égalité (Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans) and Madame Roland, as well as many others, such as pioneering chemist Antoine Lavoisier, lost their lives under its blade.
The modern version was 'sanitised' for children
Can you identify the parallels between the original historical figures and events and the characters and events within the text?
Language continues to transform. Well known texts such as Nursery Rhymes can be reinvented.
French (history) connection!
The roots of this child's nursery rhyme is in France and the Jack and Jill referred to are Louis XVI who was beheaded (lost his crown) followed by his Queen Marie Antoinette (who came tumbling after). The words and lyrics were made more palatable for the nursery by giving it a happy ending and has further been altered by the passage of time - the actual beheadings occurred in 1793. The first publication date for the lyrics of this nursery rhyme is 1795 which tie-in with the history and origins
'Daffodils' by William Wordsworth
Every stanza of “Daffodils” has the rhyme scheme of A, B, A, B, C, C.
Rhyming not only makes the poem more interesting, but also makes the rhythm faster, happier, and brighter.
He used personification to show the movements of the daffodils. For instance, “fluttering and dancing”, “tossing their hands”.
By comparing daffodils to stars, Wordsworth helps the reader visualize the quantity of them.
Wordsworth used varieties words choice to create the mood of this poem. The mood changes from peaceful, to happy, even crowded. In first stanza, Wordsworth used the word, lonely to convey the feeling of quiet; “dancing”, and “fluttering” to transition into a joyful mood. The poet expressed his feelings by using different word choices, for instance, jocund, glee, and gay. Not only did he use strong vocabularies to create the atmosphere of the poem, but also different techniques.
Sometimes you just have to look around, slow down, don’t be too catch up with the pace of the busy world, and simple pleasures are right there waiting to be discover.
Take another look at 'Daffodils'
Now let's put it all
Now you try....
Poetic devices
Sound words
Reading with the eye
Reading wth the ear
Responding to what is unique
Thinking about what is general
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