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Ancient Egyptian Architecture - Funerary Architecture
Transcript of Ancient Egyptian Architecture - Funerary Architecture
"Flipped" Classroom Egyptian Funerary Architecture Giann Hendrick M. Matias
DFR4B Religion Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered on the Egyptians' interaction with many deities who were believed to be present in, and in control of, the forces and elements of nature. The practices of Egyptian religion were efforts to provide for the gods and gain their favor.
They believe in the "AFTERLIFE" So, what does it have to do with architecture??? It has something to do and somehow affected the Egyptian way of burying/giving respect to the dead. Specially the pharoahs who will "leave" their earthly bodies in the pyramids. mummy The World Map! So, where's Egypt there? Egypt lies primarily between latitudes 22° and 32°N, and longitudes 25° and 35°E. At 1,001,450 square kilometers (386,660 sq mi) and if you still don't know where it is, it's somewhere here Terrain Vast desert plateau interrupted by the Nile valley and Delta
(or lower Egypt) Egypt Mediterranean Sea Red Sea Nile Valley and Delta Egypt is perdominantly desert,
without the Nile river, it'll just be
a desert Resources a green amulet
(stone) "carried special powers" Decorative stones, Lead ores, Copper, Gold, Semi-precious stones, Salt (for
mummification), Gypsum (needed to
make plaster), Granite, Graywacke
(a variety of sandstone), Flint,
Sulfur (as cosmetic substance), Sand
Clay, etc. Tutankhamen's burial jewelry Neighbors Attempted to invade and
settle in Delta, Egyptian pharoah in the 18th dynasty Where Egypt got
some of its gold Climate & Weather Sahara Desert Ancient Egypt's climate was very hot and dry. Egypt only has two seasons: Summer; from May to October, and Winter; from November to April. The average temperature in winter was 57.2 degrees Fahrenheit, and in summer, it was 86 degrees Fahrenheit Old Kingdom One of the most prosperous times in Egyptian history Sphinx (located in Giza plateau, carved out from native bedrock) Old Kingdom vs. Libyans Nubians Sinai Middle Kingdom Reunification ofUpper and Lower Egypt. Dayr al-Bahri (mortuary complex)/ Quessn Hatshepsut's temple Brutal campaigns against Nubia.
Building of massive forts around the country New Kingdom/Egyptian Empire Contained some of the Egypt's most
famoused Pharoahs: Ahmose I, Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Amenhotep III, Akhenaten and Tutankhamun The expansion period of Egypt Pharaoh So here's a simple timeline of Ancient Egypt Lots of conflict internally
and externally (especially the
Nubians) a key of their culture Here's the map of Ancient Egypt More pictures of Ancient Egypt So let's start with the FUNERARY ARCHITECTURE of the Ancient Egyptians There are 3 major kinds of Funeral Architecture/ Structure in Ancient Egypt One, the very well known PYRAMIDS Two, in the MASTABAS and Three, in the ordinary tombs for royalty/ pharaoh for the royalties before the great pyramids were built, and eminent egyptians for ordinary egyptians ARCHITECTURE The very well known Pyramids, these were built during from 2530 2560 BC (3000+ workers). The tallest pyramid known as the pyramid of Giza was for Pharoah Khufu. The pyamid Giza is the oldest of the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World. Great
Giza The Mastaba: "house for eternity" or "eternal house" is a flat-roofed and rectangulared shape tomb with outward sloping sides that marked a site of many eminent Egyptians. After the great pyramids were built, non-royalty used started. Mastabas The Great Pyramids of Giza Low grade limestones (for core)
High grade white limestones (for outer casing and interior walls)
Pink granite (inner walls)
Basalt or alabaster (mortuary temples)
Mudbricks (walls within temples)
Sandstones (inner walls) Materials that were used: Ascending Passage Descending Passage Sarcophagus Some pictures inside a pyramid But first, what and how are mummies are made? A mummy is a person (or an animal) that has been preserved after death (in order to stop the decaying of the flesh). Since bacteria need water in order to grow, mummification usually happens if the body dries out quickly after death. Mummies are made naturally or by embalming, which is any process that people use to help preserve a dead body. Mummification in ancient Egypt was a very long and expensive process. From start to finish, it took about seventy days to embalm a body. Since the Egyptians believed that mummification was essential for passage to the afterlife, people were mummified and buried as well as they could possibly afford. The art of Egyptian mummification consisted of many steps. First, the body was washed and ritually purified. The next step was to remove the deceased person's inner organs. A slit was cut into the left side of the body so that the embalmers could remove the intestines, the liver, the stomach and the lungs. Each of these organs was embalmed using natron, which served to dry out the organs and discourage bacteria from decaying the tissues. The organs were then individually wrapped using long strips of linen and placed in canopic jars. The lids of these jars were fashioned after the four sons of Horus, who were each entrusted with protecting a particular organ. Mastabas The word mastaba comes from the Arabic word for a bench of mud ikely because when seen from a distance it resembles a bench. Inside the mastaba, a deep chamber was dug into the ground and lined with stone or bricks. The exterior building materials were initially bricks made of sun dried mud which was readily available from the Nile River. Mastabas 2575 - 2257 BC 2080 -1640 BC 1550 - 1069 BC Four sons of Horus Imsety Duamutef Hapi Qebehsenuef Sarcophagus Sarcophagus Egyptian Gods Pyramids Avenue of the Sphinxes from sketches to reality Egypt Predynastic 5500-3200 Protodynastic 3200-3100 Early Dynastic 3100-2686 Dynasties 1 & 2 1st Hieroglyphs Step pyramid Saqqara 2686-2181 Old Kingdom Great Pyramid at Giza Great Sphinx Dynasties 3 to 6 Step Pyramid
Pyramid Texts of Saggara
Step Pyramid at Dioser
Pyramids of Giza Dynasties 14 to 17
The Hyksos Middle Kingdom 2055-1650 Second Intermediate Period 1650-1550 New Kingdom 1550-1069 1059-747 Third Intermedite Period Dynasties 21 to 24
conquer Egypt 2181-2055 First Intermediate Period Dynasties 7 to 11 Memphis rules Egypt in the
the south Dynasties 11to13
Nubia Late Period 747-332 Greco Roman Period 332 B.C.-A.D.395 Ptolemaic 332-30 Greeks conquer Egypt, Rosetta Stone, Cleopatra Roman 30 B.C.- A.D. 395 Figurine Jackal Statue Face Pallete Hyroglyphs Pyramid - Saqqara Great Sphinx Pyramid Texts Great Pyramid Imhotep Pyramids of Giza Artwork Lower Nubia The Hyksos The Hyksos King Tut Nefertiti Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Akhenaten Dynasties 18 to 20
Abu Simbel (temples)
Deir el Bahri
Tutankhamun's Tomb Abu Simbel Massive rock temples Nubians Dynasties 25 to 30 plus 3 Perisan Kings
Assyrians, Persians conquer Egypt Persians Rosetta Stone Has all the things that the pharoah has done Cleopatra How has ancient Egyptian architecture influenced modern day architecture? Those who have been bitten by the Egyptology bug cite a variety of reasons for their addiction - the beauty of the art, the skill of the craftsmen, the intricacies of the language, the certainties of the priests - or even a vague, indefinable feeling that the Egyptians came as close as is humanly possible to living a near-perfect life. Individually these would all be good reasons to study any ancient civilization. Combined, and tinged with the glamour bestowed by some of the world's most flamboyant archaeologists, they make an irresistible package. Egypt's magnificent stone buildings - her pyramids and temples - have inspired innumerable artists, writers, poets and architects from the Roman period to the present day. The pyramid form, in particular, still pays an important role in modern
architecture, and can be seen rising
above cemeteries and innumerable
shopping centres, and at the
new entrance to the Louvre
Museum, Paris. Giann Hendrick M. Matias DFR4B Egyptian Funerary Architecture Sources http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_Terrain_of_Egypt
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/egypt_importance_01.shtml AND TO MY HIGHSCHOOL SOCIAL SCIENCE TEACHERS Louvre Museum