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8-1.1: Native American culture of the Eastern Woodlands
Transcript of 8-1.1: Native American culture of the Eastern Woodlands
The Eastern Woodlands were the first Native Americans to encounter European settlers in North America. Why is that? How might this encounter impact their culture?
1500s = 1st European contact with the Eastern Woodland Indians. Believed Indians were crude and uncivilized.
- 1492 = 2.5 million Indians lived north of Mexico.
- Mid 1500s = 15,000 lived in SC.
- 1775 = 7,500 remained in SC.
What do you think caused this decline?
American Indians In South Carolina
- War, enslavement, & disease (#1 cause).
- No immunities (i.e. smallpox, etc.)
Major SC Tribes of the Eastern Woodlands
(along the coast)
called themselves "the real people" and were a powerful nation.
They lived in villages of up to 600 people surrounded by a palisade for protection.
White leader in times of peace
Red leader in times of war
All three tribes had a council, including women, which made rules for each nation.
Holy Man or Woman
called themselves the "river people"
originally from Spanish Florida
"slash and burn"
rivers for transportation and fishing
They used tree trunks to build dugout canoes
They used rocks, wood, and animal pelts to create tools for hunting and farming and to make clothing. Housing was made from natural resources such as tree bark and animal hides.
Because people of the Eastern Woodlands developed farming, they settled into more permanent villages. They cut trees and burned the brush to create farmland. Women were the principal farmers.
The men used sharp points carved from rocks and animal bones for hunting as well as bows and arrows.
When Europeans arrived, the people of the Eastern Woodlands traded furs and deerskins for iron, tools, weapons, and guns. As the settlers became more prosperous and numerous, they took over more of the native peoples' lands, cheated them in trade, and forced some of the natives into slavery, leading to hostilities between the settlers and the people of the Eastern Woodlands nations......hence, the Cherokee War and Yemassee War.....which you will learn about later.
Still more to come.....
The natives of the Eastern Woodlands worked the land together and did not have a sense of private ownership of the land, believing instead that the land was held in trust by tribal groups. In time, the Indians and the Europeans discovered that each had quite different ideas about land ownership—a cultural difference that had a profound effect on the history of the United States.
This was a cartoon showing a man (as a European Settler) telling a Native American family, "It's time to reclaim America from illegal immigrants!" The one Native American on the right replies, "I'll help you pack". This shows how the Native Americans felt about the settlers. The settlers called Native Americans "immigrants" but they were the ones that migrated to America.
This is a picture of the European Settlers coming to American taking over the Natives Americans Land. At the time, the Native Americans didn't know about land ownership, and welcomed the settlers with open arms.
stunned the fish by poisoning the water with walnut bark
wattle and daub homes
palisade for protection
Native American nations of North America were divided into regional groups based on where people lived and the languages that they spoke.