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Transcript of Primate Diversity
Spine Chapter 6
Biology in the Present:
The Other Living Primates Primate Diversity Housekeeping… Exam corrections due March 29th Primates Adaptive
Complex social behavior Primate Taxonomy Phenetics Purely for classification purposes,
Based on descriptive traits Cladistics Based on ancestral relationships, morphology Primate Traits Aboreal Adaptation Dietary Plasticity Parental Investment Adapted to life in trees Eating a variety of foods Primates invest a lot in a few offspring Arboreal Adaptation Upper Body Feet Spine Enhanced sense of touch Enhanced vision Reduced sense of smell
(and hearing) Dietary Plasticity Order Chimpanzee Human Gorilla Orangutan Gibbon Evolutionary relationship of great apes Suborder Infraorder Superfamily Family Subfamily Genus Clavicle acts as a strut to keep upper limbs to sides of body Hands Phalanges allow hand and foot dexterity
Opposable thumb (or big toe) allows digits to touch other fingers
Primates have a powerful precision grip Hallux, aka the big toe
Curved hallux was needed for opposability
Terrestrial movement and a transition to bipedalism removed the curvature, losing the opposable function Non-opposable Opposable Primates have a distinctive spinal column with five vertebral types
7.12.5 Dermal ridges
The ends of fingers and toes are sensitive and allow for maximum information from environment. Eyes rotated forward
Overlapping fields of vision
Color vision Most higher primates have lost the rhinarium
Smell is a secondary sense in most primates Most primates have nails instead of claws Rhinarium: the moist, naked surface of the nostrils belonging to most mammals Touch
Smell Primates have retained primitive characteristics in their teeth
Cranial development Incisors
Molars Dentition Counting the four distinctive tooth types Prosimians
184.108.40.206 (except some new world monkeys) Canines
Tooth Combs Diastima (Linnaean Taxonomy) Upper canines are sharpened against the lower premolar Space between two teeth Canine Premolar
Honing Complex A combination of incisors and canines used for grooming and extracting tree resin. Canines Molars Tooth Combs Parental Investment Longevity
Focus on adolescent developmental period
Low birth rate, long births What about intelligence? Ad Hominin Genetic vs. Anatomical Classification Prosimians Anthropoids The Lesser Primates The Higher Primates Primate Taxonomy Lemurs*
Tarsiers* Rely on sense of smell
(rentention of rhinarium and snout)
Combination of nails and claws
Phalanges are less dexterous New World Primates Old World Primates Strepsirrhines
(wet nose) Haplorrhines
(dry nose) Platyrrhines Catarrhines Ceboidea (Cebidae) (Atelidae) Cercopithecoidea Hominoidea "Broad nosed"
Inhabit arboreal habitats in Latin America "Hooked nose"
Most diverse and most successful nonhuman primate
Tough sitting pads on the rear (ischial callosities)
Inhabit terrestrial and arboreal habitats in Africa and Asia (Great Apes) (Lesser Apes) Brachiation
Bipedalism Ring Tailed Lemurs on St. Catherines Island Native to Madagascar
Reintroduced onto St. Catherines Island
Among the most adaptable prosimians
Spend lots of time on ground 7 Year Study Sagital Crest A ridge of bone located at the top of the cranium
Masseter muscle attaches at the satigal crest
Represents a reliance on mastication Locomotion Bipedalism Foramen Magnum
Hallux Primate Conservation: Causes of Extinction Humans proliferate faster than other primates
Bushmeat What are primates?
Who are primates? Howler Siamang Proboscis Primates Anthropoidea Catarrhini Hominoidea Hominidae Homo (sapiens) Howler Monkeys Doac Langur Hamadryas Anubis Japanese Macaque Mandrill Gibbon Chimp Bonobo Gorilla Orangutan Spider Monkey Golden Lion Tamarin Marmoset Vervet Monkeys Ulna and radius rotate forearm Skeletal Structure Physical Traits Skeletal Structure