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Comparisons between Bandura and Skinner

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Savannah Garrett

on 25 April 2014

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Transcript of Comparisons between Bandura and Skinner

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Albert Bandura
Social Learning Theory (Observational Learning)


Bandura's theory differs from Skinner's, because of the expectation that not only can an individual operate on their environment to produce or avoid consequences, but they can also learn behavior by observing indirect consequences, which were not a product of their own actions in an environment.

This theory is known as observational learning (also referred to as modeling and shaping). Two major factors in his studies: Vicarious reinforcement- where the child observes someone else being rewarded for a particular behaviour and this affects the child in that she will imitate or produce that behaviour themself and be rewarded for it. Vicarioius punishment- is where it is possible for the child to observe a model being punished for a particular behaviour and is less likely to produce the same behaviour.

There are strengths and weaknesses to Bandura's observational learning theory as well.
Strengths: it gives an accurate picture of the way behaviours are learned; clearly, children do copy other's behaviour's behaviour.
Weaknesses: too much emphasis placed on what happens to the child rather than what the child does with the information s/he is given, and such theories do not take into account the physical and mental changes that occur as the child matures.
PLATFORMS
Social
SOCIAL
They were both behaviorists, psychologists interested in explaining how behavior is developed by specifically focusing on learning as an effect by an enviromental stimulus.


Both Skinner's operant conditioning theory and Bandura's social learning theory include enviroment as an important factor to an individual's learning development, but diverge in their views of biology being an aspect in learning
J.F. Skinner vs. Albert Bandura
Dueling Theorists
Savannah Garrett, 3rd period

J.F. Skinner used his theory of Operant Conditioning to explain the behavior of learning.
Operant Conditioning is a type of learning in which responses can be controlled by their consequences. Operant responses are often new responses. Skinner is best known for illustrating operant conditioning with his Skinner box, where a rat would receive a reward after a particular response. Operant Conditioning has two principles:
Reinforcements and Punishments.
Reinforcements:
A reinforcement is a delivery of a consequence that increases the likelihood that a response will occur.
There are two kinds of reinforcements:
1. Positive Reinforcements- when a stimulus is presented after a response so that the response will occur more often. For example, giving a rat a piece of cheese if he pulls down a lever.
2. Negative Reinforcements- when a stimulus is removed so that the response will occur more often. For example, turning off a loud noise that scares the rat after he pulls the lever down.
Punishments:
Punishment is the delivery of a consequence that decreases the likelihood that a response will occur.
Just like reinforcements, there is a positive punishment and a negative punishment.
Positive Punishments is the presentation of a stimulus after a response so that the response will occur less often. For example, spanking a child so that they will behave. Negative Punishments- is removing a stimulus after a response so that the response will occur less often. For example, taking away a toy from a child for misbehaving.
Comparisons between Bandura and Skinner
Resources: Bandura
http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/bandura.htm
http://cranepsych.edublogs.org/files/2009/07/social_learning_theory.pdf
http://jerristephenson.com/skinner-versus-bandura/ (both)
J. F. Skinner
Operant Conditioning
Resources:Skinner
http://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html
http://lrrpublic.cli.det.nsw.edu.au/lrrSecure/Sites/LRRView/7401/documents/theories_outline.pdf
http://www.sparknotes.com/psychology/psych101/learning/section2.rhtml

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