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Teaching by Principles and Motivation in the Classroom

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Emily Jones

on 5 December 2013

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Transcript of Teaching by Principles and Motivation in the Classroom

Teaching by Principles and Intrinsic Motivation in the Classroom
Students will be able to understand and utilize the 12 principles outlined in Brown, Chapter 4 and understand the complications of motivation in the classroom.
Each group will get a handout with a student picture and description. Imagine that this student is having problems in your classroom.

Use the 12 principles found in the reading to find ways to help your student become more successful in their language learning.
The 12 Principles
Of the 12 Principles mentioned (pg65-77) which principle is most novel to you-- as in, it is a point that you have never focused on/considered before in your teaching/learning? How is it novel? Which principle have you found to be the most significant in your teaching/learning? Why? Why not?
Motivation in the Classroom
What are some problems with motivation that you have experienced in your teaching/learning? Which definition/theory of motivation (pg85-87) have you experienced/used that you saw was particularly effective or ineffective? Why? Why not?
Wrap Up Activity!
Go back to the student description handout. How would you motivate your student? Which type of motivation do you think will be most successful (intrinsic or extrinsic)? Why?
- Works hard in class, but only in class
- Forgets what he learned in class the day before
- Frequently misses homework assignments
- Really excited about English!
- Class leader
- Consistently makes the same mistakes again and again
- Has trouble listening to the teacher
- Recent immigrant to America
- Seems uncomfortable with American slang used by classmates
- Not excited about watching movies in class
- Isn't socializing with fellow classmates
- Shy student
- Anxious in groups
- Prefers to do individual work and sits quietly if put in groups
- Young learner who is being pushed to learn English from his parents
- Seems bored or extremely disruptive in class
- Overly detailed student
- Always has her dictionary out and translates every word from textbooks and what the teacher says
- Seems frustrated by her lack of growth and frequent mistakes.
Principle 12:
Communicative Competence
"...it emphasizes the importance of all areas in language learning without placing too much emphasis on any one particular area...[it is]
the most real world applicable
because it emphasizes
genuine learning
as opposed to simple rote memorization or drilling." (
Principle 11: Interlanguage
"The Interlanguage Principle has shown me that students can be making mistakes because they are
successfully retaining
a working knowledge of the

, and that they will (hopefully)
correct those mistakes on their own
once they learn new rules and further build up their language learning strengths." (
Principle 10:
The Native Language Effect
"I had never before considered that the '
facilitating effects
or positive influence, of first languages can be just as powerful...teachers must help students understand the
differences and similarities
between their native languages and the target language." (
Principle 9:
The Language-Culture Connection
"...intercultural awareness can help learners...both in English and in
." (
Principle 8:
Willingness to Communicate
"Successful language learners generally believe in themselves and in their capacity to accomplish communicative tasks and are therefore willing risk takers in their attempts to produce and to interpret language that is a bit beyond their absolute certainty. Their willingness to communicate results in the generation of both output (from the learner) and input (to the learner)."
Principle 7:
Language Ego
"As human beings learn to use a second language, they also develop a new mode of thinking, feeling, and acting-- a second identity. The new 'language ego,' intertwined with the second language, can easily create within the learner a sense of fragility, a defensiveness, and a raising of inhibitions."
Principle 6:
"Successful mastery of a foreign language will depend to a great extent on learners' autonomous ability both to take initiative in the classroom and to continue their journey to success beyond the classroom and the teacher."
Principle 5:
Strategic Investment
"Successful mastery of the second language will be due to a large extent to a learner's own personal investment of time, effort, and attention to the second language in the form of an individualized battery of strategies for comprehending and producing the language."
Principle 4:
Intrinsic Motivation
"The most powerful rewards are those that are intrinsically motivated within the learner. Because the behavior stems from needs, wants, or desires within oneself, the behavior itself is self-rewarding; therefore, no externally administered reward is necessary."
Principle 3: The Anticipation of Reward
"Human beings are univerally driven to act or 'behave,' by the anticipation of some sort of reward-- tangible or intangible, short-term or long term-- that will ensue as a result of the behavior."
Principle 2: Meaningful Learning
"The process of making meaningful associations between existing knowledge/experience and new material will lead towards better long-term retention than rote learning of material in isolated pieces."
Principle 1: Automaticity
"Efficient second language learning involves a timely movement of the control of a few language forms into the automatic, fluent processing of a relatively unlimited number of language forms. Over analyzing language, thinking too much about its forms, and consciously lingering on rules of language all tend to impede this graduation to automaticity"
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
"...We must admit...
extrinsic motivation does have a positive influence.
" - Xin

"I feel that it is very important for the learner to have some type of inner desire to learn the language that is
separate from any external rewards
that learning the language may bring." -Caitlyn

"I would prefer to define “motivation” not as the anticipation of reward or punishment, but rather as an
innate human drive that we as teachers must try to unearth.
" -Carolyn

A constructivist definition
Everyone is different, but our choices are linked to our cultural and social contexts.
Self-control Theory
The greatest motivation comes when we can make our own choices.
Drive Theory
Innate drives compel students to learn:
exploration, manipulation, activity, stimulation, knowledge, ego enhancement
Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Maslow's theory says these needs push humans towards self-actualization. Once the bottom needs are met, humans can move to the next level.
A Behavioral Definition
Skinner and Watson: Rewards (and/or punishments) are important to motivate students.
Recall the 12 Teaching Principles found in Chapter 4 (Brown) and apply them to real student situations.

Identify methods of motivation and discuss ways we as teachers can motivate students.

Understand how motivation and the principles work together in the classroom.

Objectives (SWBAT):
Students say:
"Throughout my student life, this kind of motivation has taken very different forms, but overall has been effective..
.honor roll.
good college
..." -Amanda

from a teacher’s perspective,
the behavioral definition works more directly than any other definition" -Daisy

"Utilizing only the ideal motivational techniques in a classroom with
young students
is difficult...
habit formation
, like bringing their folder or hanging up their coat...
are most easily learned utilizing behavioral theories and external rewards
. -Lauren
Students say:
"People want to
learn and explore,
they want to be
, and they want to have
It is my job as a teacher to appeal to and help
satisfy these innate needs and drives

"As for my students,

those with the strongest desire

to learn English
were not deterred from the goal to master English
when they spoke incorrectly or could not seem to understand certain rules or nuances. "--Kaitlin
Source: Wikipedia
Source: Wikipedia
Students say:
"...it helps me to see that
students’ needs come in a certain order
... as a teacher I need to create a classroom that is supportive and encouraging so that students can be

from fear to make mistakes
. -Xiao

"My students were much more focused, creative, and willing to participate when I provided a few snacks...Not only did the snacks meet their basic needs of hunger, but eating together also cultivated
a sense of community and belongingness
in the classroom." -Melissa
Students say:
"...By making students’ own choices of class materials, methods, and activities, they would be more intrigued, focused and motivated." -Yuqian

For example: "I decided that for the conversation class that I taught I would let the
students choose their own topics
for the semester...Since I didn’t force them to discuss anything in particular and they had the power to decide on what to talk about,
they seemed more motivated and excited to practice English
." -Mallory

Students say:
"Motivation varies from person to person, essentially, but ultimately still relies on the individual's
personal drive
to attain their specific goals." -Katie

"...Students with different culture and social background would have
different desires
in the same process like second language learning." -Gabby
"Whenever you teach a language, you always teach a complex system of cultural customs, values, and ways of thinking, feeling, and acting...Especially in second (as opposed to foreign) language-learning contexts, the success with which learners adapt to a new cultural milieu will affect their langauge acquisition success, and vise versa, in some possibly significant ways."
"The native language of learners exerts a strong influence on the acquisition of the target language system. While that native system will exercise both facilitating and interfering effects on the production and comprehension of the new language, the interfering effects are likely to be the most salient."
"Second language learners tend to go through a systematic or quasi-systematic developmental process as they progress to full competence in the target language. Successful interlanguage development is partially a result of utilizing feedback from others."
"Given that communicative competence is the goal of a language classroom, instruction needs to point toward all its components: organizational, pragmatic, strategic, and psychomotor. Communicative goals are best achieved by giving due attention to language use and not just usage, to fluency and not just accuracy, to authentic language and contexts, and to students' eventual need to apply classroom learning to previously unrehearsed contexts in the real world."
"By perceiving and internalizing connections between practice...and theory..., you are more likely to engage in 'enlightened' teaching...These principles form the core of an approach to language teaching..."
Motivation is one of the most complicated things to define and create in the classroom.
"Motivation is the extent to which you make choices about goals and the effort you will devote to that pursuit."
"...in the really traditional Chinese (maybe a lot of Asian countries are doing it this way) English classes,
students’ abilities in reading and writing English are cherished most, and oral English is not even on the list.
I’d say in the last 5 years this situation has been changing and
oral English class is the new focus
in “good” schools and colleges,
still there are a large number of students refuse to communicate
with this unfamiliar language." (
"...while I feel fully engaged inside the classroom, I often find myself
wondering if my study practices at home are engaging my own learning style in the most effective way possible
" (
"By integrating outside sources, such as music, movies, TV shows, video clips, poems, news articles, photos, etc., I have found that
students are much better at retaining the specific goals of grammar and vocabulary objectives
because these sources
stimulate interest
and discussions..."

"it is crucial that these
discussions have a clear purpose
in mind so that
students do not feel they are wasting their time.

Not all students would agree
that watching a TV episode in class is useful" (
.put a lot of effort
into paying attention in class, participating in group discussions, studying for exams, and getting help from my teacher when I needed it. I feel that I have been blessed with
wonderful teachers
who were certainly a large part of my success in the language.
However, my own personal investment and interest
in the language was what I believe ultimately allowed me to grow and achieve competence. " (
"...most of the rewards I get during the process are more
externally administered by others
in the forms of recognition from my fellow students, good grades and verbal praises from my teachers. Although
those external rewards are all necessary
as said in the previous 'Anticipation of Rewards' principle, they
would also lead you to the dependency on short-term rewards are a habit of looking to others

"...in China
where test-oriented learning is still the mainstream
in the educational system. Under those circumstances,
students lose their way in pursuing their actual goals
and lose the ability to form their own perception of self worth and value." (
You Wu
"...learning is not only about acquiring certain knowledge in a specific field, but also about
being equipped with the ability to digest new knowledge, apply them to real life situations and deal with unforeseeable problems in the future
. Therefore, I believe it is important to let students have certain control over their experiences in class...in order to
let them have the connection between acquisition and production
" (
You Wu
"...all students with a high motivation to initiate conversations, especially with native speakers
achieve higher goals than those who are reluctant
to use the new language" (
"...language classes all the way through high school were largely focused on lecture, textbook lessons, verb conjugation quizzes and listening comprehension exercises...there was
virtually no attention paid to the kinesthetic or visual learners
...The result was always a class full of students who studied hard to memorize grammar and vocabulary to pass exams but
couldn’t produce cohesive sentences outside of the classroom
." (
"Since the city I was teaching in didn’t have many native English speakers in the area, I found that
students had a difficult time relating the language to their own lives, personal experiences and interests
. However, through getting to know students and tailoring the lessons to their collective interests, I was able to help guide them toward
seeing the relevance of English to their lives
." (
"After reading about this principle, it suddenly occurred to me that this may be the
essential difference
of how I
learned English as a child
and how I learned
German as an adult
." (
Xiao Yang
"Instead of trying to feed more linguistic knowledge and exercises to students, I tried very hard to
encourage them to be their own teachers
and solve the problems together." (
Xiao Yang
"As a learner I have found this area to be the most challenging as I am constantly balancing my fluent use of the language and the
utilization of proper grammar.
In Hebrew, adjectives take on masculine and feminine forms to match the corresponding noun and
I constantly over-analyze this agreement.
" (
"I did get curious about what the second language
will do to my way of thinking
and even my personality when I started to learn English, but it
never occurred to me that such effects not only exist
...but also
plays a very important role
in second language acquisition." (
Qi Zhang
principle explains the emotions
I went through when attempting to learn a second language. In particular, I attempted to learn Korean while I was teaching abroad. While my learning of the language was mostly informal,
I felt very vulnerable in moments where I needed to execute communication

"...I understand more now the
natural inclination to protect myself
in the learning process. All in all, my
from this new identity ultimately
hindered my ability
to completely learn the language beyond the basic skills that I learned."(
"I have often felt
fragile, exposed, and frustrated
when speaking a language of which I am not fluent, but did not expand these thoughts to realize that the
commonalities to others learning a new language
." (
"I think I have always (perhaps too easily) written off automaticity as a
purely subconscious process
cannot be augmented by teaching
, but instead is simply reliant on time, exposure, and a kind of cognitive 'muscle memory.'" (
"I tried my best to
think back
to my days as a 13-year-old and decided to do a listening lesson with the movie “Ferris Bueller’s Day Off.” The
boys enjoyed beginning the class
by pair discussing the most creative excuses they’ve made." (
"...adults, especially those who are formally educated,
develop this deep internal struggle
when they go from communicating
full abstract thoughts in their native language to being unable to do so
in the early stages of learning another language. "

not only the random stranger
in the street, completely oblivious to your language ego, who might laugh at you and
increase your anxiety
around the use of your newly acquired language, it
may even be friends or others close to you
who may not be as “warm and fuzzy” as you would expect." (
"While automaticity
may grant linguistic fluency
more rapidly, that
does not necessarily mean accuracy
will be achieved at the same level." (
Eun Kim
"In certain cases, students are discouraged to join the discussion among native speakers due to their
lack of understanding of the culture behind the dialogue
rather than the language itself." (
"...emphasize students to
think directly
in the target language instead of translating a word/phrase from L1 to L2." (
"Teachers should "show
and give
positive feedback along with correction
when Interlanguage errors occur. " (
"Teachers need to
the instructions to cover all four components of communicative competence in order to
achieve the goal of a language classroom
...rote learning of grammatical rules and forms may not meet the needs of communicating with others in the target language." (
What do you think: Intrinsic/Extrinsic?
Suggested Principles:
- Meaningful learning

- Strategic investment
Suggested Principles
- Automaticity

- Meaningful Learning

- Language Ego

- Willingness to Communicate
Suggested Principles
- Meaningful Learning

- Strategic Investment

- Anticipation of Reward
Suggested Principles:
- Automaticity

- Strategic Investment

- Language Ego

- Willingness to Communicate
Suggested Principles:
- Willingness to Communicate

- Language-Culture Connection
Full transcript