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Culminating Civics Project
Transcript of Culminating Civics Project
Democracy Project Civics Unit 4: Unit 3: Unit 1: Unit 5: Unit 2: Table of Contents Citizenship Process Political of American Roots Democracy U.S. National & Constitution Government Economics Process Unit 4 U.S.
Government & Unit 5 Economics Geography... Citizenship:
belonging to a country with
all of that country's rights,
duties, and responsibilities Civic Responsibilities Civic Rights Civic Duties The things that you HAVE to do as a citizen. Taxes- you must pay your taxes Obeying Laws- to be safe you must be obey the laws The things you SHOULD do as a citizen. Register & Vote- you should participate in political elections by voting Volunteer- volunteer in activities around your community Stay Informed- try your best to stay informed about current news Drafting- if you are a male over 18 and are drafted to join the army you must The things you are permitted to do as a citizen. As U.S. citizens our rights are protected under U.S. Constitution. The first amendment to the Constitution protects our freedom of: (RAPPS) Religion Assembly Press Petition Speech Being a Citizen In the U.S. the fourteenth amendment to the U.S. Constitution defines citizenship. "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and the state wherein they reside." The fourteenth amendment also extends due process to the states. Due Process: The constitutional protection against unfair government actions and laws. Step 1: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: Step 6: Step 2: Naturalization
Process File a Declaration of Intent Live in the U.S. for 5 years OR Live in the U.S. for 3 years IF married to U.S. citizen OR Live in the U.S. for 1 year IF in the U.S. military Take special classes to prepare for citizenship English American
History Civics Apply for Naturalization *Applicant must be
AT LEAST 18 years old* If approved the applicant must meet with an immigration official and pass the citizenship test. *Test is verbal and in English* Applicant must take an
Oath of Allegiance to the
United States before a judge. The
Spectrum Liberals Conservatives Moderates Liberals Commonly known as Democrats View of Government: Prefer a larger government role in people's lives. Want an increase in federal power Education: Increase in govt. help of student loans Healthcare: Want to improve healthcare Color: Blue Conservatives Commonly known as Republicans Want a decrease in federal power and more independence for citizens View on Government: Prefer less dominate government role in people's lives Education: Taxes: Raise taxes on people with higher income No govt. help in school loans Healthcare: Remove healthcare Taxes: Lower taxes so individuals can have more money to help themselves Color: Red Moderates In neither extreme of the Political Spectrum, but rather has moderate views of topics Middle ground on views of topics Functions
Parties 4)They act as a watchdog over the party in power or opposing party 1)They recruit
nominate candidates 3)They raise money to help candidates win elections 2)They educate voters about campaign issues or their Platform Define- REFLECT- INFLUENCE- ORGANIZE- They organize to win elections Influence public policies Reflect both
conservative views Define themselves in a way that wins the majority support by appealing to the political center Political Center Platform: a list of programs and ideas that the party's candidate will support *Say NO to Drugs* Role of Third Parties: 1) They introduce new ideas or press for a particular issue 2) They usually work for only one major cause or issue 3) They often revolve around a political personality Presidential
Propaganda misleading messages designed to manipulate people Testimonial- associate a respected person or someone with experience to endorse a product or cause Mudslinging- name calling to create bad opinion of belief, groups, or ideas T
r to link two objects to create positive or negative feelings Card-
Stacking make the best case possible for his side, the worst for the opposing side Plain Folks- convince the audience that the spokesperson is from humble origins, someone they can trust, and who has their interests at heart Glittering Generalities- words with meaning that appeal to our emotions B
n persuade the audience to follow the crowd C
t show what is good about one candidate and what is bad about the other Strategies for Evaluating Campaign Speeches, Literature, and Advertisements for Accuracy Separating fact from opinion Identifying Propaganda Evaluating sources Detecting Bias Bias:
prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair. Mass Media Roles in Elections Identifying political candidates
Emphasizing selected issues
Writing editorials, creating political cartoons, publishing op-ed pieces
Broadcasting different points of view Campaign Contribution and Costs PAC's Campaign Finance Reform Running for political office is expensive Requires candidates to conduct extreme fund-raising activities Encourages the development of PAC's Gives an advantage to wealthy individuals that run for office Limits opportunities to run for public office Political Action Committee A political organization candidates by contributing money. group designed to support labor union, or special interest established by a corporation, Gives issue-oriented special interest groups increased influence because they can donate money to candidates who favor their cause Rising campaign costs have led to efforts to reform campaign finance laws Limits exist on the amount individuals may contribute to political candidates and campaigns Electoral
College A group of people that officially elect the President and the Vice-President after the general population has voted 2) The electors meet to vote for President and Vice-President in December 3) The winner-take all system leads to the targeting of large states for campaigning although candidates must pay attention to small states whose electoral votes may make the difference in tight elections 1) The slate of electors for each state is chosen by popular vote The number of electors of each state is based on the states
Congressional Representation Number of senators Number of representatives Number of electors per state The requirements for a majority vote to win in the electoral college favors a two-party system Total # of
Electors = 538 Total # to
Win = 270 Voter
Registration & Participation Voting is a basic responsibility of citizenship.
Only citizens that register can participate in primary and general elections. Voter registration is required before a citizen may vote Qualification to Register to Vote in Virginia Citizen of the United States Resident of Virginia and precinct 18 years old by the day of the general election How to Register in Virginia In person at the registrar's office At the DMV: Division of Motor Vehicles By mail application **Registration is closed 22 days before elections** The number of citizens that register and vote is related to how important election issues are to citizens. Factors in Predicting Which Citizens Will Vote: Education Age Income EVERY vote counts!!! Why Citizens Fail to Vote or Do Not Vote Lack of interest, " My vote won't make a difference" Apathy Failure to register or NOT registered The percentage of voters that participate in presidential elections is usually greater than the percentage of voters that participate in state and local elections Individual Rights- Rule of Law- Limited
Government- Consent of the Governed- Minority Rights- Majority Rule- Democracy- Representative
Principles American citizens are the source of all government power Consent = Permission Government is not all-powerful; it may do only those things that the people have given it the power to do All people, including those who govern, are bound by the law In the American democracy, individual rights are protected by government People elect government leaders to make the laws and govern on their behalf Leaders are chosen in fair elections with universal suffrage Political principle that a majority of the members of a community has the power to make laws binding upon all people Majority = Most The rights of the minority remain protected VA Statute for Religious Freedom By: Thomas Jefferson Mayflower Compact By: The Separatists Mayflower Compact By: The Separatists Declaration of Independence By: Thomas Jefferson Charters of VA Company of London By: King James I VA Declaration of Rights By: George Mason Declaration of Independence By: Thomas Jefferson Magna Carta
By: English Barons Declaration of Independence By: Thomas Jefferson Magna Carta
By: English Barons VA Declaration of Rights By: George Mason Founding
Documents The United States Constitution Ratified in 1788
Written by the Philadelphia Convention
Purpose was to replace the Articles of Confederation which had established a weak National Government
Is now the Supreme Law of the United States U.S. Constitution The Preamble: Article I: This section lists and describes the duties and powers of the legislative branch of the national govt. The main purpose of this branch of govt. is to make laws Article II: This section lists and describes the duties and powers of the executive branch of the national govt. The main purpose of this branch of govt. is to carry out laws. Article III: This section lists and describes the duties and powers of the judicial branch of the national govt. The main purpose of this branch of govt. is to judge laws. Articles IV-VII: These sections list and describe other duties and powers of the national and state governments. Several states refused to ratify (approve) the Constitution unless a Bill of Rights was added to the end, which would limit the govt.'s power over the people. This section is made up of the first 10 amendments. Bill of Rights Amendment = Change or addition to a document This section serves as an introduction to the Constitution and it lists six goals/purposes for the new government. " We the People of the United States, in Oder to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America." Six Goals/Purposes: to form a more perfect union- to make this country a better place to live
to establish justice- to make certain that all citizens are treated equally under the law
to insure domestic tranquility- to keep peace amongst the people
to provide for the common defense- to protect the country and its people from its enemies and attacks
to promote the general welfare- to guarantee the well-being of all citizens
to secure the blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our posterity- to protect the people's personal freedom Posterity = future generations 7 Articles of the U.S. Constitution Article I: Legislative
Branch Article II: Executive
Branch Article III: Judicial
Branch Article IV: Relations Among States as well as the National Government Article V: The Amendment Process Step One: Proposing an Amendment Step Two: Ratification Amending
Constitution By Congress-
two-thirds of the members of both house of Congress OR By National Convention-
two-thirds of the state legislatures If successful By State Legislatures-
Three-fourths of the states must ratify it OR By Special State Conventions-
three-fourths of ratifying conventions There are currently 27 Amendments to the U.S. Constitution, including the
Bill of Rights. Article VI: The U.S. Constitution, laws passed by Congress, and treaties of the U.S. are the supreme law of the land Article VII: The Constitution will go into effect after 9 out of 13 states ratify it National Level State Level Local Level Legislative
Branch Makes Laws Bicameral: Senate
House of Representatives Meet in the Capital two-house system Congress: Senate: Two senators from each state, regardless of population, are elected for 6-year terms Requirements to become a Senator: Must be 30 years old or older
Be a citizen of the U.S. for 9 years
Be an inhabitant of the state elected in Total of 100 Senators in the Senate House of Representatives: House members are elected from states in proportion to population for 2-year terms Requirements to become a Representative: Must be 25 years old or older
Be a citizen of the U.S. for 7 years
Be an inhabitant of the state elected in Limit of 435 representatives at a time Congress: Powers include- Male laws at National Level
Approve the annual (yearly) budget
Confirm presidential appointments
Raise revenue through taxes
Regulate Interstate & Foreign Trade
Declare war Virginia General Assembly: House of Delegates
Virginia Senate # of Delegates- 100
# of Senators- 40 Elected officials in the VA General Assembly write laws and take action in response to problems or issues Individuals and interest groups can help shape legislation Primary Issues that Concern the VA General Assembly Education- promote an informed and engaged citizenry
Public Heath- promote and protect the health of ts citizens
Environment- protect natural resources
State Budget- approve biennial ( two year) budget prepared by the Governor
Revenue- lay and collect taxes Counties- Board of Supervisors; enact ordinances (local laws) and adopt annual budget
Towns- Town Council; enact ordinances (local laws) and adopt annual budget
Cities- City Council; enact ordinances (local laws) and adopt annual budget
Cities & Towns- mayor is elected by the voters or Council members
Counties & Cities- have an elected or appointed School Board that oversees the K-12 public schools In VA counties, towns, and cities a manager may be hired by elected legislative branch to oversee the operation of the local government
VA Constitution requires a sheriff, clerk of the Circuit Court, a commissioner of revenue, and a treasurer be elected in every locality Enforces state and local laws, promotes public health, protects public safety, educates children,protects the environment, regulates land use, levy and collects taxes All powers come form the VA Constitution and acts of the General Assembly
Not all counties and cities are given the same powers
Cities have charters; powers are listed in the city charter HABBAL ( National- Ice Cream Dishes are Very Pretty
State- Ice Cream Dishes are Very Gorgeous) Introduce Committee Debate Vote President Pledge of Allegiance:
I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation under god, indivisible with liberty and justice for all. Bill is introduced.
One member of the House or Senate must introduce the bill to the members of their house. Working
in committees. The ability to amend the Constitution is the reason our govt. has lasted so long and should continue to do so. Individuals have the greatest influence on the decisions made by local govt. official. All citizens learn the importance of the individual's participation in the law-making process through direct participation and simulations. Debating on the floor. Voting on a bill by BOTH houses. Governor Signing the bill into law by the President at national level or by Governor at state level. Elected officials write laws and take action in response to problems and issues. Bills turned into laws at national level are followed in the whole country.
Bills turned into laws at state level are followed only in that particular state. National Level State Level Executive
Branch Carries out laws President Lives and works at the White House Each state elects presidential electors, based on its number of its congressmen. The electors then elect the president. (Electoral College) Elections are held every four years. Presidential Review: You must be born a U.S. citizen
You must live in the U.S. for 14 years or more
You must be 35 years or older You can be President for 2 four-year terms or up to 10 years Powers defined in the
U.S. Constitution and in the VA Constitution for the state of Virginia Powers defined
in the U.S. Constitution and in the VA Constitution for the state of Virginia Ways the Executive Branch Influences Policy Making Proposing legislation in an annual speech to the legislature
Governor....State of the Commonwealth speech
President.....State of the Union Address
to describe his administration's goals for the upcoming year.
Appealing directly to the people. Approving or vetoing legislation. Appointing officials that help carry out the law. The officials include agencies, regulatory groups, and the 15 Cabinet Departments Presidential Powers: Carry out or execute the law of the U.S.
Prepare the annual budget for congressional action
Appoint Cabinet officers, Ambassadors, and Federal Judges
Administers Federal Bureaucracy Roles
President: 1) Chief Executive Carries out the nation's laws. Head of Executive branch; Appoints people 2) Commander in Chief In charge of the army, navy, air force, marines, and coast guard 3) Chief of State Aids diplomacy;
"Ceremonial" role 4) Chief of Party Leader of his political party 5) Chief Legislator Makes speeches to suggest legislation to Congress 6) Chief Citizen Role model for citizens.
Representative of all the people. 7) Chief Diplomat Directs the foreign policy. A " super-ambassador", and symbol of our nation Presidential Order of Succession: 1) Vice-President
2) Speaker of the House
3) President Pro-temp of the Senate
4) Secretary of State
5) Remaining Presidential Cabinet members Governor Current VA Governor-
Bob McDonnell Gubernatorial
Roles Gubernatorial = Governor Chief Administrator Head of Executive branch in VA Commander in Chief Head of VA's defense force Party Chief Leader of the Political Part that controls the Executive branch in VA Chief Legislator Proposer of VA's legislative agenda.
can veto small parts of bill
( special power only for Governor) Chief of State Ceremonial head of the government Local Level VA Towns-
a mayor is elected by the voters or the Town Council members VA Cities-
a mayor is elected by the voters or the City Council members National Level State Level Local Level Judicial
Branch Judges laws Powers defined
in the U.S. Constitution and in the VA Constitution for the state of Virginia Across VA, state courts resolve judicial disputes Judges of Circuit Courts, General District Courts (including Small Claims Courts), Juvenile and Domestic Relations Courts hear cases in each locality Interpret laws The president appoints judges, with advise and consent of the Senate. The term of office for the nine justices is for life-during good behavior. U.S. Supreme Court Meets in the Supreme Court Building Interprets laws
Has the right of Judicial Review
Federal Courts try cases involving federal law and U.S. Constitutional questions The Elastic Clause:
allows Congress to make laws that are "necessary and proper" Judicial Review:
the Supreme Court has the final say on whether any law(federal, state, or local) or government action is unconstitutional;
Marbury v. Madison The Federal Court System Original Jurisdiction
Federal laws are broken
Disputes between states themselves or people from different states
FINAL Appeal U.S.
Courts U.S. Supreme Court Appellate Jurisdiction
Reviews decisions made in lower courts and by regulatory agencies
Reviewing the case to determine whether law was applied correctly, used the wrong procedure, or new evidence proves innocence Appellate Jurisdiction
Limited Original Jurisdiction-
cases involving States and Foreign diplomats
Decide whether laws are allowed by the Constitution through a process called judicial review U.S. Courts of Appeals 9 justices,
no jury 3 judges,
no jury judge and jury Appellate Jurisdiction-
the authority of a court to hear a case appealed from a lower court Original Jurisdiction-
the authority to hear cases for the first time 1 Washington D.C. 12 districts around the country 94 at least 1 in each state The VA Supreme Court The Virginia Court System A special type of judge who:
Sets Bail Magistrates Juvenile & Domestic Relations District Courts Original Jurisdiction of misdemeanors
Civil Cases less than $15,000-
you can ask for a jury Original Jurisdiction of cases involving juveniles (under 18)
Family court, child custody, felonies and misdemeanors by juveniles General District Courts Appellate Jurisdiction
Original Jurisdiction for criminal cases & civil cases over $15,000 Circuit Courts Appellate Jurisdiction only
(not death penalty appeals) Court of Appeals Court of Final Appeal
Limited Original Jurisdiction VA Supreme Court Misdemeanor-
a relatively minor offense such as vandalism or stealing inexpensive items under $200 Justices, not a jury,
decide the case Judges, not a jury,
decide the case Judge or a jury
decide the case Judge, not a jury,
decides the case Judge, not a jury,
decides the case Federalism the division of power between the states & the national govt. Three Types of Powers State Powers Federal Powers Concurrent Powers Also called reserved powers because all powers not given the national govt. are reserved for the states;
Tenth Amendment regulate trade within a state
protect public welfare & safety
establish local govts. Powers shared by both the state & Federal govt. establish courts
provide for general welfare Powers of the national govt. actually listed are called enumerated or expressed powers. Certain other powers are also claimed as "implied powers" coin money
maintain army & navy
regulate trade between states & with foreign nations
carry out all expressed powers Separation of Powers
Checks and Balances In addition to its own separate power, each of the three branches of govt. is empowered to check the other two, in order to keep any branch from assuming too much power. This balance of national power allows for a strong central govt., with safeguards to prevent its becoming tyrannical. Legislative
Branch Checks & Balances Over Executive: can impeach President
can refuse to approve treaties
can override veto( two-thirds vote) Over Judicial: csn impeach judges
can reject appointment of judges Impeach- charge with misconduct Over Legislative: can veto legislation/ bills Over Judicial: can appoint judges Veto- to reject Over Executive: can declare presidential actions unconstitutional Over Legislative: can declare acts of legislature unconstitutional Impact of the Media on
Public Opinion & Public Policy Focusing public attention on selected issues
Offering a forum in which opposing viewpoints are communicated and interviewing public officials
Holding govt. officials accountable to the public by using the "watchdog" function
Govt. officials use the media to communicate with the public i.e. President Obama has a twitter account Individuals & Interest Groups Influence Public Policy Ways Individuals Influence Public Policy Ways Interest Groups Influence Public Policy To lobby is to try to get govt. officials to support a group's goals. They try to influence legislatures to introduce or vote for or against a bill.
Lobbyist = someone who lobbies participating in politics by voting, campaigning
Expressing opinions by lobbing, demonstrating, or writing letters
Joining interest groups Identifying issues
Making political contributions
Lobbying govt. officials Felony-
a serious crime such as murder, rape, kidnapping, or robbery Civil Case: a disagreement between two parties; no law is broken Criminal Case: Federal or state govt. taking action against someone who has committed a felony or misdemeanor;
law was broken 1) Arrested! 2) Maybe Jail or Bail 3) Arraignment 4) Trial 5) Appeals Steps in a Criminal Case 1) Complaint Filed 2) Response by the Defendant 3) Trial 4) Appeals Steps in a Civil Case Lawyer for the plaintiff(offense) files a lawsuit for the damages or compensation Lawyer for defense file response to lawsuit Both sides represent their cases, judge or jury render the verdict Either side may appeal to a higher court Police must have probable cause to arrest you May either be put in jail or released on bail Probable cause is reviewed, plea is entered Both sides share their arguments, verdict is rendered Losing side may appeal to a higher court 5th Amendment: due process at national level;
Miranda Rights- you have the right to remain silent, the right to an attorney, and anything you say can be used against you 14th Amendment: Citizenship and due process at state level Due Process: the following of proper legal procedures The study of how we make choices with limited resources. Economic
Concepts Resources: Factors of production that are used in the production of goods and service.
Types of resources are:
entrepreneurship Choice: Selecting an item or action from a set of possible alternatives.
Individuals must choose/make decisions about desired goods and services because these are limited. Scarcity: The inability to satisfy all wants at the same time.
Requires that choices be made.
All resources and goods are limited. Opportunity Cost: What is given up when a choice is made.
Individuals must consider the value of what is given up in making a choice. Consumption: Consumer preferences and price determine what is purchased. Production: Resources available and consumer preferences determine what is produced. Supply & Demand: Supply is the amount of a good or service that producers are willing to sell at a certain price.
Demand is the amount of a good or service that consumers are willing to buy at a certain price.
The interaction of supply and demand determines price. Price: Price is the amount of money exchanged for a good or service.
Interaction of supply and demand determines price.
Price determines who acquires gods and services. Incentive: A thing that motivates one to change economic behavior. Basic Economic Questions What to Produce? Free Market- Supply & demand dictate what will be produced Command Economy- The central authority(govt.) determines what will be produced Consumers still have the largest role in determining what will be produced ( Consumer Sovereignty) Mixed Economy- Custom dictates what will be produced Traditional- Who will Produce It? Command Economy- Free Market- Mixed Economy- Traditional- Farming,hunting, & gathering jobs are done the same way as the generations before have done them The means of production are usually privately owned, but some govt. regulations are used to prevent unfair competition The central authority(govt.) makes decisions and determines how resources will be used Economic decisions are made by individuals competing to earn profit For Whom is it Being Produced? Traditional- Mixed Economy- Command Economy- Free Market- Products & services can be purchased by anyone who has the resources to do so. Ownership of private property is encouraged. Most individuals/families are self-sufficient & produce what they need for their own survival. Individuals make this decision for the private sector. Govt. makes decisions for the public sector. The govt. determines who receives goods/services, consumers have little individual economic freedom. Resources: necessary to produce goods or services
Services- work performed Types of Resources: Entrepreneur- Intermediary- Capital- Human/Labor- Natural- Not made by people but used/consumed by people
Ex.: oil, trees, fields, rainfall Work, physical, intellectual, time and effort put in by humans. Tools used in production.....wear out, not used up.
Ex.: bulldozers, hammers, machines Made by people, used up.
Ex.: nails, metal Individuals who start new businesses, introduce new products.
Ex.: Steve Jobs 4 Major
Economic Systems The type of economy is determined by the extent of govt. involvement in economic decision making. Free Market Economy: Private ownership of property or resources
Profit motive; money made after you pay all expenses
Minimal govt. involvement in the economy Command Economy: Central ownership( usually by govt.) of property or resources
Lack of consumer choice Mixed Economy: Individuals and businesses are owners and decision makers for the private sector
Govt. is owner and decision maker for the public sector
A greater govt. role than in a free market & less than in a command economy
Most economies today, including the U.S., are mixed economies Traditional Economy: Economic decisions are based on custom and historical precedent
Typically agricultural Types of Business Ownership There are 3 basic ways that businesses organize to earn profits- the money gained after all expenses of production are paid Proprietorship: A form of business organization with one owner who take all the risks and the profits. Partnership: A form of business organization with 2 or more owners who share the risks and the profits Corporation: A form of business organization that is authorized by law to act as a legal person regardless of the number of owners
Owners share the profits
The owners' liability is limited to investments Entrepreneurs play an important role in all three business organizations. A person who take a risk to produce goods & services in search of profit
May establish a business according ti any of the three types of organizational structures Entrepreneur- Circular Flow: Businesses Individual Government Resources, goods, services, & money flow continuously among households, businesses, and govt. in a mixed economy. (Households) save money in a bank
own the resources used in production
sell the resources
use the income to purchase products (Producers) buy resources
make products that are sold to individuals, other businesses, and the govt.
borrow money for expansion
sell goods & services for profits Govts. use the tax revenue from individuals & businesses to provide public goods & services Financial Institutions: are intermediaries between savers and borrowers.
Receive deposits and make loans. Encourage saving and investing by paying interest on deposits. Credit Union run by a business or a labor union Banks keep &
lend money Securities
Brokerages buy & sell stocks Savings & Loans savings accounts
loans for houses Global Economy Worldwide market in which the buying and selling of goods and services by all nations takes place. Reasons States & Nations Trade: to obtain goods & services they can't produce or produce efficiently themselves;
specialization to buy goods & services at a lower cost or a lower opportunity cost to sell goods & services to other countries to create jobs Impact of Technological Innovations Innovations in technology contribute to the global flow of information, capital, goods, and services
The use of technology also lowers the cost of production The govt. promotes competition by: Enforcing anti-trust legislation to discourage the development of monopolies
Engaging in global trade
Supporting business start-ups
(SBA- the Small Business Administration) Govt. Agencies that Regulate Business: EPA-
Environmental Protection Agency
Federal Communications Commission
Federal Trade Commission Public
Goods & Services The govt. provides public goods & service that individuals acting alone could not provide efficiently Characterless of Public Goods & Services: Include such items as interstate highways, postal service, and national defense
Provide benefit to many simultaneously
Would not be available if individuals had to provide them Ways Govts. Produce Public Goods & Services Through tax revenue, borrowed funds and fees Impact of Taxation The govt. taxes, borrows, and spends to influence economic activity Govt. Tax Govt. tax increases reduce the funds available for private & business spending......tax decreases increase funds for private & business spending Govt. Borrowing Increased govt. borrowing reduces funds available for borrowing by individuals & businesses......Decreased govt. borrowing increases funds available for borrowing by individuals & businesses Govt. Spending Increased govt. spending increases demand, which may increase employment & production......Decreased spending reduces demand, which may result in a slowing of the economy Govt. Spending & Taxes Increased govt. spending may result in higher taxes......decreased govt. spending may result lower taxes The 16th Amendment The 16th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America authorizes Congress to tax income....both personal & business U.S. Govt. Creates Money & Coins The govt. is responsible for creating & issuing money.
People accept the money in exchange for goods &services because they have confidence in the govt.
The govt. issues money to facilitate this process. Money= Anything that is generally accepted as a method of payment
Three types of money generally used in the U.S.:
federal reserve notes
deposits in banks accesible by check and debit cards
Coins - Produced by the U.S. Mint, part of the United States Department of Treasury Types of Money:
Federal Reserve Notes- Produced by the United States Bureau of Engraving & Printing, part of the United States Department of Treasury
Bank Deposits- Can be produced by checks as well as debit cards The Federal Reserve System
(The Fed) The Fed is the central bank of the U.S.
The Fed acts as a banker's bank by issuing currency & regulating the amount of money in circulation. To slow the economy the Fed: restricts the money supply, causing interest rates to rise
increases reserve requirements
raises discount rates
sells govt. securities To stimulate the economy the Fed: increases the money supply, causing interest rates to decline
lowers reserve requirements
lowers discount rates
purchases govt. securities As the Central Bank of the U.S., the Federal Reserve System: The FED has the duty to maintain the value of our currency (dollar)
The FED regulates banks to ensure the soundness of the banking system & the safety deposits
The FED manage the amount of money in the economy to try to keep inflation low & stable
The FED acts as the federal govt.'s bank Careers An awareness of individual talents, interests, and aspirations is needed to select a career
Attitudes & behaviors that support a strong work ethic enhance success
There is a correlation between skills, education, and income
Changes in technology influence the abilities, skills, & education needed in the marketplace
Career planning starts with self-assessment
Employers seek employees who demonstrate that attitudes & behaviors of a strong work ethic
Higher skills and/or education level generally lead to higher incomes
Supply & demand also influence job income. The greater the demand for a particular skill or service, the higher the salary Fiscal Responsibilities make careful spending decisions
save & invest for the future
keep to a budget
use credit wisely
understand how contracts, warranties, and guarantees protect the individual 5 oceans 7 continents vertical - longitude lines; Prime Meridian
horizontal - latitude lines; Equator West East Cardinal Direction:
South 7 Continents: North America
Antarctica 5 Oceans: Atlantic Ocean