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Transcript of The swamp
Abiotic and biotic
elements of the Swamp
Interactions with abiotic and biotic factors of the ecosystem
Biotic things need abiotic things like ideal temperature range, water and the sun.
An example of a interaction is Algae blooms affect the oxygen levels in the water, so fish (primary consumer) might die. the amount of primary consumers affects every trophic level underneath it. So clarity of water effects predation. Some animals depend on the abiotic elements for shelter.
About the ecosystem
Video of Scenery
By: Patrick Chen
& Alex Woo
Class: 7 Kirkimtzis
Map of the Okefenokee Swamp
Some abiotic factors of the swamp are water, oxygen, soil, ideal temperature range.
Biotic elements of the swamp are
Animals- black bears, otters, water moccasins, alligators, osprey, Toads, Frogs, Turtles, Lizards and many other animals
Plants- Peat, bald cypress and swamp tupelo tree, Pitcher Plant or Fly Catcher, Bladderwort, Sun Dew, lily plants, duckweed
The 5 Most Interesting animals in the swamp
The bear is by far the most powerful animal in the Okefenokee. At one time they were a menace to the small farmers living near the swamp. They made repeated raids carrying off hogs, small calves, or anything else they could find to eat. Organized bear hunts were not for sport to the settlers but a necessity to protect their livestock. The bear mates in the summer, and the cubs, usually two, a male and a female, are born in the late winter. At birth the cubs are blind, almost hairless, and weigh less than one pound. The mother often sits with the cubs between her legs, blowing her warm breath on them. They are one of the most helpless and dependent animals at birth and in no way resemble the large and powerful animal they later become. They grow 100 pounds a year for the first two years, then 50 to 75 pounds the next couple of years. A full grown bear will weigh around 300 pounds and stand over six feet tall on his hind legs. In spite of their size, they are not slow and cumbersome, but are capable of great speed. The bear is omnivorous, eating both plants and meat. He eats plants, berries, nuts, roots, insects, fish, eggs and small animals. The bear has even learned to find the camouflaged turtle nest by raking its long claws over the disturbed ground until it finds a deep soft spot. It is able to feast on the eggs hidden from so many other swamp creatures.
The otter is one of the most graceful of all animals in the water. It swims with tremendous speed, as well as grace, and with seemingly little effort. The otter grows to around four to four and a half feet and weighs around fifteen to twenty pounds. At one time they were hunted by dogs as well as trapped because of their valuable furs.
Of the 27 species of snakes in the swamp, the water moccasin is one of the largest and one of the few venomous ones. The majority of snakes lay eggs, but the moccasin is one of the few species that give birth to living young. It has large hollow fangs which are connected to sacs of poison in its cheeks. When biting its enemy, it squeezes the sacs to inject the poisonous venom, and returns to its coiled position in approximately ONE-HALF SECOND.
The American Alligator was at one time seriously threatened and considered one of the endangered species. “Gator Hunting” became popular and extremely profitable as reptile shoes, handbags, and belts grew in popularity. The alligator was seldom hunted for sport or game but strictly as a business. Two hunters could kill as many as forty gators in an evening. The female alligator builds a large nest, measuring five or six feet across and two or three feet high, in an open area near the water. She lays 30 to 60 eggs and covers them with leaves, muck, moss, and other trash. She then splashes this down good with water and the sun heats the damp vegetation and the eggs in the mound. It takes from 60 to 90 days for the eggs to hatch, and the baby alligators immediately start making a clucking sound. The mother hearing the clucking, uncovers the newly hatched alligators. When hatched, the young alligators are about six inches long. These young alligators grow about one foot a year for the first six or seven years. Full grown they may reach twelve to fifteen feet in length and weigh 700 pounds. The alligator is extremely fast, although he looks slow and clumsy basking in the sunshine. He feeds on snakes, fish, small animals, turtles, and even baby alligators.
At one time the osprey nest served as guide-post to the local natives penetrating the unchartered interior. Osprey are known to be territorial. A pair will build their nest usually in a high tree near a prairie and this area for a couple of miles in all directions will become their domain. No other osprey will establish a nest in their territory. The osprey repair their nests when necessary using the same nest year after year. The fact that these nests are in high places, are large and easily seen, remain for many years, and are several miles apart, make them useful landmarks to the local natives.
The term Okefenokee in Native American is "land of trembling earth" The Okefenokee Swamp is considered to be one of the "Seven Natural Wonders of Georgia" . The swamp was formed over the past 6,500 years. The Okefenokee Swamp is part of the "Southeastern conifer forests ecoregion" The Okefenokee is famous for its amphibian which include: Toads, Frogs, Turtles, Lizards and many more! The Okefenokee Swamp is a shallow, 438,000 acre (1,770 km²), peat-filled wetland straddling the Georgia–Florida border The swamp is bordered by Trail Ridge, a strip of elevated land believed to have formed as coastal dunes or an offshore barrier island. The St. Marys River and the Suwanee River both are the heart of the swamp
Humans affect the environment in many ways such as: Cutting trees, Polluting water, Polluting the Air etc. How does it affect the environment?
Cutting Trees: Cutting Trees affect the environment because animals need them for food, shelter and air.
Water Pollution: Water Pollution affect the environment because some animals need water to breath in, swim in and live in. We pollute water by throwing waste in the oceans.
Air Pollution: Air Pollution affect the environment because some animals, plants and even we need air to live in and breath in. We pollute the air by smoking and the gases from factories.
Land Pollution: Land Pollution can affect the environment because some animals need the land so grass and other things can grow and some even live in the ground.
Killing Animals: Killing Animals affect the environment because some animals need other animals to eat and for mutualism.
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Humans pollute the ground and water by spilling chemicals and littering.
Humans pollute the air with cars and factories