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The Invention & Innovation of the Computer! :)

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Natalie B.

on 11 September 2013

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Transcript of The Invention & Innovation of the Computer! :)

The Invention & Innovation of the Computer! :)
By: Natalie Buscemi

1."Computer History." LiveScience.com. Tech Media Network, 2013. Web. 08 Sept. 2013.
2. "Computer History Museum - Timeline of Computer History." Computer History. Computer History Museum, 2006. Web. 08 Sept. 2013.
3. "The History of Computers - Computer History Timeline." The History of Computers - Computer History Timeline. About.com, 2013. Web. 08 Sept. 2013.

There are many contributors to the evolution of the computer. Konrad Zuse invented the computer in 1936, which was the Z1 computer. He invented a mechanical calculator, which was the first binary computer. He used this new computer to explore many groundbreaking computer technologies. For example, the floating-point arithmetic, high capacity memory, and modules that were operating on the yes and no principle. He also created the Z2 in 1939, and the Z3 in 1941. The Z2 was the first fully functioning electro- mechanical computer. The Z3 had the ability to store a program.
The Computer and The Beginning:
The first innovation was in 1942 by John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry. The innovation included a new binary system of arithmetic, parallel processing, regenerative memory, and the separation of memory and computing functions. In 1939, the partners built a prototype of the first computer. The prototype won them a grant of $850 to build a full-scale model. The new and innovated product was the size of a desk, weighed 700 pounds, had 300 vacuums and more, and contained a mile of wire. Since the product was huge, the product stayed in the physics department of the University the partners were at.
The First Innovation to The Computer:
In 1944, the 2nd innovation of the computer was made by Howard Aiken, and Grace Hopper. They innovated the last innovation to the new invention of the Mark I Computer. The new computer was controlled by pre-punched paper tape, and that could carry out addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and reference to previous results. This new innovation also stored data and even 300 decimal storage wheels counted mechanically. The computer, Mark I Computer would be thought of to be very slow because it took 3-5 seconds to do multiplication.
Second Innovation of The Computer:
In 1958, the 10th innovation was made to the computer by Jack Kirby, and Robert Noyce. These two engineers had been working on the answer to solve a problem, how to make more of less. They both had created identical integrated circuits at almost the same time. The new innovation placed the previously separated transistors, resistors, capacitors, and all the connecting wiring onto a single crystal (a Microchip) that was made of semiconductor material. In 1961, the first ever commercially integrated circuits were released and now all computers had a Microchip in it.
The 10th Innovation of The Computer:
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In 1971, the 15th innovation to the computer was made by Federico Faggin, Ted Hoff, and Stanley Mazor. These engineers worked at Intel and innovated the computer by introducing the world’s first single chip microprocessor, the Intel 4004. This new microprocessor placed all the parts that made computers work on one small chip. Now you can program intelligence into inanimate objects. Federico Faggin led the design and the development of the microprocessor. Stanley Mazor actually wrote the new software for the microprocessor (chip). Ted Hoff thought that it be interesting to use MOS LSI technology to produce a new and interesting computer. All of these three engineers pushed the promotion of microprocessor (chip) by Intel.
The 15th Innovation of The Computer:
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Also in 1971, the 16th innovation to the computer was made by Alan Shugart, and IBM engineers. The inventor Alan Shugart and IBM engineers innovated the computer by introducing the first memory disk, which was, and still is now, known as the floppy disk. The first floppy disk was 8-inches, a flexible plastic disk that was coated with magnetic iron oxide. Computer data was then written and was read from the disk’s surface. The inventors invented the floppy disk by loading microcodes into the controller of the IBM 3330 disk pack file. Basically, the first floppies that were invented were used to fill other types of storage devices.
The 16th Innovation of the Computer:
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In 1978, the 20th innovation to the computer was made by Dan Bricklin, and Bob Frankston. The inventors innovated the computer by inventing the VisiCalc. The VisiCalc was the first computer spreadsheet program. The new spreadsheet was released to the public in 1979, which ran on the Apple II computer. Most microprocessor computers were supported by BASIC and a only a few games, the new spreadsheet program, VisiCalc introduced a whole new, different type of application software. Now with VisiCalc you could change any cell in a sheet, and then the entire sheet would be recalculated automatically. The two inventors started their own company, Software Arts Inc. They did this to develop their new product.
The 2oth Innovation of The Computer:
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In 1981, the 22nd innovation was made to the computer by IBM engineers. In July of 1980, IBM representatives were meeting for the first ever time with Microsoft’s Bill Gates to talk about writing a new operating system for IBM’s new personal computer. IBM had before been observing the innovating personal computer market for some time. There were secret plans for the IBM PC, and it was referred to as “Project Chess”. There was a code name for the new computer, which was “Acorn”. There were also twelve engineers who assembled the new computer in Boca Raton, Florida. On August 12, 1981, IBM officially released their new and improved computer, which was renamed as the IBM PC.
The 22nd Innovation to The Computer:
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In 1985, the 24th innovation was made to the computer by Microsoft. The new invention that was made was Microsoft Windows. On November 10, 1983, at a Plaza Hotel in New York City, Microsoft Corporation announced Microsoft Windows. Which was a next-generation operating system that will provide a graphical user interface, and a new multitasking environment for IBM computers. Microsoft did promise though to have the new product on the shelf by April 1984, but that didn’t happen until 1985. Since Microsoft Windows, was a new product, it did face competition from IBM and others.
The 24th Innovation to The Computer:
In 1990, the 27th innovation was made to the computer by Tim Berners-Lee. He was a researcher at a place named CERN, which was a high-energy physics lab in Geneva, which developed Hyper Text Markup Language. This new invention for the computer, HTML now allowed the Internet to go into the World Wide Web. Which now used new things he developed like, URL (Uniform Resource Locator), and HTTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol). Tim Berners-Lee did base his new World Wide Web on a new hypertext system that he even made for himself. He invented the World Wide Web server and browser, which was even available to the public in 1991.
The 27th Innovation of The Computer:
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In 1999, the 31st innovation to the computer was made by WiFi Alliance and Vic Hayes. This innovation now let people communicate, talk, chat, or call with a wireless signal. Your device does the same exact thing; it picks up a signal that can connect to the Internet, through airwaves or air. Even WiFi is a very high frequency radio signal. The 802.11 standards were controlled by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Which is based on how your electronics get a wireless network. The WiFi works by a router that is only connected to the Internet by which is called an Ethernet cable. Then the router does a broadcast that has a high frequency, and then carries the data to and from the Internet.
The 31st Innovation of The Computer:
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In 2001, the 33rd innovation to the computer was made by Apple. The innovation that was made to the computer was a new operating system for Mac computers. This new innovation was called the, “Cheetah”. But Apple called it the numbering system. The real release of the OS X was a little foolish. Another issue was that if applications could actually run in OS X. But thankfully, the OS could easily go back and forth between old, classic version of the Mac OS, and the new, and better OS X. There are many other OS Xs that were innovated over periods of time and there still are much more to come now and in the future. The current OS X right now is the Mountain Lion OS X 10.8. This was released on July 25, 2012.
The 33rd Innovation of The Computer:
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Our computers now are very impressive to what they were before. Now we have small, faster, better, improved deeply, and easily controlled computers. There are many computer companies now. For example, Dell, Intel, Mac (Apple), Microsoft Windows, and even more that people don’t know about. Some computers from Dell are the Inspiron 15 Non-Touch, and the Inspiron 14z Ultrabook Non-Touch. Some computers from Intel are the Dell Latitude 6430u Ultrabook, and the HP Elitebook Folio 9470m Ultrabook. Some computers for Apple are the MacBook Pro, MacBook Air, and the iMac. Some computers from Microsoft are the Acer Aspire R7-571, the ASUS VivoTab, and the Lenovo IdeaPad Yoga 11S. Our technology for computers has changed so much that we can’t even imagine. Now computers are a easy source to use in our every day lives that we don’t even acknowledge how computers were back in the 1930’s. This is how the computer has evolved over time in many good ways.
Computers Today! :
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