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Tropical Savanna

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Rachael Wilkinson

on 29 May 2013

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Transcript of Tropical Savanna

Tropical Savanna Rachael Wilkinson A savanna is a rolling grassland scattered with shrubs and isolated trees, which can be found between a tropical rainforest and desert biome.

Savannas are also known as tropical grasslands. What is a tropical Savanna? Temperature: During the dry season the average daily temperature is 93 degrees. During the rainy season it drops to a more comfortable average of 61 degrees. Description of Biome In the savanna climate there is a distinct dry season, which is in the winter. Savannas get all their rain in the summer months. During the distinct dry season of a savanna, most of the plants shrivel up and die. Some rivers and streams dry up. Most of the animals migrate to find food. In the wet season all of the plants are lush and the rivers flow freely. The animals migrate back to graze. It is usually cooler during the dry season by a few degrees. Because it is in the tropical latitudes that is still hot enough. The savanna climate has a temperature range of 68 to 86 F (20 - 30 C). In the winter, it is usually about 68 to 78 F (20 - 25 C). In the summer the temperature ranges from 78 to 86 F (25 - 30 C). In a Savanna the temperature does not change a lot. When it does, its very gradual and not drastic. Abiotic Factors What are some issues that humans are causing with the tropical savanna biome? Human Impacts Water/Rainfall: The average precipitation in the dry season is about 4 in. The average precipitation during the wet season is around 15 to 25 inches. Elevation Ranges: Usually tropical savannas are found at an elevation of 200-3,300 feet above sea level. Location: Mainly between latitudes 5° and 15° north and south of the Equator Sunlight: since tropical savannas are so close to the equator, they receive 10 to 12 hours of sunlight during most days of the year. Seasons: In most savannas there are two season, a "wet" and a "dry" season. The dry season usually last for about 5-6 months, May to October The wet season last 5-6 months usually from December to March. Greenhouse gases: why does it matter?: savannas are regularly swept by bush fires that release many tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. In addition, on average, around 25–35 tonnes of carbon above and around 20 tonnes of carbon in roots are released per year. Biotic Factors: The tropical grassland is home to several species of large grazing herbivores, large carnivorous cats , and other meat eating creatures.

Each have a specific niche and have key roles in the savanna’s food-web. How do they interact? Temperature affects the organism's metabolism, Water: adaptations for water homeostasis and conservation play a large role in determining a species' habitat range, Soil: Physical structure, pH, and mineral composition of soil limit distribution of plants and have an effect on the animals that feed on them. ELEVATION:
Lowest=200 feet
Highest=3,300 Sunlight: In tropical savannas, sunlight plays an important role in the health and nutrition of the region's wildlife and plants. The intensity of sunlight in these areas causes tropical savannas to be some of the hottest regions in the world. Amount of Precip and the impact: Soil of the savanna is porous, so the amount of water received helps determine vegetation growth. Because there is precipitation, there is a lot of vegetation in the savanna. Location of Savanna Biotic Factors Bermuda Grass Originally from the African grasslands, this species can be found anywhere between 45 degrees North and 45 degrees South. Classified as a weed, it is hardy and thrives in disturbed areas. Jerrah Tree It flowers biannually and provides food for bees, other insects and birds. River Bushwillow 5 Major Producers Growing to over 30 feet tall and along riverbanks, this tree is a food source for giraffes, who feed upon its leaves. Jackelberry Tree Yellowish oval-shape fruit of the Jackelberry provides sustenance for many savanna dwellers, including wart hogs and parrots. Kangaroo Paws this plant provides nectar for wattlebirds. Major Herbivores (and their diets :)) Buffalo- eat primarily grass that grows on the savannah Wildebeest: graze on grass. Their favorite types are short, sweet grasses. Giraffe: The giraffe browses on the twigs of trees, preferring plants of the Mimosa genus; Elephant: They eat plants of almost any size, from grass up to trees. warthogs: Warthogs love a good earthly diet that consists mostly of grass, bulbs and plants. They enjoy eating roots the best! Major Carnivores Lions: eat gazelles, impalas, buffalo's, wildebeest, zebras, giraffes and they will also eat dead animals Cheetah: diet includes gazelle, young wildebeasts, hares, warthogs and birds when they can catch them Jackal: they cooperatively hunt small or young antelopes and also eat reptiles, insects, ground-dwelling birds, fruits, berries and grass. Hyena: Hyenas consumes animals of various types and sizes and even other hyenas, carrion, bones, vegetable matter and other animals droppings. Their favorite food is the wildebeests and the zebras. A Food Chain. Works Cited "Tropical Savannas." Tropical Savannas. Radford University, 02 Feb. 2005. Web. 27 May 2013. "Savanna Biomes." Savanna Biomes. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 May 2013. "Tropical Savannas." Biomes of the World. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 May 2013. "Savanna Biome." Savanna Biome. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 May 2013. "Voltage Gate: Know Your Biomes IV: Tropical Savanna." Voltage Gate: Know Your Biomes IV: Tropical Savanna. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 May 2013. "Community, African, Monday - 215228." Community, African, Monday - 215228. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 May 2013. "Savanna Climates." Savanna Climates. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 May 2013. "About the Tropical Savanna." About the Tropical Savanna. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 May 2013. "African Savanna - Climate." African Savanna - Climate. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 May 2013. Thanks for watching! :) Major Omnivores and what they eat. :) Raccoons: includes acorns, walnuts, fruits, worms, insects and it can eat other mammals such as bird eggs, birds, fish, frogs and other small mammals "What Do Raccoons Eat?" What Do Raccoons Eat? N.p., n.d. Web. 28 May 2013. Skunks: They eat insects and larvae, earthworms, small rodents, lizards, rats,salamanders, frogs, snakes, birds, moles, and eggs. They also commonly eat berries, roots, leaves, grasses, fungi, and nuts. Black Bears: herbs, forbs, fruits, berries, nuts, Crayfish, frogs, birds' eggs, mice, red squirrels, woodchucks, and snowshoe hare The food web. 0.1% 1% 10% 100% "Untitled Document." Untitled Document. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2013. Savannas can result from either climate, soil conditions, animal behavior, or agricultural practices, which limit the occurrence of trees. Humans create savannas by burning the grasslands and felling the trees in order to plant crops. Large animals such as elephants can turn a forest into a savanna by stripping the bark from the trees, knocking over trees, and tramping on tree seedlings. Current Human Impact (Positive)
The Serengeti contains many national parks and game reserves, allowing animal populations to thrive and providing protection for endangered species
Current Human Impact (Negative)
The human population surrounding the Serengeti is beginning to pose a threat to the animal populations, such as lions and other big cats
Another problem associated with humans is their dogs; in many of these areas dogs are not vaccinated against diseases such as rabies, which affects the wildlife when the dogs intermingle with the animals
Example of this problem was 1994 CDV spread-almost 1/3 of lion population was killed when this virus jumped species
In addition, thousands of tourists visit the game reserve each year
Poaching is also a major problem "Human Impact - Tropical Savanna Ecotourism." Tropical Savanna Ecotourism. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2013. Humans influence savannas by managing fire, wildlife and domestic livestock, and wood and grass removals. Intensive livestock grazing, exclusion of indigenous browsers and fire prevention leads to rapid bush encroachment. In areas of high population and charcoal production, intensive wood harvesting leads to decreased woody biomass, which, combined with high grazing, leads to erosion. The same happens when fire frequency is increased and the animal load is too high. So, in the tropical savanna's case, human impact is actually good (usually)!
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