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Industrial Design History
Transcript of Industrial Design History
The Great War
- 28 July 1914 - 11 November 1918 Second World War
- 1st September 1939 - 2nd September 1945 1882 - Christopher Dresser publishes his book on Japan,
"Japan, Its Architecture, Art and Art-Manufactures" 1854 - Dresser graduates Design School late 1870's
Dresser becomes the first "Celebrity Designer".
Consumer goods are stamped with his name for marketing April 12th, 1861 - American Civil War breaks out. May 1789 - French Revolution breaks out Novemeber, 1799 the French Revolution is brought to an end by Napoleon Bonaparte June 22nd, 1865 last shot of the American Civil War is fired. April 15th, 1775 American Revolutionary War begins. September 3rd, 1783 the Treaty of Paris ends the American Revolutionary War 2nd September 1945. The signing of surrender documents by the Japanese ends the Second World War 1875 - Liberty and Co is founded by Arthur Lazenby Liberty 1890 - 1910 Art Nouveau is a dominant style 25th July, 1865.
H. Bessemers' patent for his Steel Converter is successful
(H. Bessemer, (1865). US Patent Number 49,053. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office) 1896 - Macintosh wins competition to design the Glasgow School of Arts 1897-1899 Macintosh builds the first stage of the Glasgow School of Arts 1907 - 1909 Macintosh designs the second stage of the Glasgow School of Arts 1883 - AEG is founded as an Electrical Company, using patents bought by Emil Rathenau from Thomas Edison. Their first product is electric light bulbs 1907 - Peter Behrens is appointed Artistic Consultant at AEG and is considered the world's first Industrial Designer after creating a unified corporate identity sharing styling between branding and products. 1866, Werner von Siemens discovers the dynamo-electric principle and thereby lays the basis for the use of heavy-current technology. By means of the dynamo, mechanical energy can be converted to electricity cost-effectively. By the end of the 1870s, the machine is improved to the point that nothing any longer stands in the way of public and private electrification. 1870 - Indo-European Telegraph Line
After only two years of construction, Siemens begins operation of the Indo-European Telegraph Line. From then on, a message can be sent from London to Calcutta, capital of the crown colony of India, in only 28 minutes instead of 30 days. 1879 - First electric railway
At the Berlin Industrial Exposition, Siemens & Halske presents the world's first electrical railway with an external power supply revolutionising modern locomotion. 1916 - Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (BFW) is founded on 7th March 1916 and incorporates Otto-Werke. BMW (founded 1917) acquires the BFW plant in 1922, but Bayerische Motoren Werke continues to date its foundation from the founding of BFW 1908 - Axel Wenner-Gren discovers the 20kg Santo Staubsauger vacuum cleaner and resolves to create a smaller and lighter product. This eventuates in the formation of Electrolux. 18 August, 1949 - Adolf 'Adi' Dassler registers the company name "Adidas". 1924 - Rudolf and Adolf Dassler found "Gebrueder Dassler Schuhfabrik" (Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory). Jesse Owens wins four gold medals at the 1936 Berlin Olympics wearing Dassler shoes. 1948 - Rudolf Dassler founds Puma and the existing assets of the Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory is divided between the brothers. 1921- engineer Max Braun established his company in Frankfurt am Main, first making radio parts and by 1929 complete power amplifiers and radio sets 1759 - "Josiah Wedgwood and Sons" is founded by Josiah Wedgwood. 1907 - Deutscher Werkbund is formed in Munich. 1919 - Bauhaus is formed after significant discussion between Henry van der Velde and Walter Gropius. 1917 - De Stijl is founded in the Netherlands 1709 - Abraham Darby I develops a method of producing Iron in a Coke-fired blast furnace. This development created the ability to produce much higher quantities of usable iron, and played a major role in starting the Industrial Revolution. 1803 - Britain declares war on France once more, starting the Napoleonic Wars. This continues to drive the need for iron, boosting the Industrial Revolution. Early 18th Century - Division of labour is beginning to become more widespread as an increasing population forces efficiency of farming/agriculture to become desirable. 1747 - Division of Labour is intense and far reaching throughout all industries.
1838 - The National Gallery in Trafalgar Square opens, providing a larger and permanent location. It has free admission and its location provided easy access for both the rich and the poor. 1832 -The UK government opens the National Gallery, based upon the 38 paintings of banker John Julius Angersteins' collection in an effort to educate the entirety of society on Art. It is run from Angersteins' house until larger premises are constructed. 1791 - The metre is defined as one ten-millionth of the length of the meridian through Paris from pole to the equator. The adoption of the metre played a significant role in the French revolution and had far reaching effects upon the Industrial Revolution and beyond. 1901 - American National Bereau of Standards is established. 1st January, 1901 -The Federation of Australia is completed, and Australia becomes a Commonwealth Nation, free from British rule. January, 1788 - the British First Fleet lands in Botany Bay, New South Wales in order to establish a new penal colony after the American Revolution 1959 - The Measure of Man and Woman by Henry Dreyfuss is first published. 12th August, 1908 - First Model T Ford rolls off the production line, ushering in a new era of production and consumer goods. 1733 - Kay's Flying Shuttle for Cotton Weaving 1743 - Steam Engine used for blast furnace bellows 1751 - Population of UK approximately Seven Million 1750's - Turnpike Trust set up to improve roads 1757 - Sarkey Brook Navigation Canal opens 1761 - Bridgewater Canal opened 1767 - First iron rails made at Coalbrookdale 1769 - Arkwright's Water Frame for spinning cotton 1769 - Hargreave's Spinning Jenny 1774 - Watt and Boulton start a steam engine factory 1779 - Crompton's Mule for spinning cotton 1779 - First all iron bridge built at Coalbrookdale 1781 - Watt invents the rotary action steam engine. 1784 - puddling process for Wrought Iron. 1785 - Cartwright's Power Loom runs on steam power. 1801 -Population of the UK hits approximately 10 million. 1804 - Trevithick runs first Railway Locomotive 1802 - Trevithick builds first steam locomotive 1819 - First Factory Act restricts the working hours of children 1825 - Stockton to Darlington Railway opens 1827 - Lathe developed. 1830 - Liverpool - Manchester Railway opens 1832 - Constitutional Reform in the UK (Reform Bill) 1836 - Birth Certificates introduced. 1837 - Queen Victoria is crowned 1854 - First Thonet bentwood chairs 1854 - World Exhibition in Munich 1859 - Thonet Chair No. 14 is released 1861 - Morris and Co founded. 1873 - World Exhibition in Vienna 1874 - First Impressionist exhibition in Paris 10th March, 1876 - Bell speaks into his device, “Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you.” This is the first demonstration of voice being transmitted over electric wire. 1888 - Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society founded. 1889 - World Exposition in Paris. - Eiffel Tower is built for the exhibition. 1890 - First Tube opened in London 1893 - Diesel Engine invented 1901 - Population of UK approximately 40 Million 1901 - Queen Victoria dies 1907 - Bakelite, the first plastic ever is developed. 23rd December, 1814 Treaty of Ghent is signed by diplomats to end the Napoleonic Wars, although fighting does not cease until 1815. 1852 – Electric Fire Alarm System 1799 – Volta discovers the Voltaic Pile, the first chemical battery. He publishes his research the following year. 1858 August 5 - first Transatlantic Telegraph line connects Newfoundland and Ireland. 1901 - Transmission and reception of first Transatlantic Wireless Telegraph 1880 - George Eastman invents a dry plate formula for photography.. 1885 - Eastman begins marketing the first commercial film. 1888 - Box Brownie Camera - the first pocket sized consumer camera. 1877 - Edison invents the Phonograph - wax cylinders that record sound. 1887 - Berliner Gramophone - utilised rubber discs. 1817 - Dandy horse or Draisiennes invented by Baron von Drais. Two-wheeled, it was powered by pushing along the ground with ones feet. considered the forerunner to the bicycle. 1865 Boneshaker or velocipede invented by Micheaux. first true bicycle with pedals attached to the front wheel, which also limited maximum speed. 1870 - Penny Farthing. Bicycle makers realised a larger wheel meant a larger distance traveled per revolution of pedals. 1890 - Rover Safety Bicycle is invented by JK Stanely. utilises the cog and chain mechanism for the first time, separating pedal speed from movement speed. 1897 - Pneumatic Tire is invented by John Dunlop. 1791 - British inventor Thomas Saint files a patent for the first sewing machine. a prototype was never built. 1830 - Thimmonier develops the first functional sewing machine for a factory. the factory is stormed by angry tailors and is almost bankrupt. 1851 - Singer company started. First affordable sewing machine due to the payment plans offered by Singer. 1702 - First known fountain pen 1809 - Peregrin Williamson receives the first American patent for a pen. 1819 - Thomas Schaffer receives a British patent for his half quill, half metal pen that he attempts to mass manufacture. 1831 - John Jacob Parker patents first self-refilling fountain pen. 1884 - Lewis Waterman patents first practical fountain pen which utilises capillary action 1867 - Americans Christopher Sholes, Carl Glidden and Samual W. Soule patented their first typewriter. 1873 - First commercially successful type writer is sold by Densmore & Yost. 1876 - Carl von Linden patents the process of liquefying gas for refrigeration. 1918 - the Kelvinator is the first commercially successful fridge produced in the USA 1934 - Raymond Lowey redesigns the fridge for Sears Roebuck in the then fashionable streamline style. 1878 - First commercial Telephone exchange built by the Bell Telephone Company. 1880 - Kampfe brothers file a patent for the first safety razor, with a wire along one edge to prevent cutting oneself while shaving. 1904 - King Camp Gilette is successful in his patent application for his disposable blade safety razor. 1943 - the first fully functioning electronic, digital computer Colossus begins operation. 1950 - Ace Pilot is built - with a clock speed of 1 Mhz it is the fastest computer in the world. 1948 - First general-purpose stored-program electronic digital computer known as 'Baby' is built at Manchester University. 1951 - The Ferranti Mark I, the first commercially available computer, is installed at Manchester University. 1945 - ENIAC is completed, the first electronic digital computer in the USA 1968 - Douglas Englebart holds a public demonstration of his oN-Line System, introducing linked computers, hyperlinked text, document editing, a mouse, email and even video conferencing.
1969 - ARPANET goes live - The first largescale network deployment of TCP/IP and packet switching technology . This technology has continued to develop into what we know as the internet today. 1776 - Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak founded Apple. 1983 - Apple Lisa is released but is hampered by its $10,000 price-tag. It featured a useable Graphic User Interface, and made huge innovations in this area, easing the use of personal computers for the modern consumer. 1984 - The Apple Macintosh is released with a price-tag of $2,495. The significant drop in price allowed for the Macintosh to achieve widespread success. 1985 - Windows 1.01 is released by Bill Gates. The GUI was full colour and menus were attached to individual windows rather than a single menu bar as Apple utilised. 1987 - Windows 2.0 is released with an updated look and feel. 1995 - Windows 95 is released. Cements Windows as the leading OS for personal computers. 1820 - 1829 1840 -1849 1840's - Railway Mania begins as Canal Mania declines.
1842 - Coal Mines Act extends Factory Act to coal mine workers.
1844 - Factory Act further restricts hours women and children can work.
1844 - Dry-goods merchant A. T. Stewart begins building his grand "Marble Palace," the first department store, in New York.