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Moral Diplomacy, Mexico and Wilson
Transcript of Moral Diplomacy, Mexico and Wilson
The Mexican Revolution: Quick rise and fall of three dictators
Prior to the 1910 Revolution, a ruthless dictator named Porfirio Diaz controlled Mexico. After thirty years of rule, Diaz was kicked out from his country after massive election fraud. Next, Francesco Madera ruled but was overthrown two years later led by an American coup due to his anti-foreign policies. Finally, General Huerta took power though he too would be ousted by American intervention.
"I Will not recognize a government of butchers"(Woodrow Wilson upon hearing that Huerta had gained power.)
In 1910, thirty two percent of Mexican land belonged to American companies. Much to the dismay of American businessmen, Wilson refused to recognize the Huerta regime. He argued through his policy of moral diplomacy that the United States would not support a government that was not democratically elected. Furthermore the Wilson administration refused to recognize the Huerta regime as it was supported and funded by multiple European countries.
American opposition and reasons for 1914 intervention
As the American government became increasingly dissatisfied with the Huerta regime, Wilson repealed the 1898 arms embargo that was started by the Taft administration. Further action was taken to start funding the constitutionalist rebel Venusatio Carranza. The final sparks that ignited American intervention after the Yiparanga was the arrest of American sailors. In 1914, the warship USS Dolphin anchored in Tampico. During the night American sailors blundered into a restricted area. Two were arrested on Mexican soil, another on the USS Dolphin. Wilson declared that the warship was US territory and that the Mexican goverment had violated the United State's sovereignty. Wilson demanded that the Mexican garrison in Tampico raise the American flag and salute it as an apology. Huerta promptly refused.
American intervention of 1914
Upon Huerta's refusal Wilson ordered the navy to bombard and land troops in Veracruz. Veracruz was occupied by US forces for seven months and this further destabilized the regime. The American invasion was very unpopular. The Mexican opposition joined hands with the regime to denounce the invasion. Even Wilson's own Democratic party denounced the invasion
European support for the Huerta regime
Supporting the Huerta regime against the U.S opposition were three key players: France, Germany and the United Kingdom. France supported the Huerta regime through 'mercenaries' which were actually French Foreign Legion soldiers. Germany supported the Mexican regime by supplying heavy munitions. The ship Yiparanga, which carried munitions, caused the first skirmish between Mexican and American troops as Wilson sought to block the shipment of munitions. The United Kingdom was indirectly related to the regime through Lord Cowdray, the British oil magnate in Mexico, who loaned money to the Huerta regime.
Intervention 1916-1917 (The undeclared war)
Two years after the withdrawal of US troops from Veracruz the Wilson administration intervened a second time in Mexico. Cross border raids from Mexican irregulars and attack of US assets led to intervention. On early 1916 the entirety of the US Army and National Guard were mobilized. The regulars pushed 400 miles into Mexican territory and left the national guard to defend the frontier. A series of skirmishes were fought and at the Battle of Carizal a United States cavalry detachment was virtually annihilated by Mexican regular soldiers. This was the biggest loss of life for American during the ten years of intervention. At this point the American legislature started pushing for a potential declaration of war against Mexico but the worsening situation in Europe stopped them. On February 1917 the American ambassador was sent back to Mexico City and US troops were pulled out.
The third and final US intervention 1918-1919
As the regular American Army found itself in Europe the national guard was left to guard the Mexican-American frontier. During this time Mexican regulars repeatedly engaged the less trained American militiamen. In several engagements the militiamen were pushed back. The loss of some skirmishes in the US led to a general phobia due to the Zimmerman Telegram. The Zimmerman Telegram was a telegram sent by the German Imperial Foreign Office; in it it offered Mexico all the territory that it had lost in past wars if they joined the Central Powers.
Source A and B Questions
This speech by Wilson is a perfect example of Moral Diplomacy. It talks about the loans and economic interests that European nations have on many Latin American countries and how the United States can "emancipate" them. The word emancipate means to free someone or something from political, social and legal restrictions. Wilson is ready to set free Latin American countries from the political and legal restrictions that they face from Europpean loans and business interests.
Source B shows how the United States have thoroughly exploited Latin American countries. Overall Source B shows the failure of the Drago doctrine passed by the Argentinean foreign ministry which refused the forced upon American military intervention in Latin American countries. Francisco Garcia Calderon talks about the dollar diplomacy that was forced upon in countries such as Guatemela and
Honduras. He talks also about companies such as the United Fruit Company that have reduced the
inhabitants to a "new slavery". Third, he talks about the imperialistic views and policies that America adopted when he refers to them "monarchs of North American finance". This shows how American Imperialism, its desire to expand its borders came hand in hand with dollar diplomacy from big American banks. Fourth it talks about the new American shipbuilding and military enlargements with the control of the Panama Canal to link its Pacific fleet with its Atlantic fleet. Finally, he talks of Cuba an american economic protectorate having been acquired after the Spanish American War of 1898. He refers in the exploration of Cuba the Platt Amendment that gave the terms for how Cuba could receive its independence which let the United States keep firm control of Cuba and its economy.
The president talks a lot during his speech
about his social ideas for the nation, specially
for industry workers. He also pushes for bills
for clean food, sanitation. An inserting factor
in my opinion is how close he seems to be the
working force and wanting to defend them, a pretty leftist stance. On the other hand he
doesn't talk about the rights of Women, African Americans.
He talks a lot at about how his party, the democrats manage to control the executive offices, the senate and the congress. And how it will help the people more in this way by implementing changes to the ways that are infective in the moment
When it comes to the economical stand point he talks about the way the country has not studied what it wastes and the toxic residues of some industry and that this should change. He also talks about defending taxation and indirectly attacks corruption and companies getting involved in politics
The Election of 1912
Bull Moose Party (Progressive Party)
The Republican Party: The candidate, The party's ideals