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Civil Rights Movement
Transcript of Civil Rights Movement
Delivered 28 August 1963, at the Lincoln Memorial, Washington D.C. Martin Luther King, Jr. 1929 - 1968 Background –
Linda Brown, a 3rd grader in Topeka, KS, was forced to walk 6 blocks to a bus stop and then ride a mile to school.
There was a neighborhood school just 7 blocks away from her house. She was not allowed to attend because of her race. James Meredith LBJ's Great Society Malcolm X President Barack Obama 44th and Current President
2008 - Present American Civil War
The First Civil Rights Movement "Abolition"
1870 | 15th Amendment - Prohibited the national and state governments from refusing citizens the right to vote because of their race, color, or because they were a slave at one time 1896 Plessy vs. Ferguson| "Separate but Equal" | Segregation Robert F. Kennedy, RFK The Fight for Civil Rights continues... Welcome to Mr. Gogan's U.S History Class!
Before we get started with today's lesson on the American Civil Rights Movement, let's first look back at what we have learned so far about the 1960s, JFK, and LBJ.
CLICK FORWARD 4 WARMUP WarmUp: (DO BOTH)
1. In 10 words of less summarize what you have learned about the 1960s, JFK, LBJ, and Vietnam. [Complete in Reader's Notebook]
2. In 1 Paragraph (5-7 Sentences) what was the most memorable part of Gary's presentation on a life of an American in Vietnam. [Complete in Reader's Notebook]
CLICK FORWARD WHEN YOU ARE FINISHED. Good work so far! But we are just getting started...
Have you ever heard the saying, "Sometimes you have to go slow to go fast." Mr. Gogan always thought that was silly, but that is exactly what were are going to do first. You should have, in your possession, your Civil Rights Reader's Notebook. Let's look there first.
[Go To Page 3 in your Reader's Notebook]
[When you finish the Reader's Notebook Walkthrough CLICK FORWARD] Learning Target | Today we will be introduced to the Civil Rights Movement in the United States by completing Mr. Gogan's Prezi Webquest!
[Follow the instructions]
[Read Your Reader's Notebook Carefully]
[Have Fun but Work Hard]
[STOP when you get to the STOP Sign]
CLICK FORWARD Click Forward The American Civil War 1860 - 1865 1864-1865 | 13th Amendment - Made the institution of slavery illegal in the United States of America 1868 | 14th Amendment - People who were born in the United States, including African-Americans, are considered natural citizens and have the same rights as all other Americans; overruled Dred Scott Case (1857)
1. Equal Protection Clause
2. Due Process Clause Types of Segregation de facto segregation de jure segregation Latin meaning, "concerning law"
laws to require separate public facilities for blacks and whites
De jure segregation has been declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court
Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, which outlawed de jure segregation. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Equality Latin meaning, "concerning fact"
One neighborhood may include only white families, and another nearby neighborhood may include only black families; racial segregation may have developed informally in response to social and economic factors, not as a requirement of the law
Milliken v. Bradley (1974) courts of law can remedy de facto segregation only if it was caused by specific acts of government
Washington v. Seattle School District No. 1 (1982) Court upheld voluntary acts by state agencies to overcome de facto segregation Same When You Are Done CLICK FORWARD Themes of the Civil Rights Movement
1. "You Can Kill A Man But You Can't Kill An Idea" - Medgar Evans
2. Civil Disobedience
3. Equality Watch, A Time For Justice, Video Clip, and answer the questions
[CLICK FORWARD] Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), is a landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal"
[CLICK FORWARD] Founded by W.E.B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells, among others.
The NAACP is the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; it is an incredibly influential civil rights organization that exists even today 1920 | 19th Amendment Passed granting women the right to vote Brown vs. Board of Education, 1954 Chief Justice Warren
Warren Court unanimously decides (9-0) that “separate education facilities are inherently unequal.”
Overrules Plessy v. Ferguson
SEPARATE IS NOT EQUAL! Click Forward!
You Are Doing Great! Baptist minister and leader/icon of the Civil Rights Movement.
Nobel Peace Prize 1964 – youngest recipient.
SCLC – Southern Christian Leadership Conference Known as, The Letter from Birmingham Jail, or The Negro Is Your Brother, this letter written on April 16, 1963, by Martin Luther King, Jr., literally from a Birmingham jail cell states how MLK felt about the Civil Rights Movement and injustice.
“Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly… Anyone who lives inside the United States can never be considered an outsider…” Who/What: the first African American student admitted to the segregated University of Mississippi,
Why: It was a flashpoint in the American civil rights movement. STOP WEBQUEST | CHECK FOR comprehension | Find Mr. Gogan
1. What is de jure segregation and what is de facto segregation?
2. What is Brown vs. Board of Education and what did it rule/overturn?
3. What religious organization was Martin Luther King Jr. a leader and member of?
4. What is SNCC?
5. What year did the Freedom Summer take place?
When you finish answering these questions, CHECK IN WITH MR. GOGAN, He has something for you. Complete Your Primary Source in Your Packet
then CLICK FORWARD Find Mr. Gogan
Complete the Pre-Assessment SNCC - Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC played a major role in the sit-ins and freedom rides, a leading role in the 1963 March on Washington, Mississippi Freedom Summer, and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party over the next few years Emmett Till Rosa Parks Little Rock 9 Sit-ins JFK LBJ Warm Up
Go to the "I Have a Dream" Primary Source within your Reader's Notebook.
ANSWER ALL the QUESTIONS from the Primary Source Colin Powell During his military career, Powell also served as National Security Adviser (1987–1989), as Commander of the U.S. Army Forces Command (1989) and as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1989–1993), holding the latter position during the Persian Gulf War. He was the first, and so far the only, African American to serve on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and was the first of two consecutive African American office-holders to hold the key Administration position of U.S. Secretary of State. Muhammad Ali (born Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr., January 17, 1942) is an American former professional boxer,philanthropist, and social activist. Considered a cultural icon, Ali has both been idolized and vilified. Rice was President Bush's National Security Adviser during his first term, making her the first woman to serve in that position. Before joining the Bush administration, she was a professor of political science at Stanford University where she served as Provost from 1993 to 1999. Rice also served on the National Security Council as the Soviet and Eastern Europe Affairs Advisor to President George H.W. Bush during the dissolution of the Soviet Union and German reunification. In 1977 Louis Farrakhan rejected Warith Deen Mohammed's leadership and re-established the Nation of Islam on the original model. He took over the Nation of Islam's headquarter Temple, Mosque Maryam (Mosque #2), which is located in Chicago, IL. Its official news publication is The Final Call Newspaper. The Nation of Islam does not publish its membership numbers; the core membership of the Nation of Islam is estimated between 20,000 and 50,000, but their following is believed to be larger. Most of the members are in the United States, but there are minority communities in other countries, including Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Jamaica, and Trinidad & Tobago. Elijah Muhammad was an African American religious leader, who led the Nation of Islam from 1934 until his death in 1975. He was a mentor to Malcolm X, Louis Farrakhan, Muhammad Ali; and his son Warith Deen Mohammed. The Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States announced by President Lyndon B. Johnson at Ohio University and subsequently promoted by him and fellow Democrats in Congress in the 1960s. Two main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. New major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation were launched during this period. The Great Society in scope and sweep resembled the New Deal domestic agenda of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
[CLICK FORWARD] Great Society Chart The movement was prominent in the late 1960s and early 1970s, emphasizing racial pride and the creation of black political and cultural institutions to nurture and promote black collective interests and advance black values.
"Black Power" expresses a range of political goals, from defense against racial oppression, to the establishment of social institutions and a self-sufficient economy.
The earliest known usage of the term is found in a 1954 book by Richard Wright entitled Black Power.
Although he did not "coin" the phrase, New York politician Adam Clayton Powell Jr. used the term on May 29, 1966, during a baccalaureate address at Howard University: "To demand these God-given rights is to seek black power." Gold Medalist Tommie Smith, (center) and Bronze medalist John Carlos (right) showing the raised fist on the podium after the 200m in the 1968 Summer Olympics wearing Olympic Project for Human Rights badges. Silver medalist Peter Norman from Australia (left) joins them. The Black Panther Party (originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African-American revolutionary socialist organization active in the United States from 1966 until 1982. The Black Panther Party achieved national and international notoriety through its involvement in the Black Power movement and U.S. politics of the 1960s and 1970s Stokely Carmichael (June 29, 1941 – November 15, 1998) was a Trinidadian-American black activist active in the 1960s American Civil Rights Movement. Growing up in the United States from the age of eleven, he graduated from Howard University and rose to prominence in the civil rights and Black Power movements, first as a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, pronounced "snick") and later as the "Honorary Prime Minister" of the Black Panther Party. The 1968 Olympics Black Power salute was a protest made by the African American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos during their medal ceremony at the 1968 Olympic Games in the Olympic Stadium, Mexico City, Mexico. As they turned to face their flags and hear the American national anthem (The Star-Spangled Banner), they each raised a black-gloved fist and kept them raised until the anthem had finished. Smith, Carlos and Australian silver medalist Peter Norman wore human rights badges on their jackets. The event was one of the most overtly political statements in the history of the modern Olympic Games. In his autobiography Silent Gesture, Tommie Smith stated that the gesture was not a "Black Power" salute, but a "human rights salute". Nation of Islam The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious movement founded in Detroit, Michigan by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad in July 1930. The Nation of Islam's stated goals are to improve the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of African Americans in the United States and all of humanity. Its critics accuse it of being black supremacist and antisemitic. After Fard's disappearance in June 1934, the Nation of Islam was led by Elijah Muhammad, who established places of worship - called Temples. There were a number of splits and splinter groups during Elijah Muhammad's leadership, most notably the departure of senior leader Malcolm X to become Sunni Muslim. After Elijah Muhammad's death, his son Warith Deen Mohammed changed the name of the organization several times and brought it into line with mainstream Sunni Islam. In 1967, Carmichael stepped down as chairman of SNCC and was replaced by H. Rap Brown. SNCC leaders had begun to refer to him as "Stokely Starmichael" and criticize his habit of making policy announcements independently, before achieving internal agreement. They gave him a formal letter of expulsion in 1967.
There is some speculation around Carmichael’s reasoning for stepping down from the chairman position of SNCC. According to his personal accounts, Carmichael had seen African-American demonstrators being beaten by police and shocked with cattle prods. As a witness to their suffering in commitment to non-violence, Carmichael began to develop a perspective that encouraged him to condone violence against the brutality of a racist police force.
He wanted to cause reciprocal fear by his new tactics. He later joined the militant political group known as the Black Panther Party. By now you should have finished your Reader's Notebook
Your Next Steps Are As Follows:
Go To the Backside of Page 8 and take notes
Select 4 out of the next 7 Africa-American and Civil Rights Leaders to fill out the blank page on the backside of page 8.
One of these four must be Malcolm X Born Malcolm Little and also known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, Malcolm X was an African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist. To his admirers, he was a courageous advocate for the rights of blacks, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans. Detractors accused him of preaching racism, black supremacy, and violence. He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history. Malcolm X's father died—killed by white supremacists, it was rumored—when he was young, and at least one of his uncles was lynched. When he was 13, his mother was placed in a mental hospital, and he was placed in a series of foster homes. In 1946, at age 20, he went to prison for breaking and entering. In prison, Malcolm X became a member of the Nation of Islam; after his parole in 1952, he quickly rose to become one of its leaders. For a dozen years, Malcolm X was the public face of the controversial group, but disillusionment with Nation of Islam head Elijah Muhammad led him to leave the Nation in March 1964. After a period of travel in Africa and the Middle East, he returned to the United States, where he founded Muslim Mosque, Inc. and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. In February 1965, less than a year after leaving the Nation of Islam, he was assassinated by three members of the group. Malcolm X's expressed beliefs changed substantially over time. As a spokesman for the Nation of Islam he taught black supremacy and advocated separation of black and white Americans—in contrast to the civil rights movement's emphasis on integration. After breaking with the Nation of Islam in 1964—saying of his association with it, "I did many things as a [Black] Muslim that I'm sorry for now. I was a zombie then ... pointed in a certain direction and told to march"—and becoming a Sunni Muslim, he disavowed racism and expressed willingness to work with civil rights leaders, he continued to emphasize Pan-Africanism, black self-determination, and self-defense. Following his brother John's assassination, on November 22, 1963, Kennedy continued to serve as the Attorney General under President Lyndon B. Johnson for nine months. There long had been bad blood between them, so in September 1964 Kennedy resigned to seek a U.S. Senate seat from New York, which he won in November. Within a few years he publicly split with Johnson over the Vietnam War. Elijah Muhammad was born Elijah Robert Poole in Sandersville, Georgia, the seventh of thirteen children to William Poole, Sr. (1868–1942), a Baptist lay preacher and sharecropper, and Mariah Hall (1873–1958), a homemaker and sharecropper.
Poole's education ended at the fourth grade. To support the family, he worked with his parents as a sharecropper. When he was sixteen years old, he left home and began working in factories and at other businesses. Poole later recounted that before the age of 20, he had witnessed the lynchings of three black men by white people. He said, "I seen enough of the white man's brutality to last me 26,000 years". Elijah Muhammad died from congestive heart failure at age 77 on February 25, 1975, the day before Saviours' Day, at Mercy Hospital in Chicago, Illinois In August 1931, at the urging of his wife, Elijah Poole attended a speech on Islam and black empowerment by Wallace D. Fard. Afterward, Poole said he approached Fard and asked if he was the redeemer. Fard responded that he was, but that his time had not yet come. Poole soon became an ardent follower of Fard and joined his movement, as did his wife and several brothers. Soon afterward, Poole was given the Muslim surname, first to Karriem, and later at Fard's behest, to Muhammad. He assumed leadership of the Nation's Temple No. 2 in Chicago. His younger brother Kalot Muhammad became the leader of the movement's self-defense arm, the Fruit of Islam. Elijah
Muhammad Elijah Muhammad took control of Temple No. 1, but only after battles with other potential leaders, including his brother. In 1935, as these battles became increasingly fierce, Muhammad left Detroit and settled his family in Chicago.
By the 1970s, the Nation of Islam owned bakeries, barber shops, coffee shops, grocery stores, laundromats, a printing plant, retail stores, numerous real estate holdings, and a fleet of tractor trailers, plus farmland in Michigan, Alabama, and Georgia. In 1972 the Nation of Islam took controlling interest in a bank, the Guaranty Bank and Trust Co. Nation of Islam-owned schools expanded until, by 1974, the group had established schools in 47 cities throughout the United States. In 1972, Muhammad told followers that the Nation of Islam had a net worth of $75 million Does Fighting Hate With Hate Really Ever Work?
Do the ends justify the means? Or can we learn something from the legacies, lessons, and lives of the people pictured above? MLK Gandhi Jesus Elizabeth Cady Stanton Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also referred to by his initials RFK, was an American politician, a Democratic senator from New York, and a noted civil-rights activist. An icon of modern American liberalism and a member of the Kennedy family, he was a younger brother of President John F. Kennedy, and he served as the president's chief adviser during his presidency. From 1961 to 1964 he served as the U.S. Attorney General. In March 1968 Kennedy began a campaign for the presidency and was a front-running candidate of the Democratic Party, appealing especially to black, Hispanic and Catholic voters. In the California presidential primary, on June 4, Kennedy defeated Eugene McCarthy, the hero of the New Left and student elements in the Democratic Party. That night Kennedy was shot by Sirhan Sirhan, a Palestinian Arab. Mortally wounded, he survived nearly 26 hours, then died early in the morning of June 6. Originally known as Cassius Clay, at the age of 22 he won the world heavyweight championship from Sonny Liston. Ali changed his name after joining the Nation of Islam in 1964, subsequently converting to Sunni Islam in 1975. In 1967, three years after Ali had won the heavyweight championship, he was publicly vilified for his refusal to be conscripted into the U.S. military, based on his religious beliefs and opposition to the Vietnam War. Ali was eventually arrested and found guilty on draft evasion charges; he was stripped of his boxing title, and his boxing license was suspended. He was not imprisoned, but did not fight again for nearly four years while his appeal worked its way up to the U.S. Supreme Court, where it was eventually successful. Nicknamed "The Greatest", Ali was involved in several historic boxing matches. Notable among these were three with rival Joe Frazier, which are considered among the greatest in boxing history, and one with George Foreman, where he finally regained his stripped titles seven years later. Ali was well known for his unorthodox fighting style, epitomized by his catchphrase "float like a butterfly, sting like a bee", and employing techniques such as the Ali Shuffle and the rope-a-dope. Ali brought beauty and grace to the most uncompromising of sports and through the wonderful excesses of skill and character, he became the most famous athlete in the world. He was also known for his pre-match hype, where he would "trash talk" opponents, often with rhymes. "I Am The Greatest" Fast Forward To Today An American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army. He was the 65th United States Secretary of State, serving under U.S. President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2005, the first African American to serve in that position. After retiring from the role of Secretary of State, Powell returned to private life. Recently, Powell has encouraged young people to continue to use new technologies to their advantage in the future. In a speech at the Center for Strategic and International Studies to a room of young professionals, he said, "That's your generation...a generation that is hard-wired digital, a generation that understands the power of the information revolution and how it is transforming the world. A generation that you represent, and you're coming together to share; to debate; to decide; to connect with each other." Condoleeza
Rice Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat. She served as the 66th United States Secretary of State, and was the second person to hold that office in the administration of President George W. Bush. Rice was the first female African-American secretary of state, as well as the second African American (after Colin Powell), and the second woman (after Madeleine Albright). Following her confirmation as Secretary of State, Rice pioneered the policy of Transformational Diplomacy, with a focus on democracy in the Greater Middle East. Her emphasis on supporting democratically elected governments faced challenges as Hamas captured a popular majority in Palestinian elections, and influential countries including Saudi Arabia and Egypt maintained authoritarian systems with U.S. support. While Secretary of State, she chaired the Millennium Challenge Corporation's board of directors In March 2009, Rice returned to Stanford University as a political science professor and the Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow on Public Policy at the Hoover Institution. In September 2010, Rice became a faculty member of the Stanford Graduate School of Business and a director of its Global Center for Business and the Economy. Barack Hussein Obama (born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States, the first African American to hold the office. Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was president of the Harvard Law Review. He was a community organizer in Chicago before earning his law degree. He worked as a civil rights attorney in Chicago and taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. He served three terms representing the 13th District in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004, running unsuccessfully for the United States House of Representatives in 2000. In 2004, Obama received national attention during his keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July. He began his presidential campaign in 2007, and in 2008, after a close primary campaign against Hillary Rodham Clinton. He then defeated Republican nominee John McCain in the general election, and was inaugurated as president on January 20, 2009. Nine months later, Obama was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. He was re-elected president in November 2012, defeating Republican nominee Mitt Romney, and was sworn in for a second term on January 20, 2013. Today April 15, 2013 Go To Page 6
If you haven't already completed the Venn Diagram Find Mr. Gogan for the MLK vs. Malcolm Handout
If you have finished your Venn Diagram CLICK FORWARD and Complete your RN Learning Target | Today we will continue to learn about the American Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s by following along in our Reader's Notebook.
We we also compare and contrast MLK and Malcolm X.
We will also take a closer look at LBJ's Great Society and spotlight several key Civil Rights Leaders from the 1960s and today.
Follow the Prezi! One CLICK at a time! Get to the STOP SIGN CLICK
FORWARD CLICK FORWARD CLICK FORWARD Muhammad Ali On July 27, 2012, Ali was a titular bearer of the Olympic Flag during the opening ceremonies of the 2012 Summer Olympics in London. He was helped to his feet by his wife Lonnie to stand before the flag due to his Parkinson's rendering him unable to carry it into the stadium You Have Completed The Learning Target for the day!
Be Sure to Check your Reader's Notebook to make certain you have completed everything.
If you have, complete the Brown vs. Board of Education Primary Source in Your Reader's Notebook
When you finish that Read your MLK and Malcolm X Quotes, then seek out Mr. Gogan