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South Africa and the Apartheid

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Bianka Mariles

on 6 March 2016

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Transcript of South Africa and the Apartheid

South Africa and the Apartheid
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
inter-ethnic relationships
The red lines signify political unrest and violence
There were six non-independent regions: Gazankulu, Kangwane, Kwandebele, Kwazulu, Lebowa, Qwaqwa
There were four independent homelands: Transkei, Ciskei, Bophuthatswana,Venda

Location of South Africa (1948-1994)
May 1948: Apartheid begins after the 1948 general election.
~ Hoping to get votes from the white Africans, the National Party promises to make laws severely restricting black rights if they win the general election. The National Party defeats the United Party and apartheid begins.
June 1952: The African National Congress starts the Defiance Campaign.
~ Volunteers begin a peaceful resistance to apartheid by breaking the laws they think are wrong. The peaceful protests include black people sitting on benches marked for white people only and being out in the city after the curfew set for blacks.
1953: The Bantu Education Act is passed
~ Blacks are trained to prepare them for a life as part of the working class since it is not expected that they will be allowed to do anything more than that

History of the apartheid
Their negotiations led to the take over of several colonies
~ the British were interested in uniting these communities
This led to the South Africa Act in 1910 which created the Union of South Africa
Following that, the 4 British colonies combined = “Connolly 12”
They soon realized these colonies would not run smoothly if the Afrikaners did not cooperate with them
So, the British began more negotiations and worked out all conflicts with the Afrikaners
That laid down the blueprint for white supremacy in South Africa
pre-apartheid history
pre-apartheid history
The British gained power over the Dutch (who had settled 1st) in 1806 and had the coast named “The British Colony”
The Afrikaners were very unhappy with the British so they started to fight back which led to the Boer War (1899-1902), in which the British won
After the war, the British had no tolerance when it came to the Afrikaners and put them in concentration camps which resulted in the loss of 26,000 Afrikaners lives
Years after the war and the severe loss for the Afrikaners, both groups negotiated control over South Africa
the apartheid simplified
history of the apartheid
December 1956: Nelson Mandela is arrested for treason.
~ Nelson Mandela, an anti-apartheid activist, is arrested with several other people for fighting against apartheid. He is charged with treason, but after a four-year trial he is found not guilty.
1959: Separate homelands are created for the major black groups.
March 21, 1960: Sixty-nine people are killed in the Sharpeville Massacre.
~ Apartheid requires blacks to carry passbooks, which contain personal information such as name, date of birth, and photos. When protesters show up at the Sharpeville police station without their passbooks, a riot breaks out and police kill 69 people.
August 5, 1962: Nelson Mandela is arrested for treason.
~ Mandela was the leader of Umkhonto we Sizwe, part of the African National Congress. He is arrested for his role in bombing government targets and sentenced to life in prison.
Macro-discrimination: discrimination against minority groups firmly intertwined in society’s normative system
~ aka institutional discrimination
~ direct = purposeful
~ indirect = unintentional
>> structural discrimination: discrimination resulting from from the functioning of a society's institutions
Colonial (Segregationalist) Society:
~ Elements of colonial society:
>> Caste-like
~ Very rigid in segregation between groups
>> enforced by laws and traditions
~ High institutional separation among ethnic groups
~ Very different physical features or very different cultural differences
~ inequalitarian pluralism: separation/duplication of institutions, extreme polarization b/wn groups, high levels of discrimination, unequal distribution of wealth

What Makes These groups ethnic groups?
Ethnic group: a group that displays a unique set of cultural traits
Some characteristics:
~ unique cultural traits
~ sense of community
~ ethnocentrism
~ ascribed membership
~ territoriality

what makes these group ethnic groups?
European (Afrikaners and British) settlers:
~ Ascribed Membership
~ Religion
>> Christianity
~ Physical Appearance
>> Light skin tone
~ Language
>> Afrikaans and English
~ Ethnocentrism
~Unique cultural traits

South Africans (and other minority groups):
~ Ascribed Membership
~ Religion
>> Polytheism
~ Physical Appearance
>> Dark skin tone
~ Language
~ Territoriality
>> 80% of population
~ Sense of Community
~ Unique cultural traits

group interaction
Exclusion/Removal
~ The British and Afrikaners had an advantage over the South Africans
>> This made desirable territory easier to take
Inhabitants (the natives as well as other minority groups) were forced into less desirable areas
~ they went from urban areas to the rural areas
Paternalism
~ British came to South Africa with the idea of “helping” the Africans find the “right” way to life
>> Regulated the Africans to do their manual work

important laws that created segregation
Population Registration Act, 1950:
~ Demanded people to be registered according to their racial group
~ Formed the basis of the apartheid because people would then be treated differently according to their racial group
Group Areas Act, 1950:
~ Created physical separation between races (especially in urban areas)
~ Called for the removal of some groups of people into areas set aside for their racial group
Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act, 1959:
~ Forced different racial groups to live in different areas
~ Although black people made up a vast majority of South Africa, they were forced to move out of urban areas (where mostly white people lived) and form “homelands”

important laws that created segregation
Bantu Education Act, 1953:
~ Europeans established an inferior education system for Africans that centered the curriculum on manual labor skills & obedience
~ Eventually an extension Act was created to prevent black students from attending “white” universities, creating separate and unequal institutions
The Suppression of Communism Act, 1950:
~ This Act was introduced in an attempt to stop the influence of the CPSA (Communist Party of South Africa) and other groups that opposed the government’s apartheid policies
~ It sanctioned the banning and punishment of the CPSA/other groups intending to bring about any change (political, social, etc.) that eventually creates hostility towards Europeans

power conflict theories
Economic Gain Theory:
~ Prejudice and discrimination yields profit for those who engage in them
~ Groups targeted because they are perceived as a threat to the economic position of the dominant group
~ Africans were given lower status jobs (labor, menial, servitude) when the Europeans came into power
Group Position Theory:
~ According to Herbert Blumer, it is when prejudice is used by the majority group to protect their position in society
~ The dominant group believes that the minority groups are threatening the dominant group’s privileges and resources.
~ The Afrikaners (Dutch) saw Africans as a threat to their ultimate survival as a people -- thought themselves as the “chosen people” destined to conquer the numerically superior African tribes

power conflict theories
Marxian Theory:
~ The idea of “divide & rule”; the dominant group keeps the working class fragmented and thus easier to control
~ The working class is pitted against each other
~ The African population, although 80% of South Africa, were not a single culturally unified group
>> Full of different tribes (Bantu, Zulu, Xhosa, and Sotho)
~ Therefore, it was easy for the Europeans (10%) to control South Africa because they kept the different tribes fragmented

questions
1. What caused the inequality between the European settlers and the South Africans?
(a) threat of resources from Africans
(b) threat of political power from Africans
(c) ethnocentric thinking from Europeans
(d) ethnocentric thinking from Africans
2. Which of the following laws created by the Europeans did NOT incorporate macro-discrimination?
(a) Population Registration Act
(b) Bantu Security Act
(c) Group Areas Act
(d) Bantu Education Act

questions
3. In South Africa, which school massacre involved the death of over 600 in 1976?
(a) Kenya School Massacre
(b) Sharpeville Massacre
(c) Cape Town Massacre
(d) Soweto Massacre
4. Which interaction theory in the South African apartheid consisted of a group "helping" another group find the "right" way to live?
(a) Paternalism
(b) Benign Pluralism
(c) Assimilation
(d) Amalgamation
5. Which European settlers exemplified the group position theory by viewign the Africans as a threat?
(a) British
(b) Dutch
(c) Portuguese
(d) French

inter-ethnic relationships
Herrenvolk Democracy:
~ “a state that provides most democratic features of political rule to whites while ruling blacks dictatorially” (Berghe 1978)
~ Basically means “race-oligarchy” or “pigmentocracy”
>> Skin color was the single overriding criterion of societal power in South Africa

history of the apartheid
November 1974: South Africa is expelled from the United Nations
~ Due to apartheid, South Africa is removed from the United Nations. South Africa is not allowed back into the United Nations until the apartheid ended in 1994.
June 16, 1976: More than 600 students are killed in the Soweto Massacre
~ High school students in Soweto start a protest for an improved education system for blacks. Police break up the protest with tear gas and bullets, killing more than 600 people.
February 2, 1990: President Frederik Willem de Klerk ends the ban on the African National Congress
~ Even though he supported segregation at one time, President Frederick Willem de Klerk lifts the ban on the African National Congress in 1990. In 1993, de Klerk wins the Nobel Peace Prize with Nelson Mandela for helping end apartheid
history of apartheid
February 11, 1990: Nelson Mandela is released from prison.
~ After 27 years in prison, Nelson Mandela is freed from prison. Mandela thanks President de Klerk for helping set him free, but says that there is more work to be done to end apartheid
May 10, 1994: Nelson Mandela becomes president of South Africa.
~ In the country's first election that allowed both whites and blacks to vote, Nelson Mandela is elected president of South Africa. He is the first black president in the history of South Africa

Other Minority groups in South Africa
the Coloureds
~ half white/half black
~ only non-European aspect about them is their appearance
the Asians
~ Indians that were indentured workers in sugar cane fields
~ middleman minority: occupy an intermediate economic status b/wn majority and minority groups
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