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human body systems

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david f scott

on 7 March 2012

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Transcript of human body systems

human body systems Calories Burned During Physical Activity
This site shows a list of common activities and the number of calories burned per hour while performing these activities.

Calories and Exercise
Find out how many calories you can burn during specific exercises.

Good Housekeeping Diet Central
This offers a database in which you type in the number of minutes spent doing a specific activity to determine the number of calories burned.

An Unlikely Exercise for Burning Calories
Find out about the benefits of walking as an aerobic exercise for burning calories.






The Heart Preview Gallery
Want to know more about your heart? Organized in five sections--do, see, learn, go, and hear--this site incorporates the latest audio and video technology.

American Heart Association
Find out more about your heart and diseases that can affect it. The site also contains information about how to maintain a healthy heart.

The Electric Heart
Check out this site, which allows you to perform your own heart transplant. Also, see through animation the flow of blood through the heart.





Neuroscience for Kids
Link to this interesting site devoted to the study of the nervous systems. It also has links to other sites.

Whyfiles
How do your nervous system and digestive system interact? A brief article at this site explains how!

Space Neuroscience
Find out about the effects of outer space on the nervous system.

Nervous System Diseases
A site with many links to other sites concerning diseases of the nervous system.




Neuroscience for Kids
Link to this interesting site devoted to the study of the nervous systems. It also has links to other sites.

Whyfiles
How do your nervous system and digestive system interact? A brief article at this site explains how!

Space Neuroscience
Find out about the effects of outer space on the nervous system.

Nervous System Diseases
A site with many links to other sites concerning diseases of the nervous system.


The human body is the entire structure of a human organism, and consists of a head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs. By the time the human reaches ...
human body, including the skeletal, digestive, muscular, lymph, endocrine, nervous, circulatory, reproductive, and urinary ...
Organ Systems
Organ systems are composed of two or more different organs that work together to provide a common function. There are 10 major organ systems in the human body, they are the:

Major Role:
The main role of the skeletal system is to provide support for the body, to protect delicate internal organs and to provide attachment sites for the organs.
Major Organs:
Bones, cartilage, tendons and ligaments.
Major Role:
The main role of the muscular system is to provide movement. Muscles work in pairs to move limbs and provide the organism with mobility. Muscles also control the movement of materials through some organs, such as the stomach and intestine, and the heart and circulatory system.


Major Organs:
Skeletal muscles and smooth muscles throughout the body.
Circulatory System:

Major Role:
The main role of the circulatory system is to transport nutrients, gases (such as oxygen and CO2), hormones and wastes through the body.
Major Organs:
Heart, blood vessels and blood.
The circulatory system is the body's transport system. It is made up of a group of organs that transport blood throughout the body. The heart pumps the blood and the arteries and veins transport it. Oxygen-rich blood leaves the left side of the heart and enters the biggest artery, called the aorta. The aorta branches into smaller arteries, which then branch into even smaller vessels that travel all over the body. When blood enters the smallest blood vessels, which are called capillaries, and are found in body tissue, it gives nutrients and oxygen to the cells and takes in carbon dioxide, water, and waste. The blood, which no longer contains oxygen and nutrients, then goes back to the heart through veins. Veins carry waste products away from cells and bring blood back to the heart , which pumps it to the lungs to pick up oxygen and eliminate waste carbon dioxide.

Digestive System
The digestive system is made up of organs that break down food into protein, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, and fats, which the body needs for energy, growth, and repair. After food is chewed and swallowed, it goes down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is further broken down by powerful stomach acids. From the stomach the food travels into the small intestine. This is where your food is broken down into nutrients that can enter the bloodstream through tiny hair-like projections. The excess food that the body doesn't need or can't digest is turned into waste and is eliminated from the body.

Endocrine System
The endocrine system is made up of a group of glands that produce the body's long-distance messengers, or hormones. Hormones are chemicals that control body functions, such as metabolism, growth, and sexual development. The glands, which include the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, thymus gland, pineal body, pancreas, ovaries, and testes, release hormones directly into the bloodstream, which transports the hormones to organs and tissues throughout the body.

Immune System
The immune system is our body's defense system against infections and diseases. Organs, tissues, cells, and cell products work together to respond to dangerous organisms (like viruses or bacteria) and substances that may enter the body from the environment. There are three types of response systems in the immune system: the anatomic response, the inflammatory response, and the immune response.

•The anatomic response physically prevents threatening substances from entering your body. Examples of the anatomic system include the mucous membranes and the skin. If substances do get by, the inflammatory response goes on attack.
•The inflammatory system works by excreting the invaders from your body. Sneezing, runny noses, and fever are examples of the inflammatory system at work. Sometimes, even though you don't feel well while it's happening, your body is fighting illness.
•When the inflammatory response fails, the immune response goes to work. This is the central part of the immune system and is made up of white blood cells, which fight infection by gobbling up antigens. About a quarter of white blood cells, called the lymphocytes, migrate to the lymph nodes and produce antibodies, which fight disease.
Lymphatic System
The lymphatic system is also a defense system for the body. It filters out organisms that cause disease, produces white blood cells, and generates disease-fighting antibodies. It also distributes fluids and nutrients in the body and drains excess fluids and protein so that tissues do not swell. The lymphatic system is made up of a network of vessels that help circulate body fluids. These vessels carry excess fluid away from the spaces between tissues and organs and return it to the bloodstream.

Muscular System
The muscular system is made up of tissues that work with the skeletal system to control movement of the body. Some muscles—like the ones in your arms and legs—are voluntary, meaning that you decide when to move them. Other muscles, like the ones in your stomach, heart, intestines and other organs, are involuntary. This means that they are controlled automatically by the nervous system and hormones—you often don't even realize they're at work.

The body is made up of three types of muscle tissue: skeletal, smooth and cardiac. Each of these has the ability to contract and expand, which allows the body to move and function. .

•Skeletal muscles help the body move.
•Smooth muscles, which are involuntary, are located inside organs, such as the stomach and intestines.
•Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart. Its motion is involuntary
Nervous System
The nervous system is made up of the brain, the spinal cord, and nerves. One of the most important systems in your body, the nervous system is your body's control system. It sends, receives, and processes nerve impulses throughout the body. These nerve impulses tell your muscles and organs what to do and how to respond to the environment. There are three parts of your nervous system that work together: the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, and the autonomic nervous system.

•The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. It sends out nerve impulses and analyzes information from the sense organs, which tell your brain about things you see, hear, smell, taste and feel.
•The peripheral nervous system includes the craniospinal nerves that branch off from the brain and the spinal cord. It carries the nerve impulses from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.
•The autonomic nervous system regulates involuntary action, such as heart beat and digestion.
Reproductive System
The reproductive system allows humans to produce children. Sperm from the male fertilizes the female's egg, or ovum, in the fallopian tube. The fertilized egg travels from the fallopian tube to the uterus, where the fetus develops over a period of nine months.

Respiratory System
The respiratory system brings air into the body and removes carbon dioxide. It includes the nose, trachea, and lungs. When you breathe in, air enters your nose or mouth and goes down a long tube called the trachea. The trachea branches into two bronchial tubes, or primary bronchi, which go to the lungs. The primary bronchi branch off into even smaller bronchial tubes, or bronchioles. The bronchioles end in the alveoli, or air sacs. Oxygen follows this path and passes through the walls of the air sacs and blood vessels and enters the blood stream. At the same time, carbon dioxide passes into the lungs and is exhaled.

Skeletal System
The skeletal system is made up of bones, ligaments and tendons. It shapes the body and protects organs. The skeletal system works with the muscular system to help the body move. Marrow, which is soft, fatty tissue that produces red blood cells, many white blood cells, and other immune system cells, is found inside bones.

Urinary System
The urinary system eliminates waste from the body, in the form of urine. The kidneys remove waste from the blood. The waste combines with water to form urine. From the kidneys, urine travels down two thin tubes called ureters to the bladder. When the bladder is full, urine is discharged through the urethra.


1.Nerve impulses to and from the brain travel as fast as 170 miles per hour. Ever wonder how you can react so fast to things around you or why that stubbed toe hurts right away? It’s due to the super-speedy movement of nerve impulses from your brain to the rest of your body and vice versa, bringing reactions at the speed of a high powered luxury sports car.
2.The brain operates on the same amount of power as 10-watt light bulb. The cartoon image of a light bulb over your head when a great thought occurs isn’t too far off the mark. Your brain generates as much energy as a small light bulb even when you’re sleeping.
3.The human brain cell can hold 5 times as much information as the Encyclopedia Britannica. Or any other encyclopedia for that matter. Scientists have yet to settle on a definitive amount, but the storage capacity of the brain in electronic terms is thought to be between 3 or even 1,000 terabytes. The National Archives of Britain, containing over 900 years of history, only takes up 70 terabytes, making your brain’s memory power pretty darn impressive.
4.Your brain uses 20% of the oxygen that enters your bloodstream. The brain only makes up about 2% of our body mass, yet consumes more oxygen than any other organ in the body, making it extremely susceptible to damage related to oxygen deprivation. So breathe deep to keep your brain happy and swimming in oxygenated cells.
5.The brain is much more active at night than during the day. Logically, you would think that all the moving around, complicated calculations and tasks and general interaction we do on a daily basis during our working hours would take a lot more brain power than, say, lying in bed. Turns out, the opposite is true. When you turn off your brain turns on. Scientists don’t yet know why this is but you can thank the hard work of your brain while you sleep for all those pleasant dreams.
6.Scientists say the higher your I.Q. the more you dream. While this may be true, don’t take it as a sign you’re mentally lacking if you can’t recall your dreams. Most of us don’t remember many of our dreams and the average length of most dreams is only 2-3 seconds–barely long enough to register.
7.Neurons continue to grow throughout human life. For years scientists and doctors thought that brain and neural tissue couldn’t grow or regenerate. While it doesn’t act in the same manner as tissues in many other parts of the body, neurons can and do grow throughout your life, adding a whole new dimension to the study of the brain and the illnesses that affect it.
8.Information travels at different speeds within different types of neurons. Not all neurons are the same. There are a few different types within the body and transmission along these different kinds can be as slow as 0.5 meters/sec or as fast as 120 meters/sec.
9.The brain itself cannot feel pain. While the brain might be the pain center when you cut your finger or burn yourself, the brain itself does not have pain receptors and cannot feel pain. That doesn’t mean your head can’t hurt. The brain is surrounded by loads of tissues, nerves and blood vessels that are plenty receptive to pain and can give you a pounding headache.
10.80% of the brain is water. Your brain isn’t the firm, gray mass you’ve seen on TV. Living brain tissue is a squishy, pink and jelly-like organ thanks to the loads of blood and high water content of the tissue. So the next time you’re feeling dehydrated get a drink to keep your brain hydrated.
Hair and Nails

While they’re not a living part of your body, most people spend a good amount of time caring for their hair and nails. The next time you’re heading in for a haircut or manicure, think of these facts.

11.Facial hair grows faster than any other hair on the body. If you’ve ever had a covering of stubble on your face as you’re clocking out at 5 o’clock you’re probably pretty familiar with this. In fact, if the average man never shaved his beard it would grow to over 30 feet during his lifetime, longer than a killer whale.
12.Every day the average person loses 60-100 strands of hair. Unless you’re already bald, chances are good that you’re shedding pretty heavily on a daily basis. Your hair loss will vary in accordance with the season, pregnancy, illness, diet and age.
13.Women’s hair is about half the diameter of men’s hair. While it might sound strange, it shouldn’t come as too much of a surprise that men’s hair should be coarser than that of women. Hair diameter also varies on average between races, making hair plugs on some men look especially obvious.
14.One human hair can support 3.5 ounces. That’s about the weight of two full size candy bars, and with hundreds of thousands of hairs on the human head, makes the tale of Rapunzel much more plausible.
15.The fastest growing nail is on the middle finger. And the nail on the middle finger of your dominant hand will grow the fastest of all. Why is not entirely known, but nail growth is related to the length of the finger, with the longest fingers growing nails the fastest and shortest the slowest.
16.There are as many hairs per square inch on your body as a chimpanzee. Humans are not quite the naked apes that we’re made out to be. We have lots of hair, but on most of us it’s not obvious as a majority of the hairs are too fine or light to be seen.
17.Blondes have more hair. They’re said to have more fun, and they definitely have more hair. Hair color determines how dense the hair on your head is. The average human has 100,000 hair follicles, each of which is capable of producing 20 individual hairs during a person’s lifetime. Blondes average 146,000 follicles while people with black hair tend to have about 110,000 follicles. Those with brown hair fit the average with 100,000 follicles and redheads have the least dense hair, with about 86,000 follicles.
18.Fingernails grow nearly 4 times faster than toenails. If you notice that you’re trimming your fingernails much more frequently than your toenails you’re not just imagining it. The nails that get the most exposure and are used most frequently grow the fastest. On average, nails on both the toes and fingers grow about one-tenth of an inch each month.
19.The lifespan of a human hair is 3 to 7 years on average. While you quite a few hairs each day, your hairs actually have a pretty long life providing they aren’t subject to any trauma. Your hairs will likely get to see several different haircuts, styles, and even possibly decades before they fall out on their own.
20.You must lose over 50% of your scalp hairs before it is apparent to anyone. You lose hundreds of hairs a day but you’ll have to lose a lot more before you or anyone else will notice. Half of the hairs on your pretty little head will have to disappear before your impending baldness will become obvious to all those around you.
21.Human hair is virtually indestructible. Aside from it’s flammability, human hair decays at such a slow rate that it is practically non-disintegrative. If you’ve ever wondered how your how clogs up your pipes so quick consider this: hair cannot be destroyed by cold, change of climate, water, or other natural forces and it is resistant to many kinds of acids and corrosive chemicals.
Internal Organs

Though we may not give them much thought unless they’re bothering us, our internal organs are what allow us to go on eating, breathing and walking around. Here are some things to consider the next time you hear your stomach growl.

22.The largest internal organ is the small intestine. Despite being called the smaller of the two intestines, your small intestine is actually four times as long as the average adult is tall. If it weren’t looped back and forth upon itself it wouldn’t fit inside the abdominal cavity.
23.The human heart creates enough pressure to squirt blood 30 feet. No wonder you can feel your heartbeat so easily. Pumping blood through your body quickly and efficiently takes quite a bit of pressure resulting in the strong contractions of the heart and the thick walls of the ventricles which push blood to the body.
24.The acid in your stomach is strong enough to dissolve razorblades. While you certainly shouldn’t test the fortitude of your stomach by eating a razorblade or any other metal object for that matter, the acids that digest the food you eat aren’t to be taken lightly. Hydrochloric acid, the type found in your stomach, is not only good at dissolving the pizza you had for dinner but can also eat through many types of metal.
25.The human body is estimated to have 60,000 miles of blood vessels. To put that in perspective, the distance around the earth is about 25,000 miles, making the distance your blood vessels could travel if laid end to end more than two times around the earth.
26.You get a new stomach lining every three to four days. The mucus-like cells lining the walls of the stomach would soon dissolve due to the strong digestive acids in your stomach if they weren’t constantly replaced. Those with ulcers know how painful it can be when stomach acid takes its toll on the lining of your stomach.
27.The surface area of a human lung is equal to a tennis court. In order to more efficiently oxygenate the blood, the lungs are filled with thousands of branching bronchi and tiny, grape-like alveoli. These are filled with microscopic capillaries which oxygen and carbon dioxide. The large amount of surface area makes it easier for this exchange to take place, and makes sure you stay properly oxygenated at all times.
28.Women’s hearts beat faster than men’s.The main reason for this is simply that on average women tend to be smaller than men and have less mass to pump blood to. But women’s and men’s hearts can actually act quite differently, especially when experiencing trauma like a heart attack, and many treatments that work for men must be adjusted or changed entirely to work for women.
29.Scientists have counted over 500 different liver functions. You may not think much about your liver except after a long night of drinking, but the liver is one of the body’s hardest working, largest and busiest organs. Some of the functions your liver performs are: production of bile, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, and detoxification.
30.The aorta is nearly the diameter of a garden hose. The average adult heart is about the size of two fists, making the size of the aorta quite impressive. The artery needs to be so large as it is the main supplier of rich, oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.
31.Your left lung is smaller than your right lung to make room for your heart. For most people, if they were asked to draw a picture of what the lungs look like they would draw both looking roughly the same size. While the lungs are fairly similar in size, the human heart, though located fairly centrally, is tilted slightly to the left making it take up more room on that side of the body and crowding out that poor left lung.
32.You could remove a large part of your internal organs and survive. The human body may appear fragile but it’s possible to survive even with the removal of the stomach, the spleen, 75 percent of the liver, 80 percent of the intestines, one kidney, one lung, and virtually every organ from the pelvic and groin area. You might not feel too great, but the missing organs wouldn’t kill you.
33.The adrenal glands change size throughout life. The adrenal glands, lying right above the kidneys, are responsible for releasing stress hormones like cortisol and adrenaline. In the seventh month of a fetus’ development, the glands are roughly the same size as the kidneys. At birth, the glands have shrunk slightly and will continue to do so throughout life. In fact, by the time a person reaches old age, the glands are so small they can hardly be seen.
Bodily Functions

We may not always like to talk about them, but everyone has to deal with bodily functions on a daily basis. These are a few facts about the involuntary and sometimes unpleasant actions of our bodies.

34.Sneezes regularly exceed 100 mph. There’s a good reason why you can’t keep your eyes open when you sneeze–that sneeze is rocketing out of your body at close to 100 mph. This is, of course, a good reason to cover your mouth when you sneeze.
35.Coughs clock in at about 60 mph. Viruses and colds get spread around the office and the classroom quickly during cold and flu season. With 60 mph coughs spraying germs far and wide, it’s no wonder.
36.Women blink twice as many times as men do. That’s a lot of blinking every day. The average person, man or woman, blinks about 13 times a minute.
37.A full bladder is roughly the size of a soft ball. No wonder you have to run to bathroom when you feel the call of the wild. The average bladder holds about 400-800 cc of fluid but most people will feel the urge to go long before that at 250 to 300 cc.
38.Approximately 75% of human waste is made of water. While we might typically think that urine is the liquid part of human waste products, the truth is that what we consider solid waste is actually mostly water as well. You should be thankful that most waste is fairly water-filled, as drier harder stools are what cause constipation and are much harder and sometimes painful to pass.
39.Feet have 500,000 sweat glands and can produce more than a pint of sweat a day. With that kind of sweat-producing power it’s no wonder that your gym shoes have a stench that can peel paint. Additionally, men usually have much more active sweat glands than women.
40.During your lifetime, you will produce enough saliva to fill two swimming pools. Saliva plays an important part in beginning the digestive process and keeping the mouth lubricated, and your mouth produces quite a bit of it on a daily basis.
41.The average person expels flatulence 14 times each day. Even if you’d like to think you’re too dignified to pass gas, the reality is that almost everyone will at least a few times a day. Digestion causes the body to release gases which can be painful if trapped in the abdomen and not released.
42.Earwax production is necessary for good ear health. While many people find earwax to be disgusting, it’s actually a very important part of your ear’s defense system. It protects the delicate inner ear from bacteria, fungus, dirt and even insects. It also cleans and lubricates the ear canal.
Sex and Reproduction

As taboo as it may be in some places, sex is an important part of human life as a facet of relationships and the means to reproduce. Here are a few things you might not have known.

43.On any given day, sexual intercourse takes place 120 million times on earth. Humans are a quickly proliferating species, and with about 4% of the world’s population having sex on any given day, it’s no wonder that birth rates continue to increase in many places all over the world.
44.The largest cell in the human body is the female egg and the smallest is the male sperm. While you can’t see skin cells or muscle cells, the ovum is typically large enough to be seen with the naked eye with a diameter of about a millimeter. The sperm cell, on the other hand, is tiny, consisting of little more than nucleus.
45.The three things pregnant women dream most of during their first trimester are frogs, worms and potted plants. Pregnancy hormones can cause mood swings, cravings and many other unexpected changes. Oddly enough, hormones can often affect the types of dreams women have and their vividness. The most common are these three types, but many women also dream of water, giving birth or even have violent or sexually charged dreams.
46.Your teeth start growing 6 months before you are born. While few babies are born with teeth in place, the teeth that will eventually push through the gums of young children are formed long before the child even leaves the womb. At 9 to 12 weeks the fetus starts to form the teeth buds that will turn into baby teeth.
47.Babies are always born with blue eyes. The color of your eyes depends on the genes you get from your parents, but at birth most babies appear to have blue eyes. The reason behind this is the pigment melanin. The melanin in a newborn’s eyes often needs time after birth to be fully deposited or to be darkened by exposure to ultraviolet light, later revealing the baby’s true eye color.
48.Babies are, pound for pound, stronger than an ox. While a baby certainly couldn’t pull a covered wagon at its present size, if the child were the size of an oxen it just might very well be able to. Babies have especially strong and powerful legs for such tiny creatures, so watch out for those kicks.
49.One out of every 2,000 newborn infants has a tooth when they are born. Nursing mothers may cringe at this fact. Sometimes the tooth is a regular baby tooth that has already erupted and sometimes it is an extra tooth that will fall out before the other set of choppers comes in.
50.A fetus acquires fingerprints at the age of three months. When only a small fraction of the way through its development, a fetus will have already developed one of the most unique human traits: fingerprints. At only 6-13 weeks of development, the whorls of what will be fingerprints have already developed. Oddly enough, those fingerprints will not change throughout the person’s life and will be one of the last things to disappear after death.
51.Every human spent about half an hour as a single cell. All life has to begin somewhere, and even the largest humans spent a short part of their lives as a single celled organism when sperm and egg cells first combine. Shortly afterward, the cells begin rapidly dividing and begin forming the components of a tiny embryo.
52.Most men have erections every hour to hour and a half during sleep. Most people’s bodies and minds are much more active when they’re sleeping than they think. The combination of blood circulation and testosterone production can cause erections during sleep and they’re often a normal and necessary part of REM sleep.
Senses

The primary means by which we interact with the world around us is through our senses. Here are some interesting facts about these five sensory abilities.

53.After eating too much, your hearing is less sharp. If you’re heading to a concert or a musical after a big meal you may be doing yourself a disservice. Try eating a smaller meal if you need to keep your hearing pitch perfect.
54.About one third of the human race has 20-20 vision. Glasses and contact wearers are hardly alone in a world where two thirds of the population have less than perfect vision. The amount of people with perfect vision decreases further as they age.
55.If saliva cannot dissolve something, you cannot taste it. In order for foods, or anything else, to have a taste, chemicals from the substance must be dissolved by saliva. If you don’t believe it, try drying off your tongue before tasting something.
56.Women are born better smellers than men and remain better smellers over life. Studies have shown that women are more able to correctly pinpoint just what a smell is. Women were better able to identify citrus, vanilla, cinnamon and coffee smells. While women are overall better smellers, there is an unfortunate 2% of the population with no sense of smell at all.
57.Your nose can remember 50,000 different scents. While a bloodhound’s nose may be a million times more sensitive than a human’s, that doesn’t mean that the human sense of smell is useless. Humans can identify a wide variety of scents and many are strongly tied to memories.
58.Even small noises cause the pupils of the eyes to dilate. It is believed that this is why surgeons, watchmakers and others who perform delicate manual operations are so bothered by uninvited noise. The sound causes their pupils to change focus and blur their vision, making it harder to do their job well.
59.Everyone has a unique smell, except for identical twins. Newborns are able to recognize the smell of their mothers and many of us can pinpoint the smell of our significant others and those we are close to. Part of that smell is determined by genetics, but it’s also largely do to environment, diet and personal hygiene products that create a unique chemistry for each person.
Aging and Death

From the very young to the very old, aging is a necessary and unavoidable part of life. Learn about the process with these interesting, if somewhat strange facts.

60.The ashes of a cremated person average about 9 pounds. A big part of what gives the human body weight is the water trapped in our cells. Once cremated, that water and a majority of our tissues are destroyed, leaving little behind.
61.Nails and hair do not continue to grow after we die. They do appear longer when we die, however, as the skin dehydrates and pulls back from the nail beds and scalp.
62.By the age of 60, most people will have lost about half their taste buds. Perhaps you shouldn’t trust your grandma’s cooking as much as you do. Older individuals tend to lose their ability to taste, and many find that they need much more intense flavoring in order to be able to fully appreciate a dish.
63.Your eyes are always the same size from birth but your nose and ears never stop growing. When babies look up at you with those big eyes, they’re the same size that they’ll be carrying around in their bodies for the rest of their lives. Their ears and nose, however, will grow throughout their lives and research has shown that growth peaks in seven year cycles.
64.By 60 years of age, 60-percent of men and 40-percent of women will snore. If you’ve ever been kept awake by a snoring loved one you know the sound can be deafening. Normal snores average around 60 decibels, the noise level of normal speech, intense snores can reach more than 80 decibels, the approximate level caused by a jackhammer breaking up concrete.
65.A baby’s head is one-quarter of it’s total length, but by age 25 will only be one-eighth of its total length. As it turns out, our adorably oversized baby heads won’t change size as drastically as the rest of our body. The legs and torso will lengthen, but the head won’t get much longer.
Disease and Injury

Most of us will get injured or sick at some point in our lives. Here are some facts on how the human body reacts to the stresses and dangers from the outside world.

66.Monday is the day of the week when the risk of heart attack is greatest. Yet another reason to loathe Mondays! A ten year study in Scotland found that 20% more people die of heart attacks on Mondays than any other day of the week. Researchers theorize that it’s a combination of too much fun over the weekend with the stress of going back to work that causes the increase.
67.Humans can make do longer without food than sleep. While you might feel better prepared to stay up all night partying than to give up eating, that feeling will be relatively short lived. Provided there is water, the average human could survive a month to two months without food depending on their body fat and other factors. Sleep deprived people, however, start experiencing radical personality and psychological changes after only a few sleepless days. The longest recorded time anyone has ever gone without sleep is 11 days, at the end of which the experimenter was awake, but stumbled over words, hallucinated and frequently forgot what he was doing.
68.A simple, moderately severe sunburn damages the blood vessels extensively. How extensively? Studies have shown that it can take four to fifteen months for them to return to their normal condition. Consider that the next time you’re feeling too lazy to apply sunscreen before heading outside.
69.Over 90% of diseases are caused or complicated by stress. That high stress job you have could be doing more than just wearing you down each day. It could also be increasing your chances of having a variety of serious medical conditions like depression, high blood pressure and heart disease.
70.A human head remains conscious for about 15 to 20 seconds after it is been decapitated. While it might be gross to think about, the blood in the head may be enough to keep someone alive and conscious for a few seconds after the head has been separated from the body, though reports as to the accuracy of this are widely varying.
Muscles and Bones

Muscles and Bones provide the framework for our bodies and allow us to jump, run or just lie on the couch. Here are a few facts to ponder the next time you’re lying around.

71.It takes 17 muscles to smile and 43 to frown. Unless you’re trying to give your face a bit of a workout, smiling is a much easier option for most of us. Anyone who’s ever scowled, squinted or frowned for a long period of time knows how it tires out the face which doesn’t do a thing to improve your mood.
72.Babies are born with 300 bones, but by adulthood the number is reduced to 206. The reason for this is that many of the bones of children are composed of smaller component bones that are not yet fused like those in the skull. This makes it easier for the baby to pass through the birth canal. The bones harden and fuse as the children grow.
73.We are about 1 cm taller in the morning than in the evening. The cartilage between our bones gets compressed by standing, sitting and other daily activities as the day goes on, making us just a little shorter at the end of the day than at the beginning.
74.The strongest muscle in the human body is the tongue. While you may not be able to bench press much with your tongue, it is in fact the strongest muscle in your body in proportion to its size. If you think about it, every time you eat, swallow or talk you use your tongue, ensuring it gets quite a workout throughout the day.
75.The hardest bone in the human body is the jawbone. The next time someone suggests you take it on the chin, you might be well advised to take their advice as the jawbone is one of the most durable and hard to break bones in the body.
76.You use 200 muscles to take one step. Depending on how you divide up muscle groups, just to take a single step you use somewhere in the neighborhood of 200 muscles. That’s a lot of work for the muscles considering most of us take about 10,000 steps a day.
77.The tooth is the only part of the human body that can’t repair itself. If you’ve ever chipped a tooth you know just how sadly true this one is. The outer layer of the tooth is enamel which is not a living tissue. Since it’s not alive, it can’t repair itself, leaving your dentist to do the work instead.
78.It takes twice as long to lose new muscle if you stop working out than it did to gain it. Lazy people out there shouldn’t use this as motivation to not work out, however. It’s relatively easy to build new muscle tissue and get your muscles in shape, so if anything, this fact should be motivation to get off the couch and get moving.
79.Bone is stronger than some steel. This doesn’t mean your bones can’t break of course, as they are much less dense than steel. Bone has been found to have a tensile strength of 20,000 psi while steel is much higher at 70,000 psi. Steel is much heavier than bone, however, and pound for pound bone is the stronger material.
80.The feet account for one quarter of all the human body’s bones. You may not give your feet much thought but they are home to more bones than any other part of your body. How many? Of the two hundred or so bones in the body, the feet contain a whopping 52 of them.
Microscopic Level

Much of what takes place in our bodies happens at a level that we simply can’t see with the naked eye. These facts will show you that sometimes that might be for the best.

81.About 32 million bacteria call every inch of your skin home. Germaphobes don’t need to worry however, as a majority of these are entirely harmless and some are even helpful in maintaining a healthy body.
82.Humans shed and regrow outer skin cells about every 27 days. Skin protects your delicate internal organs from the elements and as such, dries and flakes off completely about once a month so that it can maintain its strength. Chances are that last month’s skin is still hanging around your house in the form of the dust on your bookshelf or under the couch.
83.Three hundred million cells die in the human body every minute. While that sounds like a lot, it’s really just a small fraction of the cells that are in the human body. Estimates have placed the total number of cells in the body at 10-50 trillion so you can afford to lose a few hundred million without a hitch.
84.Humans shed about 600,000 particles of skin every hour. You may not think much about losing skin if yours isn’t dry or flaky or peeling from a sunburn, but your skin is constantly renewing itself and shedding dead cells.
85.Every day an adult body produces 300 billion new cells. Your body not only needs energy to keep your organs up and running but also to constantly repair and build new cells to form the building blocks of your body itself.
86.Every tongue print is unique. If you’re planning on committing a crime, don’t think you’ll get away with leaving a tongue print behind. Each tongue is different and yours could be unique enough to finger you as the culprit.
87.Your body has enough iron in it to make a nail 3 inches long. Anyone who has ever tasted blood knows that it has a slightly metallic taste. This is due to the high levels of iron in the blood. If you were to take all of this iron out of the body, you’d have enough to make a small nail and very severe anemia.
88.The most common blood type in the world is Type O. Blood banks find it valuable as it can be given to those with both type A and B blood. The rarest blood type, A-H or Bombay blood due to the location of its discovery, has been found in less than hundred people since it was discovered.
89.Human lips have a reddish color because of the great concentration of tiny capillaries just below the skin. The blood in these capillaries is normally highly oxygenated and therefore quite red. This explains why the lips appear pale when a person is anemic or has lost a great deal of blood. It also explains why the lips turn blue in very cold weather. Cold causes the capillaries to constrict, and the blood loses oxygen and changes to a darker color.
Miscellaneous

Here are a few things you might not have known about all different parts of your anatomy.

90.The colder the room you sleep in, the better the chances are that you’ll have a bad dream. It isn’t entirely clear to scientists why this is the case, but if you are opposed to having nightmares you might want to keep yourself a little toastier at night.
91.Tears and mucus contain an enzyme (lysozyme) that breaks down the cell wall of many bacteria. This is to your advantage, as the mucus that lines your nose and throat, as well as the tears that wet your eyes are helping to prevent bacteria from infecting those areas and making you sick.
92.Your body gives off enough heat in 30 minutes to bring half a gallon of water to a boil. If you’ve seen the Matrix you are aware of the energy potentially generated by the human body. Our bodies expend a large amount of calories keeping us at a steady 98.6 degrees, enough to boil water or even cook pasta.
93.Your ears secrete more earwax when you are afraid than when you aren’t. The chemicals and hormones released when you are afraid could be having unseen effects on your body in the form of earwax. Studies have suggested that fear causes the ears to produce more of the sticky substance, though the reasons are not yet clear.
94.It is not possible to tickle yourself. Even the most ticklish among us do not have the ability to tickle ourselves. The reason behind this is that your brain predicts the tickle from information it already has, like how your fingers are moving. Because it knows and can feel where the tickle is coming from, your brain doesn’t respond in the same way as it would if someone else was doing the tickling.
95.The width of your armspan stretched out is the length of your whole body. While not exact down to the last millimeter, your armspan is a pretty good estimator of your height.
96.Humans are the only animals to produce emotional tears. In the animal world, humans are the biggest crybabies, being the only animals who cry because they’ve had a bad day, lost a loved one, or just don’t feel good.
97.Right-handed people live, on average, nine years longer than left-handed people do. This doesn’t have a genetic basis, but is largely due to the fact that a majority of the machines and tools we use on a daily basis are designed for those who are right handed, making them somewhat dangerous for lefties to use and resulting in thousands of accidents and deaths each year.
98.Women burn fat more slowly than men, by a rate of about 50 calories a day. Most men have a much easier time burning fat than women. Women, because of their reproductive role, generally require a higher basic body fat proportion than men, and as a result their bodies don’t get rid of excess fat at the same rate as men.
99.Koalas and primates are the only animals with unique fingerprints. Humans, apes and koalas are unique in the animal kingdom due to the tiny prints on the fingers of their hands. Studies on primates have suggested that even cloned individuals have unique fingerprints.
100.The indentation in the middle of the area between the nose and the upper lip has a name. It is called the philtrum. Scientists have yet to figure out what purpose this indentation serves, though the ancient Greeks thought it to be one of the most erogenous places on the body
The nervous system is the major controlling, regulatory, and communicating system in the body. It is the center of all mental activity including thought, learning, and memory. Together with the endocrine system, the nervous system is responsible for regulating and maintaining homeostasis.

Through its receptors, the nervous system keeps us in touch with our environment, both external and internal.

Like other systems in the body, the nervous system is composed of organs, principally the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and ganglia. These, in turn, consist of various tissues, including nerve, blood, and connective tissue. Together these carry out the complex activities of the nervous system.

The various activities of the nervous system can be grouped together as three general, overlapping functions:

o Sensory
o Integrative
o Motor

The Human Body ($4.99) by Amber Books Ltd is a surprisingly elaborate reference app of the human body. Most reference apps don’t usually offer much or look very good. However, The Human Body does a great job of offering both. When the app is first opened the user is greeted with four tabs, the main one being “Contents.” From there the body is broken down into different sections, anything from the abdomen to entire body systems. Once a section is chosen, there is an even further classification of that section with more specific body parts. Once a body part is selected the app features specific information about the “Body System,” “Location,” “Function,” “Components,” “Related Parts,” and an overview of the body part.



Everything is broken down simply; you don’t need a degree from medical school to understand the content. The average user should have no problem learning or comprehending any of the information. Every body part features a diagram and they are also user friendly. For a reference health app, it offers a great deal of information.

The app doesn’t have any flaws; everything works and flows smoothly. In a future update it would be interesting to see 3D diagrams, or at least be able to click the diagrams to enlarge them.

Overall The Human Body is an excellent tool for anyone interested in anatomy. It provides excellent information, and useful diagrams. Users are sure to find everything they’re looking for.


1. The human body is made up of a head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs. The average height of an adult human is about 5 to 6 feet tall. The human body is made to stand erect, walk on two feet, use the arms to carry and lift, and has opposable thumbs (able to grasp).

2. The adult body is made up of: 100 trillion cells, 206 bones,
600 muscles, and 22 internal organs.

3. There are many systems in the human body:
Circulatory System (heart, blood, vessels)
Respiratory System (nose, trachea, lungs)
Immune System (many types of protein, cells, organs, tissues)
Skeletal System (bones)
Excretory System (lungs, large intestine, kidneys)
Urinary System (bladder, kidneys)
Muscular System (muscles)
Endocrine System (glands)
Digestive System (mouth, esophogus, stomach, intestines)
Nervous System (brain, spinal cord, nerves)
Reproductive System (male and female reproductive organs)

4. Every square inch of the human body has about 19 million skin cells.

5. Every hour about 1 billion cells in the human body must be replaced.

6. The average human head has about 100,000 hairs.

7. The circulatory system of arteries, veins, and capillaries is about 60,000 miles long.

8. The heart beats more than 2.5 billion times in an average lifetime.

9. There are about 9,000 taste buds on the surface of the tongue, in the throat, and on the roof of the mouth.

10. The strongest muscle in the body is the tongue.

11. The human heart creates enough pressure when it pumps out to the body to squirt blood 30 feet.

12. You blink over 10,000,000 times a year.

13. The human brain weighs about 3 pounds.

14. It takes about 20 seconds for a red blood cell to circle the whole body.

15. Only 10% of the population are left handed.

16. One fourth of the bones in your body are in your feet.

17. Children tend to grow faster in the spring.

18. The most sensitive finger on the human hand is the index finger.

19. More men are color-blind than women.

20. More people have brown eyes than any other color.
Involuntary response

Pulling your hand away from a hot object, blinking because it's very bright or kicking when someone taps the tendon below your kneecap - these are all innate reflex actions. They happen rapidly, you don't control them and the result is always the same.

Reflex arc

Most reflexes don't have to travel up to your brain to be processed, which is why they take place so quickly. A reflex action often involves a very simple nervous pathway called a reflex arc.

A reflex arc starts off with receptors being excited. They then send signals along a sensory neuron to your spinal cord, where the signals are passed on to a motor neuron. As a result, one of your muscles or glands is stimulated.

Knee-jerk reflex

The knee-jerk reflex involves a sudden kicking movement of your lower leg after the tendon just below your kneecap has been tapped. Doctors often trigger this reflex to test the function of your nervous system. If the reaction is exaggerated or absent, it may indicate a damage to the central nervous system.

Autonomic reflexes

Most reflexes go completely unnoticed because they don't involve a visible and sudden movement. Body functions such as digestion or blood pressure, for example, are all regulated by reflexes. These reflexes are known as autonomic reflexes.

So what do muscles do?
Muscles move cows, snakes, worms and humans. Muscles move you! Without muscles you couldn't open your mouth, speak, shake hands, walk, talk, or move your food through your digestive system. There would be no smiling, blinking, breathing. You couldn't move anything inside or outside you. The fact is, without muscles, you wouldn't be alive for very long!

Do I have lots of muscles?
Indeed. On average, probably 40% of your body weight is in muscles. You have over 630 muscles that move you. Muscles can't push. They pull. You may ask yourself, if muscles can't push how can you wiggle your fingers in both directions, back and forth, back and forth? The answer? Muscles often work in pairs so that they can pull in different or opposite directions.

How do muscles move?
The cells that make up muscles contract and then relax back to original size. Tiny microscopic fibers in these cells compress by sliding in past each other like a sliding glass door being opened and then shut again. The cells of your muscles use chemical energy from the food you eat to do this. Without food, and particular kinds of nutrients, your muscles wouldn't be able to make the energy to contract!

Some muscles are known as "voluntary" -- that is, they only work when you specifically tell them to. Do you want to say something? Or swing a bat? Or clap your hands? These are voluntary movements. Others, like the muscular contracting of your heart, the movement of your diaphragm so that you can breathe, or blinking your eyes are automatic. They're called involuntary movements. And how do any of these muscles move? Through signals from your nerves, and, in some cases, your brain, as well.

Can you hurt muscles?
Yup. If you hear someone say that they "pulled" a muscle, they have, in fact, torn a muscle in the same way that you can tear a ligament or break a bone. And, like these other living body parts, with a little help, they generally mend themselves.

Factoids
You have over 30 facial muscles which create looks like surprise, happiness, sadness, and frowning.
Eye muscles are the busiest muscles in the body. Scientists estimate they may move more than 100,000 times a day!
The largest muscle in the body is the gluteus maximus muscle in the buttocks.


The Immune system is the body’s main defense against all foreign substances. Without the immune system, the human body would die immediately from foreign bacteria. Billions of which rest on the skin.






It is a complex organism that is generally composed of then systems; integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive. These systems are composed of organs, such as the heart, lungs, stomach, intestines, brain, etc. These in turn are made of specialized tissues that come in four categories; connective, nervous, muscular, and epithelial. Finally, these tissues are made of specialized cells, about 100 trillion of them, and science has yet to figure out what actually makes them alive.


The Brain
Complex and poorly understood, the brain is what makes everything work properly. The body may be kept alive, but without the brain, a person can’t truly live. Here are some interesting and weird facts about the brain.

1.The brain doesn’t feel pain: Even though the brain processes pain signals, the brain itself does not actually feel pain.
2.Your brain has huge oxygen needs: Your brain requires 20 percent of the oxygen and calories your body needs — even though your brain only makes up two percent of your total body weight.
3.80% of the brain is water: Instead of being relatively solid, your brain 80% water. This means that it is important that you remain properly hydrated for the sake of your mind.
4.Your brain comes out to play at night: You’d think that your brain is more active during the day, when the rest of your body is. But it’s not. Your brain is more active when you sleep.
5.Your brain operates on 10 watts of power: It’s true: The amazing computational power of your brain only requires about 10 watts of power to operate.
6.A higher I.Q. equals more dreams: The smarter you are, the more you dream. A high I.Q. can also fight mental illness. Some people even believe they are smarter in their dreams than when they are awake.
7.The brain changes shapes during puberty: Your teenage years do more than just change how you feel; the very structure of your brain changes during the teen years, and it even affects impulsive, risky behavior.
8.Your brain can store everything: Technically, your brain has the capacity to store everything you experience, see, read or hear. However, the real issue is recall — whether you can access that information.
9.Information in your brain travels at different speeds: The neurons in your brain are built differently, and information travels along them at different speeds. This is why sometimes you can recall information instantly, and sometimes it takes a little longer.
Your Senses
You might be surprised at the amazing things your various senses can accomplish.

10.Your smell is unique: Your body odor is unique to you — unless you have an identical twin. Even babies recognize the individual scents of their mothers.
11.Humans use echolocation: Humans can use sound to sense objects in their area using echolocation. It is thought that those who are blind develop this ability to heightened effectiveness.
12.Adrenaline gives you super strength: Yes, with the proper response in certain situations, you really can lift a car.
13.Women smell better than men: Women are better than men at identifying smells.
14.Your nose remembers 50,000 scents: It is possible for your nose to identify and remember more than 50,000 smells.
15.Your hearing decreases when you overeat: When you eat too much food, it actually reduces your ability to hear. So consider eating healthy — and only until you are full.
16.Your sense of time is in your head: How you experience time is all about your perception. Some speculate that stress can help you experience time dilation. Apparently, time manipulation isn’t just for superheroes.
Reproduction
How we as a species reproduce offers all sorts of interesting weird facts. Here are some of the weirder things you might not know.

17.Your teeth are growing before birth: Even though it takes months after you are born to see teeth, they start growing about six months before you are born.
18.Babies are stronger than oxen: On a pound for pound basis, that is. For their size, babies are quite powerful and strong.
19.Babies always have blue eyes when they are born: Melanin and exposure to ultraviolet light are needed to bring out the true color of babies’ eyes. Until then they all have blue eyes.
20.Women might be intrinsically bi: There are sex studies that indicate that women might bisexual intrinsically, no matter how they class themselves, while men are usually either gay or straight.
21.Most men have regular erections while asleep: Every hour to hour and a half, sleeping men have erections — though they may not be aware of it.
22.Sex can be a pain reliever: Even though the “headache” excuse is often used to avoid sex, the truth is that intercourse can provide pain relief. Sex can also help you reduce stress.
23.Chocolate is better than sex: In some studies, women claim they would rather have chocolate than sex. But does it really cause orgasm? Probably not on its own.
Body Functions
The things our bodies do are often strange and sometimes gross. Here are some weird facts about the way your body functions.

24.Earwax is necessary: If you want healthy ears, you need some earwax in there.
25.Your feet can produce a pint of sweat a day: There are 500,000 (250,000 for each) sweat glands in your feet, and that can mean a great deal of stinky sweat.
26.Throughout your life, the amount of saliva you have could fill two swimming pools: Since saliva is a vital part of digestion, it is little surprise that your mouth makes so much of it.
27.A full bladder is about the size of a soft ball: When your bladder is full, holding up to 800 cc of fluid, it is large enough to be noticeable.
28.You probably pass gas 14 times a day: On average, you will expel flatulence several times as part of digestion.
29.A sneeze can exceed 100 mph: When a sneeze leaves your body, it does so at high speeds — so you should avoid suppressing it and causing damage to your body.
30.Coughs leave at 60 mph: A cough is much less dangerous, leaving the body at 60 mph. That’s still highway speed, though.
Musculoskeletal System
Find out what you didn’t know about your muscles and bones.

31.Bones can self-destruct: It is possible for your bones to destruct without enough calcium intake.
32.You are taller in the morning: Throughout the day, the cartilage between your bones is compressed, making you about 1 cm shorter by day’s end.
33.1/4 of your bones are in your feet: There are 26 bones in each foot, meaning that the 52 bones in account for 25 percent of your body’s 206 bones.
34.It takes more muscles to frown than to smile: Scientists can’t agree on the exact number, but more muscles are required to frown than to smile.
35.When you take a step, you are using up to 200 muscles: Walking uses a great deal of muscle power — especially if you take your 10,000 steps.
36.Your tongue is the strongest muscle in your body: Compared to its size, the tongue is the strongest muscle. But I doubt you’ll be lifting weights with it.
37.Bone can be stronger than steel: Once again, this is a pound for pound comparison, since steel is denser and has a higher tensile strength.
Unnecessary Body Parts
We have a number of body parts that are, well, useless. Here are some facts about the body parts we don’t actually need.

38.Coccyx: This collection of fused vertebrae have no purpose these days, although scientists believe it’s what’s left of the mammal tail humans used to have. It may be useless, but when you break your coccyx, it’s still painful.
39.Pinkie toe: There is speculation that since we no longer have to run for our dinner, and we wear sneakers, the pinkie toe‘s evolutionary purpose is disappearing — and maybe the pinkie itself will go the way of the dodo.
40.Wisdom teeth: This third set of molars is largely useless, doing little beyond crowding the mouth and sometimes causing pain.
41.Vomeronasal organ: There are tiny (and useless) chemoreceptors lining the inside of the nose.
42.Most body hair: While facial hair serves some purposes, the hair found on the rest of body is practically useless and can be removed with few ill effects.
43.Female vas deferens: A cluster of dead end tubules near the ovaries are the remains of what could have turned into sperm ducts.
44.Male Uterus: Yeah, men have one too — sort of. The remains of this undeveloped female reproductive organ hangs on one side of the male prostate gland
45.Appendix: Yep, your appendix is basically useless. While it does produce some white blood cells, most people are fine with an appendectomy.
Random Weird Body Facts
Here are a few final weird facts about the human body.

46.Your head creates inner noises: It’s rare, but exploding head syndrome exists.
47.Memory is affected by body position: Where you are and how you are placed in your environment triggers memory.
48.You can’t tickle yourself: Go ahead. Try to tickle yourself.
49.Being right-handed can prolong your life: If you’re right-handed, you could live up to nine years longer than a lefty.
50.Only humans shed emotional tears: Every other animal that produces tears has a physiological reason for doing so.
Did you know you have more than 600 muscles in your body? They do everything from pumping blood throughout your body to helping you lift your heavy backpack. You control some of your muscles, while others — like your heart — do their jobs without you thinking about them at all.


Muscles are all made of the same material, a type of elastic tissue (sort of like the material in a rubber band). Thousands, or even tens of thousands, of small fibers make up each muscle.

You have three different types of muscles in your body: smooth muscle, cardiac (say: kar-dee-ak) muscle, and skeletal (say: skel-uh-tul) muscle.

Smooth Muscles
Smooth muscles — sometimes also called involuntary muscles — are usually in sheets, or layers, with one layer of muscle behind the other. You can't control this type of muscle. Your brain and body tell these muscles what to do without you even thinking about it. You can't use your smooth muscles to make a muscle in your arm or jump into the air.

But smooth muscles are at work all over your body. In your stomach and digestive system, they contract (tighten up) and relax to allow food to make its journey through the body. Your smooth muscles come in handy if you're sick and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up through the esophagus (say: ih-sah-fuh-gus) and out of the mouth.

Smooth muscles are also found in your bladder. When they're relaxed, they allow you to hold in urine (pee) until you can get to the bathroom. Then they contract so that you can push the urine out. These muscles are also in a woman's uterus, which is where a baby develops. There they help to push the baby out of the mother's body when it's time to be born.

You'll find smooth muscles at work behind the scenes in your eyes, too. These muscles keep the eyes focused.

Continue
ListenA Hearty MuscleThe muscle that makes up the heart is called cardiac muscle. It is also known as the myocardium (say: my-uh-kar-dee-um). The thick muscles of the heart contract to pump blood out and then relax to let blood back in after it has circulated through the body.
Just like smooth muscle, cardiac muscle works all by itself with no help from you. A special group of cells within the heart are known as the pacemaker of the heart because it controls the heartbeat.
Skeletal MuscleNow, let's talk about the kind of muscle you think of when we say "muscle" — the ones that show how strong you are and let you boot a soccer ball into the goal. These are your skeletal muscles — sometimes called striated (say: stry-ay-tud) muscle because the light and dark parts of the muscle fibers make them look striped (striated is a fancy word meaning striped).
Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles, which means you can control what they do. Your leg won't bend to kick the soccer ball unless you want it to. These muscles help to make up the musculoskeletal (say: mus-kyuh-low-skel-uh-tul) system — the combination of your muscles and your skeleton, or bones.
Together, the skeletal muscles work with your bones to give your body power and strength. In most cases, a skeletal muscle is attached to one end of a bone. It stretches all the way across a joint (the place where two bones meet) and then attaches again to another bone.
Skeletal muscles are held to the bones with the help of tendons (say: ten-dunz). Tendons are cords made of tough tissue, and they work as special connector pieces between bone and muscle. The tendons are attached so well that when you contract one of your muscles, the tendon and bone move along with it.
Skeletal muscles come in many different sizes and shapes to allow them to do many types of jobs. Some of your biggest and most powerful muscles are in your back, near your spine. These muscles help keep you upright and standing tall.
They also give your body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable of some pretty amazing things: Try rotating your head around, back and forth, and up and down to feel the power of the muscles in your neck. These muscles also hold your head high.
BackContinue

ListenFace MusclesYou may not think of it as a muscular body part, but your face has plenty of muscles. You can check them out next time you look in the mirror. Facial muscles don't all attach directly to bone like they do in the rest of the body. Instead, many of them attach under the skin. This allows you to contract your facial muscles just a tiny bit and make dozens of different kinds of faces. Even the smallest movement can turn a smile into a frown. You can raise your eyebrow to look surprised or wiggle your nose.
And while you're looking at your face, don't pass over your tongue — a muscle that's attached only at one end! Your tongue is actually made of a group of muscles that work together to allow you to talk and help you chew food. Stick out your tongue and wiggle it around to see those muscles at work.
Major MusclesBecause there are so many skeletal muscles in your body, we can't list them all here. But here are a few of the major ones:
In each of your shoulders is a deltoid (say: del-toyd) muscle. Your deltoid muscles help you move your shoulders every which way — from swinging a softball bat to shrugging your shoulders when you're not sure of an answer.The pectoralis (say: pek-tuh-rah-lus) muscles are found on each side of your upper chest. These are usually called pectorals (say: pek-tuh-rulz), or pecs, for short. When many boys hit puberty, their pectoral muscles become larger. Many athletes and bodybuilders have large pecs, too.Below these pectorals, down under your ribcage, are your rectus abdominus (say: rek-tus ab-dahm-uh-nus) muscles, or abdominals (say: ab-dahm-uh-nulz). They're often called abs for short.When you make a muscle in your arm, you tense your biceps (say: bye-seps) muscle. When you contract your biceps muscle, you can actually see it push up under your skin.Your quadriceps (say: kwad-ruh-seps), or quads, are the muscles on the front of your thighs. Many people who run, bike, or play sports develop large, strong quads.And when it's time for you to take a seat? You'll be sitting on your gluteus maximus (say: gloot-ee-us mak-suh-mus), the muscle that's under the skin and fat in

Here is some information about the muscular system:

Not all muscles in your body are the same. Muscles are organized into three different groups. These are:

•Smooth muscles- The smooth muscles are muscles that we don't have control of. They include muscles that surround organs including the stomach, lungs, and intestines. Because we cannot control them, they are called "involuntary muscles"
•Skeletal muscles- Skeletal muscles are muscles that are directly attached to bones. These muscles are responsible for all of the movement our body can accomplish. When most people think of muscles, they think of skeletal muscles.
•Cardiac muscles- Cardiac muscles are only found in one place in your body...your heart. This involuntary set of muscles make up the chambers of your heart. They pump all day and night transporting blood throughout the body.
Muscles are only able to contract or pull. Because our body has to move in many directions, most muscles are set up in pairs so that one muscle can pull a bone in one direction, and another muscle can pull the bone back the other way.

There are over 600 kinds of muscles that scientists have named. Some muscles are tiny - when we get goosebumps, we are actually seeing a tiny muscle contracting to raise a hair. The longest muscle is satorius muscle in your leg. The largest muscle in the body is Gluteus Maximus - the muscle you sit on!

The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. It serves as a scaffold which supports organs, anchors muscles, and protects organs such as the brain, lungs and heart.

The biggest bone in the body is the femur in the thigh and the smallest is the stapes bone in the middle ear. Several factors contribute to the bone density and average mass of the human skeleton including; gender, race, hormonal factors, nutrition, physical activity and lifestyle behaviors.[1] Because of these and other factors affecting an individual's weight the human skeleton may comprise between 12 and 20 percent of a person's total body weight with the average being 15 percent.[2]

Fused bones include those of the pelvis and the cranium. Not all bones are interconnected directly: there are three bones in each middle ear called the ossicles that articulate only with each other. The hyoid bone, which is located in the neck and serves as the point of attachment for the tongue, does not articulate with any other bones in the body, being supported by muscles and ligaments.

Contents [hide]
1 Development
2 Organization
2.1 Axial skeleton
2.2 Appendicular skeleton
3 Function
3.1 Support
3.2 Movement
3.3 Protection
3.4 Blood cell production
3.5 Storage
3.6 Endocrine regulation
4 Sex-based differences
5 Disorders
5.1 Osteoporosis
6 References


[edit] DevelopmentEarly in gestation, a fetus has a cartilaginous skeleton from which the long bones and most other bones gradually form throughout the remaining gestation period and for years after birth in a process called endochondral ossification. The flat bones of the skull and the clavicles are formed from connective tissue in a process known as intramembranous ossification, and ossification of the mandible occurs in the fibrous membrane covering the outer surfaces of Meckel's cartilages. At birth, a newborn baby has over 300 bones, whereas on average an adult human has 206 bones[3] (these numbers can vary slightly from individual to individual). The difference comes from a number of small bones that fuse together during growth, such as the sacrum and coccyx of the vertebral column.

[edit] OrganizationSee also: List of bones of the human skeleton
There are over 206 bones in the adult human skeleton, a number which varies between individuals and with age – newborn babies have over 270 bones[4][5][6] some of which fuse together into a longitudinal axis, the axial skeleton, to which the appendicular skeleton is attached.[7]

[edit] Axial skeletonMain article: Axial skeleton
The axial skeleton (80 bones) is formed by the vertebral column (26), the rib cage (12 pairs of ribs and the sternum), and the skull (22 bones and 7 associated bones). The axial skeleton transmits the weight from the head, the trunk, and the upper extremities down to the lower extremities at the hip joints, and is therefore responsible for the upright position of the human body. Most of the body weight is located in back of the spinal column which therefore have the erectors spinae muscles and a large amount of ligaments attached to it resulting in the curved shape of the spine. The 366 skeletal muscles acting on the axial skeleton position the spine, allowing for big movements in the thoracic cage for breathing, and the head. Conclusive research cited by the American Society for Bone Mineral Research (ASBMR) demonstrates that weight-bearing exercise stimulates bone growth[citation needed]. Only the parts of the skeleton that are directly affected by the exercise will benefit. Non weight-bearing activity, including swimming and cycling, has no effect on bone growth.[7]

[edit] Appendicular skeletonMain article: Appendicular skeleton
The appendicular skeleton (126 bones) is formed by the pectoral girdles (4), the upper limbs (60), the pelvic girdle (2), and the lower limbs (60). Their functions are to make locomotion possible and to protect the major organs of locomotion, digestion, excretion, and reproduction.

[edit] FunctionThe skeleton serves six major functions.

[edit] SupportThe skeleton provides the framework which supports the body and maintains its shape. The pelvis and associated ligaments and muscles provide a floor for the pelvic structures. Without the ribs, costal cartilages, the intercostal muscles and the heart would collapse.

[edit] MovementThe joints between bones permit movement, some allowing a wider range of movement than others, e.g. the ball and socket joint allows a greater range of movement than the pivot joint at the neck. Movement is powered by skeletal muscles, which are attached to the skeleton at various sites on bones. Muscles, bones, and joints provide the principal mechanics for movement, all coordinated by the nervous system.

[edit] ProtectionThe skeleton protects many vital organs:

The skull protects the brain, the eyes, and the middle and inner ears.
The vertebrae protects the spinal cord.
The rib cage, spine, and sternum protect the lungs, heart and major blood vessels.
The clavicle and scapula protect the shoulder.
The ilium and spine protect the digestive and urogenital systems and the hip.
The patella and the ulna protect the knee and the elbow respectively.
The carpals and tarsals protect the wrist and ankle respectively.
[edit] Blood cell productionThe skeleton is the site of haematopoiesis, which takes place in red bone marrow.

[edit] StorageBone matrix can store calcium and is involved in calcium metabolism, and bone marrow can store iron in ferritin and is involved in iron metabolism. However, bones are not entirely made of calcium,but a mixture of chondroitin sulfate and hydroxyapatite, the latter making up 70% of a bone.

[edit] Endocrine regulationBone cells release a hormone called osteocalcin, which contributes to the regulation of blood sugar (glucose) and fat deposition. Osteocalcin increases both the insulin secretion and sensitivity, in addition to boosting the number of insulin-producing cells and reducing stores of fat.[8]

[edit] Sex-based differences
An articulated human skeleton, as used in biology educationThere are many differences between the male and female human skeletons. Most prominent is the difference in the pelvis, owing to characteristics required for the processes of childbirth. The shape of a female pelvis is flatter, more rounded and proportionally larger to allow the head of a fetus to pass. A male's pelvis is about 90 degrees or less of angle, whereas a woman's is 100 degrees or more. Also, the coccyx of a female's pelvis is oriented more inferiorly whereas the man's coccyx is usually oriented more anteriorly. This difference allows more room for a developing fetus. Men tend to have slightly thicker and longer limbs and digit bones (phalanges), while women tend to have narrower rib cages, smaller teeth, less angular mandibles, less pronounced cranial features such as the brow ridges and external occipital protuberance (the small bump at the back of the skull), and the carrying angle of the forearm is more pronounced in females. Females also tend to have more rounded shoulder blades.

[edit] DisordersSee also: List of skeletal disorders
There are many disorders of the skeleton. One of the most common is osteoporosis.

[edit] OsteoporosisMain article: Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a disease of bone, which leads to an increased risk of fracture. In osteoporosis, the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone micro architecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) in women as a bone mineral density 2.5 standard deviations below peak bone mass (20-year-old sex-matched healthy person average) as measured by DXA; the term "established osteoporosis" includes the presence of a fragility fracture.[9] Osteoporosis is most common in women after the menopause, when it is called postmenopausal osteoporosis, but may develop in men and premenopausal women in the presence of particular hormonal disorders and other chronic diseases or as a result of smoking and medications, specifically glucocorticoids, when the disease is craned steroid- or glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (SIOP or GIOP).

Osteoporosis can be prevented with lifestyle advice and medication, and preventing falls in people with known or suspected osteoporosis is an established way to prevent fractures. Osteoporosis can also be prevented with having a good source of calcium and vitamin D. Osteoporosis can be treated with bisphosphonates and various other medical treatments.

What does your urinary system do?
Huh? Are you asking yourself what's a system, anyway?

A body system is a set of body parts that do a particular job. In this case, it's filtering out excess fluid and other substances from your bloodstream. Some fluid gets reabsorbed by your body but most gets expelled as urine. If your body weren't clever enough to get rid of some of this stuff, you'd get sick!

How does the urinary system work?
Your body makes chemical waste products it can't use. They go into your bloodstream, then pass into your kidneys where the excess fluid and chemical stuff your body can't use is filtered out.

As your kidneys do this work, they also make sure that your blood is just the right combination -- not too thin or too thick, not too salty, or overloaded with excess vitamins and minerals or wastes made by other parts of the body.

The kidneys work as they do because they contain millions of infinitesimal filters. Hundreds of times a day the blood in your body gets filtered through these filters and the liquid and wastes are removed. The wastes trickle down and collect in the center of your kidneys. Your kidneys are always working and the pee is always drip--drip--dripping down through tubes called the ureters into a stretchy pouch. This stretchy pouch is your bladder and it can stretch enough to hold a pint of urine!

When your bladder becomes too full, it sends a message to your brain. You feel the need to pee and start looking for a place to do it. When the time and place are right, your brain orders the muscles around your bladder to start squeezing and for the circle of muscles at the bottom of your bladder to open. Pee squirts out through the urethral opening in your body. Hopefully, the pee meets the water of a toilet. Now that spells relief!

Factoids
Ever eat kidney beans? They were named after your kidneys which are a similar shape and color!
Your kidneys have about a million structures that filter out liquids and wastes.
About 440 gallons of blood flow through the kidneys each and every day!








The heart is one of the most important organs in the entire human body. It is really nothing more than a pump, composed of muscle which pumps blood throughout the body, beating approximately 72 times per minute of our lives. The heart pumps the blood, which carries all the vital materials which help our bodies function and removes the waste products that we do not need. For example, the brain requires oxygen and glucose, which, if not received continuously, will cause it to loose consciousness. Muscles need oxygen, glucose and amino acids, as well as the proper ratio of sodium, calcium and potassium salts in order to contract normally. The glands need sufficient supplies of raw materials from which to manufacture the specific secretions. If the heart ever ceases to pump blood the body begins to shut down and after a very short period of time will die.

The heart is essentially a muscle(a little larger than the fist). Like any other muscle in the human body, it contracts and expands. Unlike skeletal muscles, however, the heart works on the "All -or-Nothing Law". That is, each time the heart contracts it does so with all its force. In skeletal muscles, the principle of "gradation" is present. The pumping of the heart is called the Cardiac Cycle, which occurs about 72 times per minute. This means that each cycle lasts about eight-tenths of a second. During this cycle the entire heart actually rests for about four-tenths of a second.

Make-up of the Heart.
The walls of the heart are made up of three layers, while the cavity is divided into four parts. There are two upper chambers, called the right and left atria, and two lower chambers, called the right and left ventricles. The Right Atrium, as it is called, receives blood from the upper and lower body through the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava, respectively, and from the heart muscle itself through the coronary sinus. The right atrium is the larger of the two atria, having very thin walls. The right atrium opens into the right ventricle through the right atrioventicular valve(tricuspid), which only allows the blood to flow from the atria into the ventricle, but not in the reverse direction. The right ventricle pumps the blood to the lungs to be reoxygenated. The left atrium receives blood from the lungs via the four pulmonary veins. It is smaller than the right atrium, but has thicker walls. The valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle, the left atrioventicular valve(bicuspid), is smaller than the tricuspid. It opens into the left ventricle and again is a one way valve. The left ventricle pumps the blood throughout the body. It is the Aorta, the largest artery in the body, which originates from the left ventricle.


The Heart works as a pump moving blood around in our bodies to nourish every cell. Used blood, that is blood that has already been to the cells and has given up its nutrients to them, is drawn from the body by the right half of the heart, and then sent to the lungs to be reoxygenated. Blood that has been reoxygenated by the lungs is drawn into the left side of the heart and then pumped into the blood stream. It is the atria that draw the blood from the lungs and body, and the ventricles that pump it to the lungs and body. The output of each ventricle per beat is about 70 ml, or about 2 tablespoons. In a trained athlete this amount is about double. With the average heart rate of 72 beats per minute the heart will pump about 5 litres per ventricle, or about 10 litres total per minute. This is called the cardiac output. In a trained athlete the total cardiac output is about 20 litres. If we multiply the normal, non-athlete output by the average age of 70 years, we see that the cardiac output of the average human heart over a life time would be about 1 million litres, or about 250,000 gallons(US)!


The human brain has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals, but is larger than expected on the basis of body size among other primates.[1][2] Estimates for the number of neurons (nerve cells) in the human brain range from 80 to 120 billion.[2][3] Most of the expansion comes from the cerebral cortex, especially the frontal lobes, which are associated with executive functions such as self-control, planning, reasoning, and abstract thought. The portion of the cerebral cortex devoted to vision is also greatly enlarged in human beings, and several cortical areas play specific roles in language, a skill that is unique to humans.

Despite being protected by the thick bones of the skull, suspended in cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood-brain barrier, the human brain is susceptible to many types of damage and disease. The most common forms of physical damage are closed head injuries such as a blow to the head, a stroke, or poisoning by a variety of chemicals that can act as neurotoxins. Infection of the brain, though serious, is rare due to the biological barriers which protect it. The human brain is also susceptible to degenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. A number of psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia and depression, are thought to be associated with brain dysfunctions, although the nature of such brain anomalies is not well understood.[4]


Each liter (33 oz/4 cups) of muscle is 1.06 kg. that is the same as 2.33 pounds. 1 liter of fat weighs 0.9 kg. Therefore if you and your friend are the same height and she has more fat but you weigh more that's why.


this is how much muscle weigh Around 3 lbs
this is how much the brain weighs So you are wondering all about your bones and "HOW TO MAKE OUR BONES GROW" huh?? Well there are 206 bones in the human body. Although adults have 206 bones, that number actually decreases as we age. Certain bones fuse, joining individual bones into a fused single segment. Bones serve a number of important functions for normal living. They provide support for the body, giving it shape, form, and the ability to move. They guard vital organs and serve as levers to make movement possible. Bones are storage reservoirs for minerals and vitamins. Bone marrow is responsible for the production of new blood cells. Bones are living, changing structures that require adequate calcium and weight-bearing exercise to build and maintain their density and strength. Living bone tissue is a combination of hard organic salts (minerals) and organic compounds (collagen). Mineral storage in the bones not only ensures the structural strength and health of the bone, but also provides a reservoir of minerals, which are readily available to the body whenever needed. Microscopically, bone is a strong matrix (framework) of fibers cris-crossed in intricate patterns, embedded with mineral salts. The most prominent mineral salt in the body is collagen (95%) a very strong and durable material. About 20% of the weight of bone is water.

Bones are classified according to their physical appearance and structural make-up. Long bones have an elongated shaft with a central medullary cavity. They always have articulations (joints) on both ends. All long bones have three major parts: a shaft (diaphysis), an expanded portion of the shaft (metaphysis), and the bone ends (epiphysis). Short bones have the same structural appearance as long bones, but are proportionally smaller.

Flat bones are made up of two opposed layers of cortical bone (smooth, dense bone) separated by a thin medullary cavity (soft, spongy bone). Examples of flat bones include the skull, scapula and pelvis.

Irregular bones come in a variety of specialized shapes and sizes that do not fit into either the long or flat bone category. Carpals and tarsals are examples.

In addition to being classified by physical appearance, bones are also classified by the make-up of their internal structure. Compact bone is very dense and smooth. It is always found on the exterior surface of a bone. Its purpose is to surround (provide an outer shell for) softer, spongy bone. Within compact bone are a network of vascular channels through which arteries and veins pass.

Spongy bone (also known as cancellous or trabecular bone) is very porus and soft. In appearance, it looks something like a honeycomb. The structural framework is made of trabeculae (rigid bony fibers) with bone marrow filling in the spaces.

At birth, all bone marrow is red. As we age, most of it is transformed into yellow marrow by the addition of fat cells. Red marrow produces red blood cells, platelets, and certain white blood cells. It fills the cavities of many bones, especially long bones. By adolescence, most of our marrow is yellow. In an adult, red marrow is only found on the proximal epiphysis of long bones, in vertebral bodies, sternum, ribs, and bones of the cranium. If necessary, yellow marrow can be stimulated to produce new red blood cells. Red blood cells only live about 120 days, after which they are replaced and recycled. Every day, the liver destroys about the same number of red blood cells as bone marrow creates to maintain a balance.

Components of Blood

1. Red blood cells (RBC), called erythrocytes, carry 99% of the body's oxygen. Red blood cells are the most abundant cells in the body (45%). Their main function is to carry oxygen to tissues and to remove carbon dioxide waste. They are made of water and hemoglobin (a protein containing iron). Hemoglobin gives blood its deep red color. Each RBC is only about .008 centimeter (3/1000 of an inch) in diameter. About two and a half million red blood cells are created and destroyed every second. When RBC?s are destroyed, they are broken down into their constituent parts, some of which can be used again to manufacture new cells. Normal red blood cell production depends upon the body having an adequate supply of iron and two main vitamins, B12 and folic acid.
2. White blood cells, called leukocytes, are outnumbered by red blood cells 600 to 1. They are spherical in shape and slightly larger than red blood cells. There are five types of leukocytes. Their main function is to provide a defense against "foreign" material (infectious agents, foreign bodies, abnormal proteins). Red bone marrow continually produces white blood cells, except lymphocytes and monocytes, and keeps a reserve ready.
3. Platelets are specialized cells activated whenever blood clotting or repair to a vessel is necessary. They are called cells, but are really fragments of other cells. Made in bone marrow, they are much smaller than red blood cells. A single drop of blood contains 15 million platelets. When a blood vessel is cut, platelets respond by swelling into irregular shapes, growing sticky to form a plug. If the cut is too large for platelets, they send out signals to initiate clotting through a release of the hormone serotonin, which stimulates blood vessels to contract. Blood flow is reduced throughout the body. Clotting is really a change of soluble plasma protein fibrinogen into insoluble, thread-like protein (fibrin). Fibrin forms a mesh around blood cells and adds serum (a clear yellowish fluid that forms a solid clot). The process of clotting also creates a framework on which to build new tissue.

Bone Development

Prior to birth and for several months after birth, the skeleton has very little bone. Many bones start out as cartilage. As the child grows, cartilage transforms into true bone (endochondral ossification). Ossification rates appear at set time in healthy children and can be evaluated by radiographic imaging.

Bones are a storehouse of minerals. They hold 99% of the bodies calcium, 86% of its phosphate, and 54% of our magnesium. Calcium is an essential element in keeping bones healthy and strong. But calcium plays an important role in other essential functions as well: - Calcium keeps membranes permeable
- Muscles can not contract without calcium
- Blood can not clot without calcium
- Certain enzymes can not function without calcium
To keep bones healthy and in good repair, other nutrients are needed. Vitamin D stimulates the body to absorb calcium and phosphorus. It plays a key role in making it possible for calcium and phosphorus to cross through the intestinal wall. Lack of vitamin D causes the condition known as Rickets.
Vitamins A and C are essential for bone remodeling and growth. Insufficient supply of vitamin A results in a serious condition of decreased osteoblast activity, commonly known as Scurvy.



Bone Formation

Step 1: Bone resorption and remodeling begins when hormones are sent out into the bloodstream, triggering osteoclasts to respond to the site where new bone needs to be produced.

Step 2: Osteoclasts dissolve away existing bone (resorption & remodeling), creating an indentation or cavity.

Step 3: Once the osteoclasts have prepared the site, osteoblasts move in and begin to secrete collagen fibers, which will provide a framework for new bone formation.

Step 4: Hormones cause minerals to be pulled out of bones throughout the body and into the bloodstream. They are attracted to the site where new bone is being formed and bind to the new collagen framework. New bone tissue is created.

To keep bones healthy and in good repair, there is a mechanism in place to repair damaged tissue and to revitalize old, weakened bone with new, strong material. Specialized cells called osteoblasts accomplish this. Blast means make or form. Osteoblasts converge at the site where bone repair will take place. They secrete collagen fibers, which bind to minerals absorbed from the bloodstream, and new bone is created. Forming new bone requires adequate Calcium and Phosphorous. Certain hormones can activate a release of these minerals into the bloodstream so they are readily available when needed.

About 5% - 10% of our existing bone is replaced each year throughout our lives. The process gradually slows as we get older, resulting in brittle bones. Bone cells responsible for the resorption and remodeling of bone are osteoclasts. Clast means to remove or dissolve. When fractures occur or as bone ages, new bone must be laid down. Osteoclasts prepare the site by dissolving old injured or weakened bone, leaving a crater for osteoblasts to assemble into as they begin forming new bone. Without osteoclasts preparing the site, osteoblasts would be inefficient.


The human brain has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals, but is larger than expected on the basis of body size among other primates.[1][2] Estimates for the number of neurons (nerve cells) in the human brain range from 80 to 120 billion.[2][3] Most of the expansion comes from the cerebral cortex, especially the frontal lobes, which are associated with executive functions such as self-control, planning, reasoning, and abstract thought. The portion of the cerebral cortex devoted to vision is also greatly enlarged in human beings, and several cortical areas play specific roles in language, a skill that is unique to humans.

Despite being protected by the thick bones of the skull, suspended in cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood-brain barrier, the human brain is susceptible to many types of damage and disease. The most common forms of physical damage are closed head injuries such as a blow to the head, a stroke, or poisoning by a variety of chemicals that can act as neurotoxins. Infection of the brain, though serious, is rare due to the biological barriers which protect it. The human brain is also susceptible to degenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. A number of psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia and depression, are thought to be associated with brain dysfunctions, although the nature of such brain anomalies is not well understood.[4]


Depends on whether it's an empty skull or not. Most "heads" weigh about 8 lbs.

are ways you can prevent knee injuries.

What's in a Knee?
To understand knee injuries, first you have to understand the knee. The knee is a joint, which means it sits between the area where bones connect. It's actually the largest joint in the body. Your knees provide stability and flexibility for your body and allow your legs to bend, swivel, and straighten.

The knee is made up of several body parts like bones, cartilage, muscles, ligaments, and tendons, all working as one. So when we talk about a knee injury, it could be stress or damage to any of these parts.

Bones and Cartilage
The knee sits in the middle of three bones: the tibia (your shin bone), the femur (your thigh bone), and the patella (the knee cap). The patella is a flat, round bone that protects the knee joint.

The ends of the femur and the patella are covered in articular cartilage (think of the white stuff at the end of a chicken bone). Articular cartilage acts like a cushion and to keep the femur, patella, and tibia from grinding against each other. On the top of the tibia, extra pads of cartilage called menisci help absorb the body's weight (if you're talking about one, it's called a meniscus). Each knee has two menisci — the inside (medial) meniscus and the outside (lateral) meniscus
The term "heart diseases" refers to diseases of the heart and the blood vessel system within it. There are more then 50 different types, the most common being coronary artery disease. What can be confusing for people is that coronary artery disease is often simply referred to as heart disease.

Some people are born with heart disease (known as congenital heart disease); others develop during a person's lifetime. Because there are so many heart disease types, it may be helpful to separate them into problems in the:

•Heart chambers
•Heart muscle itself
•Heart valves
•Coronary arteries and coronary veins
•Electrical system
•Heart lining.

(Click Cardiovascular System to learn what each of these parts of the heart do.)

Heart Disease Types Affecting the Heart Chambers
Kinds of heart disease that can affect the heart chambers include:

•Congestive heart failure, also known simply as heart failure, including:

◦Diastolic dysfunction
◦Systolic dysfunction

•Cor pulmonale (also known as pulmonary heart disease), which is an enlarged right ventricle. The term "heart diseases" refers to diseases of the heart and the blood vessel system within it. There are more then 50 different types, the most common being coronary artery disease. What can be confusing for people is that coronary artery disease is often simply referred to as heart disease.

Some people are born with heart disease (known as congenital heart disease); others develop during a person's lifetime. Because there are so many heart disease types, it may be helpful to separate them into problems in the:

•Heart chambers
•Heart muscle itself
•Heart valves
•Coronary arteries and coronary veins
•Electrical system
•Heart lining.

(Click Cardiovascular System to learn what each of these parts of the heart do.)

Heart Disease Types Affecting the Heart Chambers
Kinds of heart disease that can affect the heart chambers include:

•Congestive heart failure, also known simply as heart failure, including:

◦Diastolic dysfunction
◦Systolic dysfunction

•Cor pulmonale (also known as pulmonary heart disease), which is an enlarged right ventricle. Women hearts beat faster than men.

Three years after a person quits smoking, there chance of having a heart attack is the same as someone who has never smoked before.

The human heart weighs less than a pound.

The human heart can create enough pressure that it could squirt blood at a distance of thirty feet.

The first open heart surgery was performed by Dr. Daniel Hall Williams in 1893.

Scientists have discovered that the longer the ring finger is in boys the less chance they have of having a heart attack.

The right lung of a human is larger than the left one. This is because of the space and placement of the heart.

The human heart beat roughly 35 million times a year.

Olive oil can help in lowering cholesterol levels and decreasing the risk of heart complications.

In a lifetime, the heart pumps about one million barrels of blood.

In 1967, the first successful heart transplant was performed in Cape Town, South Africa.

People that suffer from gum disease are twice as likely to have a stroke or heart attack.

Most heart attacks occur between the hours of 8 and 9 AM.

The human heart beast roughly 35 million times a year.

At one time it was thought that the heart controlled a person's emotions.
Every day 2,700 people die of heart disease.

During a typical human life span, the human heart will beat approximately 2.5 billion times.

In one day your heart beats 100,000 times.

For humans the normal pulse is 70 heartbeats per minute.
There are approximately 100 million acts of sexual intercourse each day.

The sperm count of an average American male compared to thirty years ago is down thirty percent.

An adult esophagus can range from 10 to 14 inches in length and is one inch in diameter.

Men sweat more than women. This is because women can better regulate the amount of water they lose.

The average amount of time spent kissing for a person in a lifetime is 20,160 minutes.

The average adult has approximately six pounds of skin.

Infants spend more time dreaming than adults do.

In one day, adult lungs move about 10,000 liters of air.

The condom made originally of linen was invented in the early 1500's. Casanova, the womanizer, used linen condoms.

Sex burns about 70-120 calories for a 130 pound woman, and 77 to 155 calories for a 170 pound man every hour.

Impotence is grounds for divorce in 26 U.S. states.

There are approximately 45 billion fat cells in an average adult.

Kissing can aid in reducing tooth decay. This is because the extra saliva helps in keeping the mouth clean.

During the female orgasm, endorphines are released, which are powerful painkillers. So headaches are in fact a bad excuse not to have sex.

During World War II, condoms were used to cover rifle barrels from being damaged by salt water as the soldiers swam to shore.
According to psychologists, the shoe and the foot are the most common sources of sexual fetishism in Western society.

A kiss for one minute can burn 26.
On average, a man spends about five months of his life shaving.

On average, a hair strand's life span is five and a half years.

On average redheads have 90,000 hairs. People with black hair have about 110,000 hairs.

Next to bone marrow, hair is the fastest growing tissue in the human body.

In a lifetime, an average man will shave 20,000 times.

Humans have about the same number of hair follicles as a chimpanzee has.

Hair will fall out faster on a person that is on a crash diet.

The average human head weighs about eight pounds.

The reason why some people get a cowlick is because the growth of their hair is in a spiral pattern, which causes the hair to either stand straight up, or goes to a certain angle.

The reason why hair turns gray as we age is because the pigment cells in the hair follicle start to die, which is responsible for producing "melanin" which gives the hair colour.

The big toe is the foot reflexology pressure point for the head.

The loss of eyelashes is referred to as madarosis.

The longest human beard on record is 17.5 feet, held by Hans N. Langseth who was born in Norway in 1846.

The fastest growing tissue in the human body is hair.

The average human scalp has 100,000 hairs.
Hair and fingernails are made from the same substance, keratin.

Hair is made from the same substance as fingernails.

Eyebrow hair lasts between 3-5 months before it sheds.

The first hair dryer was a vacuum cleaner that was used for drying hair.

A Russian man who wore a beard during the time of Peter the Great had to pay a special tax.

Everyday approximately 35 meters of hair fiber is produced on the scalp of an adult.

Brylcreem, which was created in 1929, was the first man's hair product.

Ancient Egyptians used to think having facial hair was an indication of personal neglect.

A survey done by Clairol 10 years ago came up with 46% of men stating that it was okay to color their hair. Now 66% of men admit to coloring their hair.

A lifespan of an eyelash is approximately 150 days.
The average human scalp has 100,000 hairs.
e should never put anything in or near our eyes, unless we have a reason to use eye drops. We would only do that if our doctor or parent told us to use them.

Blinking helps to wash tears over our eyeballs. That keeps them clean and moist. Also, if something is about to hit our eye, we will blink automatically.

Our body has some natural protection for our eyes. Our eyelashes help to keep dirt out of our eyes. Our eyebrows are made to keep sweat from running into our eyes.

Our eyes are very important to us, and we must protect them. We don't want dirt, sand, splinters or even fingers to get in our eyes. We don't want our eyes to get scratched or poked. That could damage our sight!

The study of the iris of the eye is called iridology.

The shark cornea has been used in eye surgery, since its cornea is similar to a human cornea.

The number one cause of blindness in adults in the United States is diabetes.

The eyeball of a human weighs approximately 28 grams.

The eye of a human can distinguish 500 shades of the gray.

The cornea is the only living tissue in the human body that does not contain any blood vessels.

The conjunctiva is a membrane that covers the human eye.

Sailors once thought that wearing a gold earring would improve their eyesight.

Research has indicated that a tie that is on too tight cam increase the risk of glaucoma in men.

People generally read 25% slower from a computer screen compared to paper.

Men are able to read fine print better than women can.
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In the United States, approximately 25,000 eye injuries occur that result in the person becoming totally blind.

All babies are colour blind when they are born.

A human eyeball weighs an ounce.

If the lens in our eye doesn't work quite right, we can get glasses to help us see. Glasses have lenses in them that work with our eye's own lens to help us see better.

Babies' eyes do not produce tears until the baby is approximately six to eight weeks old.

The reason why your nose gets runny when you are crying is because the tears from the eyes drain into the nose.

The most common injury caused by cosmetics is to the eye by a mascara wand.

Some people start to sneeze if they are exposed to sunlight or have a light shined into their eye.

The highest recorded speed of a sneeze is 165 km per hour.

It is impossible to sneeze with your eyes open.

The space between your eyebrows is called the Glabella.

Inside our eye, at the back, is a part called the "retina." On the retina are cells called "rods" and "cones." These rods and cones help us to see colors and light.

Just behind the pupil is a lens. It is round and flat. It is thicker toward the middle.

Over the front of our eye is a clear covering called the "conjunctiva."

The white part of our eye is called the "sclera." At the front, the sclera becomes clear and is called the "cornea."
Around the pupil is a colored muscle called the "iris." Our eyes may be BLUE, BROWN, GREEN, GRAY OR BLACK, because that is the color of the iris.

Our eyes have many parts. The black part on the front of our eye is called the "pupil." It is really a little hole that opens into the back part of our eyes.

Your eyes blinks over 10,000,000 times a year!
Close to fifty percent of the bacteria in the mouth lives on the surface of our tongue.

There are approximately 9,000 taste buds on the tongue.

Your tongue has 3,000 taste buds.

85% of the population can curl their tongue into a tube.
Cancer is a scary word. Almost everyone knows someone who got very sick or died from cancer. Most of the time, cancer affects older people. Not many kids get cancer, but when they do, very often it can be treated and cured.


What Is Cancer?
Cancer is actually a group of many related diseases that all have to do with cells. Cells are the very small units that make up all living things, including the human body. There are billions of cells in each person's body.

Cancer happens when cells that are not normal grow and spread very fast. Normal body cells grow and divide and know to stop growing. Over time, they also die. Unlike these normal cells, cancer cells just continue to grow and divide out of control and don't die when they're supposed to.

Cancer cells usually group or clump together to form tumors (say: too-mers). A growing tumor becomes a lump of cancer cells that can destroy the normal cells around the tumor and damage the body's healthy tissues. This can make someone very sick.

Sometimes cancer cells break away from the original tumor and travel to other areas of the body, where they keep growing and can go on to form new tumors. This is how cancer spreads. The spread of a tumor to a new place in the body is called metastasis (say: meh-tas-tuh-sis).

Causes of Cancer
You probably know a kid who had chickenpox — maybe even you. But you probably don't know any kids who've had cancer. If you packed a large football stadium with kids, probably only one child in that stadium would have cancer.

Doctors aren't sure why some people get cancer and others don't. They do know that cancer is not contagious. You can't catch it from someone else who has it — cancer isn't caused by germs, like colds or the flu are. So don't be afraid of other kids — or anyone else — with cancer. You can talk to, play with, and hug someone with cancer.

Kids can't get cancer from anything they do either. Some kids think that a bump on the head causes brain cancer or that bad people get cancer. This isn't true! Kids don't do anything wrong to get cancer. But some unhealthy habits, especially cigarette smoking or drinking too much alcohol every day, can make you a lot more likely to get cancer when you become an adult.

Finding Out About Cancer
It can take a while for a doctor to figure out a kid has cancer. That's because the symptoms cancer can cause — weight loss, fevers, swollen glands, or feeling overly tired or sick for a while — usually are not caused by cancer. When a kid has these problems, it's often caused by something less serious, like an infection. With medical testing, the doctor can figure out what's causing the trouble.

If the doctor suspects cancer, he or she can do tests to figure out if that's the problem. A doctor might order X-rays and blood tests and recommend the person go to see an oncologist (say: on-kah-luh-jist). An oncologist is a doctor who takes care of and treats cancer patients. The oncologist will likely run other tests to find out if someone really has cancer. If so, tests can determine what kind of cancer it is and if it has spread to other parts of the body. Based on the results, the doctor will decide the best way to treat it.

One test that an oncologist (or a surgeon) may perform is a biopsy (say: by-op-see). During a biopsy, a piece of tissue is removed from a tumor or a place in the body where cancer is suspected, like the bone marrow. Don't worry — someone getting this test will get special medicine to keep him or her comfortable during the biopsy. The sample that's collected will be examined under a microscope for cancer cells.

The sooner cancer is found and treatment begins, the better someone's chances are for a full recovery and cure.

Treating Cancer Carefully
Cancer is treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation — or sometimes a combination of these treatments. The choice of treatment depends on:

•the type of cancer someone has (the kind of abnormal cells causing the cancer)
•the stage of the tumor (meaning how much the cancer has spread within the body, if at all)
Surgery is the oldest form of treatment for cancer — 3 out of every 5 people with cancer will have an operation to remove it. During surgery, the doctor tries to take out as many cancer cells as possible. Some healthy cells or tissue may also be removed to make sure that all the cancer is gone.

Chemotherapy (say: kee-mo-ther-uh-pee) is the use of anti-cancer medicines (drugs) to treat cancer. These medicines are sometimes taken as a pill, but usually are given through a special intravenous (say: in-truh-vee-nus) line, also called an IV. An IV is a tiny plastic catheter (straw-like tube) that is put into a vein through someone's skin, usually on the arm. The catheter is attached to a bag that holds the medicine. The medicine flows from the bag into a vein, which puts the medicine into the blood, where it can travel throughout the body and attack cancer cells.

Chemotherapy is usually given over a number of weeks to months. Often, a permanent catheter is placed under the skin into a larger blood vessel of the upper chest. This way, a person can easily get several courses of chemotherapy and other medicines through this catheter without having a new IV needle put in. The catheter remains under the skin until all the cancer treatment is completed.

Radiation (say: ray-dee-ay-shun) therapy uses high-energy waves, such as X-rays (invisible waves that can pass through most parts of the body), to damage and destroy cancer cells. It can cause tumors to shrink and even go away completely. Radiation therapy is one of the most common treatments for cancer. Many people with cancer find it goes away after receiving radiation treatments.

With both chemotherapy and radiation, kids may experience side effects. A side effect is an extra problem that's caused by the treatment. Radiation and anti-cancer drugs are very good at destroying cancer cells but, unfortunately, they also destroy healthy cells. This can cause problems such as loss of appetite, tiredness, vomiting, or hair loss. With radiation, a person might have red or irritated skin in the area that's being treated. But all these problems go away and hair grows back after the treatment is over. During the treatment, certain medicines can help a kid feel better.

While treatment is still going on, a kid might not be able to attend school or be around crowds of people — the kid needs to rest and avoid getting infections, such as the flu, when he or she already isn't feeling well. The body may have more trouble fighting off infections because of the cancer or side effects of the treatment.

Getting Better
Remission (say: ree-mih-shun) is a great word for anyone who has cancer. It means all signs of cancer are gone from the body. After surgery or treatment with radiation or chemotherapy, a doctor will then do tests to see if the cancer is still there. If there are no signs of cancer, then the kid is in remission.

Cancer is a scary word. Almost everyone knows someone who got very sick or died from cancer. Most of the time, cancer affects older people. Not many kids get cancer, but when they do, very often it can be treated and cured.


What Is Cancer?
Cancer is actually a group of many related diseases that all have to do with cells. Cells are the very small units that make up all living things, including the human body. There are billions of cells in each person's body.

Cancer happens when cells that are not normal grow and spread very fast. Normal body cells grow and divide and know to stop growing. Over time, they also die. Unlike these normal cells, cancer cells just continue to grow and divide out of control and don't die when they're supposed to.

Cancer cells usually group or clump together to form tumors (say: too-mers). A growing tumor becomes a lump of cancer cells that can destroy the normal cells around the tumor and damage the body's healthy tissues. This can make someone very sick.

Sometimes cancer cells break away from the original tumor and travel to other areas of the body, where they keep growing and can go on to form new tumors. This is how cancer spreads. The spread of a tumor to a new place in the body is called metastasis (say: meh-tas-tuh-sis).

Causes of Cancer
You probably know a kid who had chickenpox — maybe even you. But you probably don't know any kids who've had cancer. If you packed a large football stadium with kids, probably only one child in that stadium would have cancer.

Doctors aren't sure why some people get cancer and others don't. They do know that cancer is not contagious. You can't catch it from someone else who has it — cancer isn't caused by germs, like colds or the flu are. So don't be afraid of other kids — or anyone else — with cancer. You can talk to, play with, and hug someone with cancer.

Kids can't get cancer from anything they do either. Some kids think that a bump on the head causes brain cancer or that bad people get cancer. This isn't true! Kids don't do anything wrong to get cancer. But some unhealthy habits, especially cigarette smoking or drinking too much alcohol every day, can make you a lot more likely to get cancer when you become an adult.

Finding Out About Cancer
It can take a while for a doctor to figure out a kid has cancer. That's because the symptoms cancer can cause — weight loss, fevers, swollen glands, or feeling overly tired or sick for a while — usually are not caused by cancer. When a kid has these problems, it's often caused by something less serious, like an infection. With medical testing, the doctor can figure out what's causing the trouble.

If the doctor suspects cancer, he or she can do tests to figure out if that's the problem. A doctor might order X-rays and blood tests and recommend the person go to see an oncologist (say: on-kah-luh-jist). An oncologist is a doctor who takes care of and treats cancer patients. The oncologist will likely run other tests to find out if someone really has cancer. If so, tests can determine what kind of cancer it is and if it has spread to other parts of the body. Based on the results, the doctor will decide the best way to treat it.

One test that an oncologist (or a surgeon) may perform is a biopsy (say: by-op-see). During a biopsy, a piece of tissue is removed from a tumor or a place in the body where cancer is suspected, like the bone marrow. Don't worry — someone getting this test will get special medicine to keep him or her comfortable during the biopsy. The sample that's collected will be examined under a microscope for cancer cells.

The sooner cancer is found and treatment begins, the better someone's chances are for a full recovery and cure.

Treating Cancer Carefully
Cancer is treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation — or sometimes a combination of these treatments. The choice of treatment depends on:

•the type of cancer someone has (the kind of abnormal cells causing the cancer)
•the stage of the tumor (meaning how much the cancer has spread within the body, if at all)
Surgery is the oldest form of treatment for cancer — 3 out of every 5 people with cancer will have an operation to remove it. During surgery, the doctor tries to take out as many cancer cells as possible. Some healthy cells or tissue may also be removed to make sure that all the cancer is gone.

Chemotherapy (say: kee-mo-ther-uh-pee) is the use of anti-cancer medicines (drugs) to treat cancer. These medicines are sometimes taken as a pill, but usually are given through a special intravenous (say: in-truh-vee-nus) line, also called an IV. An IV is a tiny plastic catheter (straw-like tube) that is put into a vein through someone's skin, usually on the arm. The catheter is attached to a bag that holds the medicine. The medicine flows from the bag into a vein, which puts the medicine into the blood, where it can travel throughout the body and attack cancer cells.

Chemotherapy is usually given over a number of weeks to months. Often, a permanent catheter is placed under the skin into a larger blood vessel of the upper chest. This way, a person can easily get several courses of chemotherapy and other medicines through this catheter without having a new IV needle put in. The catheter remains under the skin until all the cancer treatment is completed.

Radiation (say: ray-dee-ay-shun) therapy uses high-energy waves, such as X-rays (invisible waves that can pass through most parts of the body), to damage and destroy cancer cells. It can cause tumors to shrink and even go away completely. Radiation therapy is one of the most common treatments for cancer. Many people with cancer find it goes away after receiving radiation treatments.

With both chemotherapy and radiation, kids may experience side effects. A side effect is an extra problem that's caused by the treatment. Radiation and anti-cancer drugs are very good at destroying cancer cells but, unfortunately, they also destroy healthy cells. This can cause problems such as loss of appetite, tiredness, vomiting, or hair loss. With radiation, a person might have red or irritated skin in the area that's being treated. But all these problems go away and hair grows back after the treatment is over. During the treatment, certain medicines can help a kid feel better.

While treatment is still going on, a kid might not be able to attend school or be around crowds of people — the kid needs to rest and avoid getting infections, such as the flu, when he or she already isn't feeling well. The body may have more trouble fighting off infections because of the cancer or side effects of the treatment.

Getting Better
Remission (say: ree-mih-shun) is a great word for anyone who has cancer. It means all signs of cancer are gone from the body. After surgery or treatment with radiation or chemotherapy, a doctor will then do tests to see if the cancer is still there. If there are no signs of cancer, then the kid is in remission.

Remission is the goal when any kid with cancer goes to the hospital for treatment. Sometimes, this means additional chemotherapy might be needed for a while to keep cancer cells from coming back. And luckily, for many kids, continued remission is the very happy end of their cancer experience.



A tumor or tumour is commonly used as a synonym for a neoplasm (a solid or fluid-filled (cystic) lesion that may or may not be formed by an abnormal growth of neoplastic cells) that appears enlarged in size.[1] Tumor is not synonymous with cancer. While cancer is by definition malignant, a tumor can be benign, pre-malignant, or malignant, or can represent a lesion without any cancerous potential whatsoever.

The term tumour/tumor is derived from the Latin word for "swelling" -- tumor. It is similar to the Old French tumour (contemporary French: tumeur). In the Commonwealth the spelling "tumour" is commonly used, whereas in the U.S. it is usually spelled "tumor".

In its medical sense it has traditionally meant an abnormal swelling of the flesh. The Roman medical encyclopedist Celsus (ca 30 BC–38 AD) described the four cardinal signs of acute inflammation as tumor, dolor, calor, and rubor (swelling, pain, increased heat, and redness). His treatise, De Medicina, was the first medical book printed in 1478 following the invention of the movable-type printing press.

In contemporary English, the word tumor is often used as a synonym for a cystic (liquid-filled) growth or solid neoplasm (cancerous or non-cancerous),[2] with other forms of swelling often referred to merely as swellings.[3]

Related terms are common in the medical literature, where the nouns tumefaction and tumescence (derived from the adjective tumefied), are current medical terms for non-neoplastic swelling. This type of swelling is most often caused by inflammation caused by trauma, infection, and other factors..etc.

Tumors may be caused by conditions other than an overgrowth of neoplastic cells, however. Cysts (such as sebaceous cysts) are also referred to as tumors, even though they have no neoplastic cells. This is standard in medical billing terminology (especially when billing for a growth whose pathology has yet to be determined)..

You may have heard about special events, like walks or races, to raise money for breast cancer research. Or maybe you've seen people wear those little pink ribbons on their clothes.

Breast (say: brest) cancer is a common cancer among women. It occurs rarely in men and it doesn't affect kids. But kids might want to learn about it because they know someone who has it or because they want to learn how to check for it when they are older.

What Is Breast Cancer?
The human body is made of tiny building blocks called cells. Your body creates them, replacing those that die with new ones. Usually, the body creates healthy, normal cells that do just what they're supposed to do. This includes cells in the breasts, the two rounded areas on the front of the chest.

But if a cell changes into an abnormal, sometimes harmful form, it can divide quickly over and over again without dying, making many, many copies of itself. When this happens, a tumor, abnormal body cells grouped together in the form of a mass or lump, can start to form and grow.

Breast cancer is a kind of tumor that develops in the cells of a person's breast. You may think that only women can get breast cancer, but because all people have breast tissue, men can get breast cancer as well — though this is very rare.

A tumor can form anywhere in the body. Someone has cancer when those abnormal cells will not stop growing, and then cause sickness in the body.

Someone with breast cancer may have cancer cells in just one part of the breast, which might be felt as a lump. The cancer can spread throughout one or both breasts. Sometimes breast cancer spreads to other parts of the body, like the bones, the liver, or elsewhere.

Continue
ListenWhy Do People Get Breast Cancer?Any woman can get breast cancer, but doctors have found that certain factors make some women more likely to get it.
Family history: A woman whose mother, sister, aunt, or daughter has had breast cancer is more likely to get breast cancer.Age: As women get older, they are more at risk for breast cancer. Teens — as well as women in their twenties and thirties — are less likely to get breast cancer.Diet and lifestyle choices: Women who smoke, eat high-fat diets, drink alcohol, and don't get enough exercise may be more at risk for developing breast cancer.What Are the Signs of Breast Cancer?A woman who has breast cancer may have no problems, or she may find a painless lump in her breast. If women examine their breasts monthly, they can help find lumps or other changes that a doctor should examine.
Most breast lumps are not cancer, but all lumps should be checked out by a doctor to be sure. Breast lumps that are not cancer may be scar tissue or cysts (fluid-filled lumps or sacs) or they can be due to normal breast changes associated with hormone changes or aging.
Girls who are beginning puberty might notice a lump underneath the nipple when their breasts start developing. Usually, this is a normal. You can ask a parent or your doctor about it to be sure.
BackContinue

ListenWhat Will the Doctor Do?Sometimes a doctor will discover a lump in a woman's breast during a routine examination or a patient might come to the doctor with questions about a lump she found.
In other cases, a mammogram (say: ma-muh-gram) may find a lump in the breast that can't be felt. A mammogram is a special kind of X-ray of the breast that helps doctors see what's going on inside. Sometimes, other kinds of pictures, like an MRI, also can be taken.
When a lump is found, the doctor will want to test it. The best way to do this is usually with a biopsy. In a biopsy, a small amount of breast tissue is removed with a needle or during a small operation. Then, the tissue is examined under a microscope to look for cancer cells.
The biopsy may be benign (say: bih-nine), which means the lump is not cancer. If the biopsy shows cancer cells, the lump is malignant (say: muh-lig-nunt). If a breast lump does contains cancer cells, the woman, along with her doctor and family, will decide what to do next.
Breast Cancer TreatmentTreatment for breast cancer usually depends on the type of cancer and whether the cancer has spread outside of the breast to the rest of the body.
Here are some common treatments:
lumpectomy (say: lum-pek-tuh-mee), which removes the cancerous tumor from the breast. A woman usually has this surgery when the cancer is found early and when the lump is small and in only one part of the breast.mastectomy (say: ma-stek-tuh-mee), which removes the whole breast. This surgery is done when cancer cells have spread through the breast or into other parts of the body. It is a good way to remove all or most of the cancer, and it can help prevent the cancer from spreading or coming back. Sometimes, a woman who has a mastectomy may choose to have an operation to reconstruct (rebuild) the breast, so her shape will be more like it was before.radiation therapy and chemotherapy, which are often used after lumpectomy or mastectomy to make sure that all the cancer cells are destroyed and do not grow back. Radiation (say: ray-dee-ay-shun) therapy uses high-energy X-rays to kill the cancerous cells. Chemotherapy (say: kee-mo-ther-uh-pee), or chemo, is special medicine that travels throughout the entire body and kills cancer cells.BackContinue

ListenLiving With Breast CancerDealing with breast cancer can be very hard for a woman and her family. A woman who has breast cancer surgery or treatment may not feel well for a while. She may be depressed if she had her breast removed. If a woman needs chemotherapy, she may lose her hair and she may feel sick to her stomach. She also may worry that the cancer will return and she'll get sick again.
The good news is that many times, especially if a lump is caught early, women with breast cancer go on to live full, healthy lives after treatment. Some join support groups so they can talk to other women with breast cancer who are feeling the same emotions.
There are even groups that kids or other family members can join to talk about their feelings when someone they love has breast cancer. Find a trusted adult to talk with if you're worried about a loved one.
Breast Cancer PreventionDoctors and scientists are working to find cures for breast cancer. They are researching new medicines that may even help prevent the disease. But in the meantime, it's important for women to catch the disease early.
Regular mammograms — together with monthly breast self-exams — are the best ways for women to protect themselves. You may want to ask the women you care about if they are taking these important steps to stay healthy.

Check for the common symptoms of breast cancer. As you're examining yourself, check for these signs of breast cancer:


Look for changes in how the breast or nipple feels. There may be some tenderness on your nipples or you might feel a lump or a thickening on your breast or around the underarm area.Look for changes on how the breast or nipple looks. Sometimes the skin on your breast and nipple might be swollen, red, or have a rough feeling to it. There could be changes in the size and shape of your breast or a nipple might have turned inward.Be aware of nipple discharge.3Be cautious of other minor signs. Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a really uncommon type of breast cancer and can be very hard to detect, even by a mammogram. Here are the signs of IBC:


A breast that's larger than the other.Skin on the breast that's red or pink.Swelling on the breast.A rash either on the entire breast or in small patches on the breast.The skin on the breast has an "orange" like texture. (Bumpy, rough.)Skin that is hot to the touch.Itchiness or pain on the breast.Nipple discharge.Thickened areas or ridges on the breast.Nipples that are inverted or flat.Swollen lymph nodes near the armpit or on the neck.4If you notice any signs, see a doctor right away. Even if you have your doubts, it still doesn't hurt to check and make sure.Ads by Google

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Edit Video






Edit TipsHave an early detection plan. A detection plan should help you detect breast cancer early:


Have monthly breast self-exams beginning at the age of 20.
Have a doctor give you a breast exam every 3 years between the ages of 20-39.
Get a breast exam by a doctor every year after you are 39.
Start having mammograms after you are 40 and get one every 2 years when you are between 40-49 and have them yearly after you are 49.
Eat healthily and exercise daily. Research shows that a good diet and exercise can help prevent cancer.

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Edit WarningsRemember to have a doctor check you if you even think that you notice anything out of the ordinary, it is very important!
Risk factors for breast cancer:


Diets high in saturated fats.
Obesity.
If you have a history of breast cancer in your family.
If you are over 65.
If you had a late menopause.
If you've never had children.
If you gave birth to your first child at an older age.
If you're taking hormones.
- smoking and drinking, because of the harmful chemicals.


Cancer can occur in all of your body systems. cancer is basicly the overproduction of cells; so i'm relativly sure it can occur anywhere. There are two types of eye cancer that I know of. Retinoblastoma; and Melanoma. as for the lump; maybe penile cancer.? not to alarm you::
Colon and Rectal Cancer
Colon and Rectal cancer is also referred to as colorectal cancer.This type of cancer is a malignant cell that is found in the colon or rectum region of the body. The large intestine is made up of the colon and the rectum. Colon and rectal cancers share so many common features that they are referred to as the same cancer which is how the name colorectal cancer came about.

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death by cancer in the U.S.A. The number of new cases of colorectal cancer has decreased because in large part, the sigmoidoscopic screening and polyp removal procedures initiated by the medical community.

Stomach Cancer
Stomach cancer is also called, gastric cancer. This cancer affected approximately 21,700 Americans during 2001. The majority of those individuals were in their 60s and 70s. The risk factors for developing stomach cancer are Helicobacter pylori infection and a diet that consists of the following: eating large amounts of smoked foods, salted fish and meat, foods that are high in starch and low in fiber, pickled vegetables, and foods and beverages that contain nitrates and nitrites.

Diarrhea
Diarrhea is watery stool, or an increased frequency in stool, or both as compared to the normal amount of stool passed by the individual. Diarrhea can be short-term or it can be related to a bacterial or viral infection, or it can be long-term which is usually related to a functional disorder or intestinal disease

Diverticular Disease
This disease occurs in small pouches that bulge out in the colon. It is an inflammation or infection in the pouches.

Gas in the Digestive Tract
You get gas in your digestive tract by swallowing air or during the breakdown process of certain foods by the bacteria that is present in the colon. Everyone has gas. It can be uncomfortable and certainly embarrassing to pass the gas. The average person produces 1 to 3 pints of gas a day and pass gas through their rectums about 14 times each day.

Heartburn
Heartburn is what most of us get from time to time. Chronic heartburn is a digestive disorder called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). GERD is caused by gastric acid that flows from the stomach and into the esophagus.

Hepatitis
This is an inflammation of the liver that can result in liver cell damage. There are two types of hepatitis – acute and chronic and six main types of the hepatitis virus.

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
There are several different diseases that fall under this category all of which require a doctor for treatment. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are two of these diseases.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome – more commonly referred to as IBS – is an intestinal disorder that causes cramping, gassiness, bloating and changes in the bowel habits of the individual with the disorder.

Lactose Intolerance
People with lactose intolerance lack an enzyme that is called lactase. This enzyme is needed by the body to digest lactose. Lactose is a sugar found in milk products. Adults and children are affected by this intolerance. Digestive diseases or injuries to the small intestine cause this intolerance. Individuals can experience different symptoms but the common ones are: cramping, bloating, gas, diarrhea, and nausea. The symptoms will worsen when larger portions of milk products are consumed.

Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers
Ulcers are open sores or lesions. They are found in the skin or mucous membranes of areas of the body. A stomach ulcer is called a gastric ulcer and an ulcer in the duodenum is called a duodenal ulcer. Lifestyle, stress and diet used to be thought to cause ulcers. These factors may have a role in ulcer formation; however they are not the main cause of them. Scientists now know that ulcers are caused by hydrochloric acid and pepsin that are contained in our stomach and duodenal parts of our digestive system and that these acids contribute to ulcer formation.

Nervous System Diseases
Welcome to Nervous System Diseases, a complete guide to diseases of the neurological system, with an emphasis on neurosurgical disorders.
Our goal is to provide our readers with a complete, in depth introduction to surgical diseases of the nervous system that is accessible and understandable even if you do not have a background in science or medicine. Our experience both in the neurosciences and in education allows us to bring these oftentimes confusing topics into focus, taking away the mystery and confusion.

Whether you or a loved one has recently been diagnosed with a neurological disease or you are just looking to learn more about neurology and neurosurgery, this site is an introduction to both the diseases that afflict the nervous system as well as the types of procedures and testing that these pathologies often require. If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with one of these disorders, this can be a very scary time for you. However, asking questions and the knowledge you can gain from it are a beginning which can lead to understanding and healing. We hope that this site can help to educate you about these nervous system diseases.

General categories of diseases are found along the navigation bar to your left. Each of those buttons will link to sections which list specific disorders related to that topic. If you are unable to find a particular disease or condition, be sure to use our Site Map and Search function. If you still cannot find it, it is possible we do not yet have an article for that topic. If that is the case, please Contact Us and let us know. We will work hard to post new material often so that we can meet the needs of all of our readers.



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Nervous System Diseases - New Articles
Here are new pages and articles which have been added to Nervous System Diseases recently. Check back often for new content!


Causes of Headache
There are many different causes of headache, from the completely benign to life-threateningly serious. Learn more about different types of headache here.


Stroke
Stroke is a general term for a sudden neurological event which results in the new onset of neurological symptoms. Learn about the various forms of stroke here.


Epilepsy
Epilepsy is a condition characterized by recurring seizures in an individual. Seizures are an abnormal overactivity of the cells of the brain. Learn more about epilepsy, its causes and its forms here.


Brain Tumor Information
A brain tumor is an abnormal growth that involves the brain itself or its surrounding structures. This page contains information about various types of tumors of the central nervous system.


Traumatic Brain Injury
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of death and disability in the world. Learn more about the different forms of this nervous system disease here.


Spinal Disease
Spinal disease is any pathology which affects the spinal column and/or the spinal cord and spinal nerves which are contained therein. Learn more about types of spine disease and spinal surgery here.


Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a diseases of the central nervous system which leads to recurring attacks of neurological symptoms. Learn more about its causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment here.


Cerebrovascular Disease
Cerebrovascular disease refers to disorders of the blood vessels that supply blood flow to the brain. Here is information about various cerebrovascular diseases including brain aneurysms and stroke.


Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease is a degenerative disease which leads to progressively worsening neurological symptoms, primarily related to movement, including tremor and rigidity.


Hydrocephalus
Hydrocephalus is an abnormality of the normal dynamics of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Learn more about hydrocephalus and its different forms and causes here.


CNS Infection: Meningitis, Encephalitis, Abscess and Others
A CNS infection is an infection which involves the central nervous system in some way. Meningitis is one of the most common and well known types. Learn about meningitis and other CNS infections here.


Pediatric Neurological Surgery
Pediatric neurological surgery refers to neuro conditions that afflict children. Pediatric neurosurgery conditions vary from tumors in children to congenital malformations which present in childhood.


Arnold Chiari Malformation
Arnold Chiari Malformation is a malformation of the brain characterized by decent of the cerebellar tonsils below the foramen magnum. Learn more about it here.


Genetic Disorders of the Nervous System
There are several familial, hereditary or genetic disorders of the nervous system that can cause anything from degeneration of the nervous system to tumors. Learn more about genetic diseases here.


Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a rare and mysterious disease which causes rapid degeneration of parts of the nervous system, leading to paralysis and death.


Neurological Assessment
So what can you expect when undergoing a neurological assessment? Here is an overview of some of these common parts of a neurological evaluation.


Neurosurgery Procedures
There are hundreds of different types of neurosurgery procedures that are done for various illnesses affecting the nervous system. Learn about some of them here.


Neurological Medical Terms
Medical terms can be confusing. It can be helpful to have somewhere to go to get more information about what they mean and what they imply in the discussion of a patient.


Disorders of the Muscular System
The disorders of the muscular system are explained in the following paragraphs.

Orofacial Myology Disorders: The orofacial myological disorders are a set of disorders that affect the muscles surrounding the face, jaw, lips and mouth. There are many different types of orofacial myological disorders like blocked nasal airways, dental malocclusions, speech problems, atypical swallowing and chewing patterns, abnormal posture of the orofacial musculature while resting, etc. The different causes of orofacial myological disorders could be as follows: imbalance in dental growth, obstructions or constrictions in the upper airway, low body tone, low-lying tongue resting posture, inadequate cranial and facial bone development, inadequate neck and head muscle development, etc. The treatment measures used for orofacial myological disorders include restoration of correct/proper swallowing patterns, re-education of muscle movement and establishment of adequate labial-lingual postures.

Atony: In this disorder, muscles lose their elasticity. Loss of elasticity and thereby, strength of muscles is the reason why atony is considered dangerous. This disorder of muscles is exhibited through different conditions (or probably symptoms) such atonic seizures, uterine atony and gastrointestinal atony. The atonic seizures are characterized by alterations caused in the brain for a temporary period which in turn is caused by lapse in the muscle tone. In gastrointestinal atony, muscles lose their propulsive ability. This condition is also described as decrease in motor activity of the gastrointesinal tract. In uterine atony, muscles of the uterus lose their tone. Contraction of uterine muscles is reponsible for compression of blood vessels and thereby, the coagulation of blood. Loss of muscle tone hampers the process of blood coagulation and causes acute hemorrhage.

Myopathy: It is one of the many disorders of muscular system; it is characterized by muscle weakness which results from improper functioning of muscle fibers. The different muscle disorders like stiffness, muscle cramps and spasms could also be associated with myopathy. There are many types of myopathies and hence, the treatment for each of them is different. Treatment measures used for myopathy could be the ones which target a specific cause or those dealing with symptoms only. Physical therapy, drug therapy, acupuncture, surgery and bracing for support are amongst the treatment measures used for myopathy.

Pelvic Floor Muscle Disorder: In the pelvic floor muscle disorder, muscles that form the pelvic floor remain in a contracted/tightened position. Causes of the pelvic floor muscle disorder are not exactly known however, possible reasons behind tightening of muscles could be stress, trauma, etc. One might also suffer from problems such as frequent urination or pain in the pelvic region. Treatment measures used for pelvic floor muscle disorder include physical therapy, muscle relaxation, biofeedback and use of medications like Tamsulosin.

Diastasis Recti: It is a disorder where the rectus abdominis muscle, which is normally joined by the linea alba gets separated into left and right halves. This disorder mainly affects pregnant women and newborn babies. Complications such as development of ventral hernia or umbilical cord are treated by means of surgeries. In case of adults, it becomes important to perform surgeries in extreme cases; physiotherapy is used for disorders of a lesser degree/intensity.

Laminopathy: It is a genetic disorder in which mutations tend to occur in those genes which encode the proteins present in nuclear lamina. Along with muscular dystrophy, many other symptoms like dysplasia, diabetes and lipodystrophy are exhibited by people suffering from laminopathy. The treatment measures used for laminopathy are supportive and symptomatic. Those who suffer from muscular dystrophy are treated with the help of physical therapy.

Central Core Disease: It is a congenital myopathy, first described in 1956 by Shy and Magee. Symptoms of this disease are decreased muscle tone, weakness of facial muscles, hip dislocation, scoliosis, etc. There is no specific treatment for this disorder however, use of triggering anesthetics and muscle relaxants is avoided. Relatives of patients could be screened for the purpose of detecting mutations of RYR1 type.

Zenker's Degeneration: Various infectious diseases like typhoid fever, toxemia, etc. cause the degeneration of skeletal muscles; this condition is referred to as Zenker's degeneration. In this disorder, muscles become friable and pale, lose their cross striations, might rupture or exhibit a hyaline appearance.

Arthrogryposis: The arthrogryposis disorder, also known as Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita is characterized by joint contractures, fibrosis and muscle weakness.

Leukemia
The cause of most human leukemia is unknown. It is a kind of cancer in which abnormal white blood cells multiply in an uncontrolled manner. they interfere with the production of normal white blood cells. Leukemia affects the production of red blood cells.

Bursitis
Bursitis is a disorder that causes pain in the body's joints. It most commonly affects the shoulder and hip joints. It is caused by an inflammation of the bursa, small fluid-filled bags that act as lubricating surfaces for muscles to move over bones. This inflammation usually results from overactivity of an arm or leg.

Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a disease resulting in the loss of bone tissue. In osteoporosis, the cancellous bone loses calcium, becomes thinner, and may disappear altogether.

Sprains
A sprain is an injury to a ligament or to the tissue that covers a joint. Most sprains result from a sudden wrench that stretches or tears the tissues of the ligaments. A sprain is usually extremely painful. The injured part often swells and turns black and blue.

Fractures
A fracture is a broken bone. These are some common kinds of fractures:

Spina bifida
Spina bifida is a spinal defect that is present at birth. In spina bifida, the spinal cord does not form properly and the vertebrae and skin cannot form around it. Spina bifida results from an error in the development of the embryo that occurs about a month after a woman becomes pregnant. This error may have various causes, including the use of alcohol or certain medications by the pregnant woman or exposure to extreme heat. Genetic factors appear to be very important.

Scurvy
Scurvy is a disease caused by lack of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in the diet. If a person does not get enough vitamin C, any wound he or she might have heals poorly. The person also bruises easily. The mouth and gums become sore. The gums bleed, and the teeth may become loose. Patients lose their appetite, their joints become sore, and they become restless.

Arthritis
There are more than 100 diseases of the joints referred to as arthritis. Victims of arthritis suffer pain, stiffness, and swelling in their joints.
Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease, occurs when a joint wears out. Many elderly people have osteoarthritis, and the disease may also occur if a joint has been injured many times. The joints most frequently affected are those of the hands, hips, knees, lower back, and neck.


Scoliosis
Scoliosis is a side-to-side curve of the spine. This condition becomes apparent during adolescence. It is unknown why Scoliosis affects more girls than boys.

Talipes equinovarus
Talipes equinovarus, often called clubfoot is an abnormal condition of the foot, usually present at birth. The foot is bent downward and inward so that the person can walk only on the toes and on the outside of the foot. Sometimes the foot is bent upward and outward so that the person can use only the heel for walking.

Tendinitis
Tendinitis is a disorder involving stiffness or pain in the muscles or joints. It is often called rheumatism.

Kyphosis
Kyphosis, also called hunchback is a forward bending of the spine. Kyphosis is caused by any condition that deforms the bones of the upper part of the spine so that the person is bent forward. Diseases that cause kyphosis include tuberculosis, syphilis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Poliomyelitis
Poliomyelitis, also called polio, is a serious infection caused by a virus. A polio virus may attack the nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord, causing paralysis. Some patients show only mild symptoms, such as fever, headache, sore throat, and vomiting. Symptoms may disappear after about a day.



Endometriosis - a condition involving colonization of the abdominal/pelvic cavity with islands of endometrial tissue. Endometrium is the lining layer of the uterus which sloughs off with each menstruation. If endometrial tissue flushes up the uterine tube and spills into the abdomen (peritoneal cavity), the clots of endometrial tissue can attach to abdominal organs such as the bladder, rectum, intestinal loops and then cycle along with the uterus in response to monthly changes in ovarian hormones. Bleeding into the abdomen irritates the lining membrane, the peritoneum, and causes abdominal pain.

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) – although males have a closed abdominal cavity, the female abdominal cavity has a direct anatomical path from the outside world via the female reproductive tract. Bacteria can make their way up the vagina, through the uterus, and traverse the uterine tubes which open into the abdominal cavity. Inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity, the peritoneum, causes abdominal pain. Although there are many potential causes of PID, gonorrheal infection is one of them. Chronic Inflammation of the uterine tubes can occlude them resulting in infertility.

Prolapsed uterus – the uterus is almost directly above the vagina. In fact, the cervix, the neck region, of the uterus extends into the upper vagina. Ligaments hold the uterus in proper position so that it does not prolapse or herniate into the vagina. Severe prolapse can result in the uterine cervix protruding from the vaginal opening. Surgical repair is typically required to restore the uterus to its proper anatomical position.

From the moment it begins beating until the moment it stops, the human heart works tirelessly. In an average lifetime*, the heart beats more than two and a half billion times, without ever pausing to rest. Like a pumping machine, the heart provides the power needed for life.

This life-sustaining power has, throughout time, caused an air of mystery to surround the heart. Modern technology has removed much of the mystery, but there is still an air of fascination and curiosity.

Explore the heart. Discover the complexities of its development and structure. Follow the blood through the blood vessels. Wander through the weblike body systems. Learn how to have a healthy heart and how to monitor your heart's health. Look back at the history of heart science.

Soon, your fascination and curiosity may lead to understanding and respect.

To learn even more about the heart, try taking a look at some recommended resource materials, enrichment activities, and a brief glossary.



*Note: The average lifetime total heartbeats is based on an average of 72 beats per minute during an average lifespan of 75 years. 72 beats per minute x 60 = 4,320 beats per hour. 4,320 beats per hour x 24 = 103,680 beats per day. 103,680 beats per day x 365 = 37,843,200 beats per year. 37,843,200 beats per year x 75 = 2,838,240,000 beats in an average lifetime.
Close to fifty percent of the bacteria in the mouth lives on the surface of our tongue.

There are approximately 9,000 taste buds on the tongue.

Your tongue has 3,000 taste buds.

85% of the population can curl their tongue into a tube.
What Is Prostate Cancer?
What Is the Prostate and How Does It Lead to Prostate Cancer?
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American men, and in most men it grows very slowly. Get an overview of the disease.

Slideshow: A Visual Guide to Prostate Cancer
WebMD's slideshow covers prostate cancer: who's at risk, symptoms, tests, staging, treatments, survival, and foods that may help lower your risk for prostate cancer.

Causes
What Causes Prostate Cancer?
Diet and genetics may be factors in prostate cancer development, but they are not the only ones. Find out what the research shows.

Are You at Risk?
Are You at Risk for Prostate Cancer?
Age, race, diet, family history -- even a sedentary lifestyle -- may all play a part in contributing to your prostate cancer risks. Learn how.

Related Guide: Risk of Prostate Cancer Screening
Getting screened for prostate cancer: Should you or shouldn't you? Most screening tests have risks. Get informed; learn the risks so that you can make the right choice.

Prevention
Prostate Cancer Prevention: A Brief Summary
Is there a connection between BBQ and prostate cancer? How about high-fat diets? Find out what the evidence suggests and learn a few easy ways you can make your diet a healthier one.

Preventing Prostate Cancer: A Deeper Look
It may not be possible to prevent prostate cancer, but you may be able to lower your risk. Find out how taking vitamin E, changing your diet, and other methods may play a part.

Is Prostate Cancer Screening Still Necessary?
Despite controversy, most doctors agree the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test remains an important and necessary diagnostic tool. Find out why.

Is There a Prostate Cancer Diet?
Can we really treat -- or prevent -- prostate cancer with an anticancer diet? Here's one medical professional's opinion.

Video: Prevent Prostate Cancer: Eat Your Fruits and Veggies
After being diagnosed with prostate cancer, 63-year-old Wade Breed learned there may be big benefits to a largely vegetarian diet. Can such a diet help you? Find out more.


Penis Fact #1

Smoking can shorten your penis by as much as a centimeter. Erections are all about good bloodflow, and lighting up calcifies blood vessels, stifling erectile circulation. So even if you don't care all that much about your lungs or dying young, spare the li'l guy.

Doctors can now grow skin for burn victims using the foreskins of circumcised infants. One foreskin can produce 23,000 square meters, which would be enough to tarp every Major League infield with human flesh.


Penis Fact #3

An enlarged prostate gland can cause both erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation. If you have an unexplained case of either, your doctor's looking forward to checking your prostate. Even if you're not.



Penis Fact #15

The most common cause of penile rupture: vigorous masturbation. Some risks are just worth taking.

1• Helping adolescents protect their health
is an important public health priority.
Beyond benefiting young people themselves,
increased investment in adolescent
sexual and reproductive health
contributes to broader development goals,
especially improvements in the overall
status of women and, eventually, reductions
in poverty among families.
• In every developing country, early
marriage and early childbearing are most
common among poor women and those
with little education, two factors that are
themselves intricately related.1
• Whether they are single or married, most
adolescent women are poor or without
monetary resources of their own—some
because they are still in school, others
because they are married with little or no
control over household income, they are
not working or they earn very low wages.1
• Inadequate knowledge about contraception
and how to obtain health services,
high risk of sexual violence2 and little
independence in deciding on the timing
of births or use of contraception3 are
other reasons why many adolescent
women in developing countries are
especially vulnerable.
• In addition, in most parts of the developing
world, unmarried adolescents often
face societal disapproval and condemnation
if they are sexually active.4,5
WHERE ADOLESCENT WOMEN LIVE
• There are an estimated 260 million
women and 280 million men aged 15–19
in developing countries.6
• An estimated 70% of these adolescent
women live in Sub-Saharan Africa (45
million), South Central and Southeast Asia
(113 million), and Latin America and the
Caribbean (45 million). This fact sheet
focuses on those regions. It omits Oceania,
North Africa, Eastern Asia and Western Asia
because they are inadequately covered by
Demographic and Health Surveys or similar
national studies.
• Adolescent women account for about
one-fifth of all women of reproductive age
(15–49) in these regions—23% in Sub-
Saharan Africa, 19% in South Central and
Southeast Asia, and 17% in Latin America
and the Caribbean.
• Most women aged 15–19 in Sub-Saharan
Africa—some 83%—live in low-income
countries, while 71% of those in South
Central and Southeast Asia live in lowermiddle–
income countries, and 70% of
those in Latin America and the Caribbean
live in upper-middle– to high-income
countries.*
• Variations in patterns of marriage,
contraceptive use and levels of unintended
pregnancy among adolescent
women are closely linked to their region
and the level of poverty in their country.
MARRIAGE AND SEXUAL
RELATIONSHIPS
• Twenty-nine percent of adolescent
women in Sub-Saharan Africa are married,
as are 22% in South Central and
Southeast Asia and 15% in Latin America
and the Caribbean.
• The poorer the country and region, the
greater the chances are that adolescent
women are married. An estimated 39% of
women aged 15–19 living in low-income
countries in these regions are married, as
are 27% of those living in lower-middle–
income countries and 13% of those in
upper-middle– to high-income countries.
• About three in 10 unmarried adolescent
women in Sub-Saharan Africa and nearly
one in four in South America have ever
had sex.1 (Unmarried women in Asia overwhelmingly
report not having had sex or,
in many countries, are not included in
surveys.)
ADOLESCENT CHILDBEARING
• In 2008, adolescent women in the
developing world had an estimated 14.3
million births.
• Ninety-one percent of these births
occurred in the regions covered in this
report: five million in Sub-Saharan Africa,
six million in South Central and Southeast
Asia, and two million in Latin America and
the Caribbean.
• Each year, adolescent women account
for 16% of all births in Sub-Saharan
Africa, 12% of those in South Central and
Southeast Asia, and 18% of those in Latin
America and the Caribbean.
• In all regions, birthrates among women
aged 15–19 have declined somewhat over
the past 30 years, but they still vary
widely by region. The biggest decrease
was in South Central Asia, where births
*Based on World Bank estimates of 2007 gross
national income per capita of less than $936 in
low-income countries, $937–$3,705 in lowermiddle–
income countries and $3,706 or more in
upper-middle– and high-income countries.
In Brief In biology, sex is a process of combining and mixing genetic traits, often resulting in the specialization of organisms into a male or female variety (each known as a sex). Sexual reproduction involves combining specialized cells (gametes) to form offspring that inherit traits from both parents. Gametes can be identical in form and function (known as isogametes), but in many cases an asymmetry has evolved such that two sex-specific types of gametes (heterogametes) exist: male gametes are small, motile, and optimized to transport their genetic information over a distance, while female gametes are large, non-motile and contain the nutrients necessary for the early development of the young organism.

An organism's sex is defined by the gametes it produces: males produce male gametes (spermatozoa, or sperm) while females produce female gametes (ova, or egg cells); individual organisms which produce both male and female gametes are termed hermaphroditic. Frequently, physical differences are associated with the different sexes of an organism; these sexual dimorphisms can reflect the different reproductive pressures the sexes experience.

•One in two sexually active youth will contract an STD by age 25
State of the Nation: Challenges Facing STD Prevention in Youth. American Social Health Association, 2005.
•Less than half of high school students reported discussion of sex or STDs during their preventive health visits, and males were less likely to have such discussions
State of the Nation: Challenges Facing STD Prevention in Youth. American Social Health Association, 2005.
•Chlamydia—an often asymptomatic, yet easily curable, bacterial infection—is most prevalent among persons ages 15 to 24. Guidelines for annual chlamydia screening among sexually active young women are not adequately followed. Only an estimated 30-45% of eligible young females were screened in 2003
State of the Nation: Challenges Facing STD Prevention in Youth. American Social Health Association, 2005.
•State of the Nation: Challenges Facing STD Prevention in Youth. American Social Health Association, 2005.
•The majority of adolescents surveyed by the American Social Health Association (ASHA) believed they are tested during routine medical examinations for major STDs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, HIV, hepatitis B, herpes, HPV, syphilis, and trichomoniasis.
State of the Nation: Challenges Facing STD Prevention in Youth. American Social Health Association, 2005.
•Over half of those surveyed by ASHA believed that their partner was associated with STD preventive behaviors.
State of the Nation: Challenges Facing STD Prevention in Youth. American Social Health Association, 2005.
STDs and HIV

•More than one million Americans are believed to be living with HIV. An estimated 40,000 new HIV infections have occurred every year since the 1990s.
Daniel Yee, Cincinnati Enquirer, 14 June 2005.
•A million Americans are now living with the AIDS virus.
Daniel Yee, Cincinnati Enquirer, 14 June 2005.
•Women account for about 25% of the roughly one million Americans believed to be living with HIV.
HIV striking more women in South, Steve Sternberg. USA Today. 15 June 2005.
•According to a study of HIV risk factors, of the 132 women surveyed in North Carolina: HIV-positive women began having sex at 14 1⁄2 years old, a year earlier than those who were HIV negative; 97% of those who were HIV-positive reported having unprotected sex versus 83% of those who were uninfected; 2/3 of HIV-positive women reported having had other STDs, compared with the 65% of those who were HIV-negative.
HIV striking more women in South, Steve Sternberg, USA Today. 15 June 2005.
•According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are 40,000 new HIV infections each year
CDC widens access to preventive HIV drugs, Anita Manning. USA Today, 21 January, 2005.
•Only 116 of 270 adolescents (43%) who differentiated condom efficacy among STDs felt that condoms were very effective for HIV, although research has proven condoms to be highly effective against HIV based on lab and epidemiological findings.
State of the Nation: Challenges Facing STD Prevention in Youth. American Social Health Association, 2005.
•Forty percent of older adolescents surveyed by the Kaiser Family Foundation incorrectly believe that the contraceptive “pill” and “shot” protect against STDs and HIV.
State of the Nation: Challenges Facing STD Prevention in Youth. American Social Health Association, 2005.
•Although African Americans compromise about 13% if the U.S. population, they accounted for over 50% of new HIV diagnoses reported in 2002 and 49% of AIDS diagnoses in 2003. Among women ages 13 to 24, African American and Hispanic females account for over 75% of reported HIV infections.
State of the Nation: Challenges Facing STD Prevention in Youth. American Social Health Association, 2005. .
Abstinence
•Virginity pledgers are less likely to use contraception at first intercourse, but their likelihood of using contraception is no different from sexually active pledgers after their first sexual experience.
Adolescent virginity pledges and risky sexual behaviors, Robert Rector, The Heritage Foundation, 14 June 2005.
•U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC. December 2004.
•Federal appropriations for abstinence-only education programs have exceeded $1 billion since 1982 and over $200 million was proposed by President Bush for federal fiscal year 2006 alone.
State of the Nation: Challenges Facing STD Prevention in Youth. American Social Health Association, 2005
•A 2001 study of 6,800 students showed that virgins who took an abstinence pledge were likely to abstain from sex for 18 months longer than those who did not take the pledge.
Sex in the Body of Christ, Lauren F. Winner. Christianity Today, May 2005.
•A 2003 Northern Kentucky University study showed that 61% of students who signed sexual-abstinence commitment cards broke their pledges. Of the remaining 39% who kept their pledges, 55% said they’d had oral sex, and did not consider oral sex to be sex. A roughly equivalent percentage of self-identified evangelical college students said they do not consider anal intercourse to be sex.
Sex in the Body of Christ, Lauren F. Winner. Christianity Today, May 2005.
Teen Sex
•25% of girls and 30% of boys have sex by age 15, 21% of 9th graders have slept with four or more partners, 50% of 17 year olds have had sex, 80% of teens have sex by age 19, 55% of teens ages 13-19 have engaged in oral sex.
Mama, don’t let your babies grow up to be sexually ignorant, Shannon Ethridge. Enrichment Journal. 2005.
•A study from The Journal of the American Medical Association that enrolled 2,117 teenage girls and women ages 15-24 revealed that those who received emergency contraceptive pills in advance were nearly twice as likely to use them as other participants
Study: Sex habits unchanged by emergency pill. USA Today. 5 January, 2005.
•Nearly 3 in 10 (27%) 13-16 year olds are sexually active
Nearly 3 in 10 young teens ‘sexually active.’ NBC News, PEOPLE Magazine Poll, 19 January 2005.
•The first “map” of teen sexual behavior has found a chain of 288 one-to-one sexual relationships at a high school in the U.S. Midwest, meaning the teenager at the end of the chain may have had direct sexual contact with only one person, but indirect contact with 286 others
Sex Map Shows Chain of Almost 300 High School Lovers, Maggie Fox. Reuters, 24 January, 2005.•34 percent of surveyed church members were worried about teen sex, and one-third worried about sex outside marriage.
Sex in the Body of Christ, Lauren F. Winner. Christianity Today, May 2005.•Almost half of high school students nationwide and about 62% of students in the twelfth-grade have had sexual intercourse.
State of the Nation: Challenges Facing STD Prevention in Youth. American Social Health Association, 2005.
•Fifty-two percent of American women have sex before turning 18, and 75% have sex before they get married.
Sex in the Body of Christ, Lauren F. Winner. Christianity Today, May 2005.
•According to a 2002 study by the Kaiser Family Foundation and Seventeen magazine, more than a quarter of 15 to 17-year-old girls say that sexual intercourse is “almost always” or “most of the time” part of a “casual relationship.”
Sex in the Body of Christ, Lauren F. Winner. Christianity Today, May 2005.
Oral Sex
•More than half of teens ages 15-19 say they’ve had oral sex.
Survey: Many teenagers have oral sex, Sharon Jayson. USA Today 9 September 2005.
•77% of teens would classify oral sex as “sex,” while 43% say oral sex is not seen as being as big a deal as sexual intercourse
Nearly 3 in 10 young teens ‘sexually active.’ NBC News, PEOPLE Magazine Poll, 19 January 2005.
•Adolescents believe oral sex is safer than intercourse, with less risk to their physical and emotional health.
A sense of intimacy appears to be lacking, Sharon Jayson, USA Today 19 October 2005.
•Nine in 10 teens who have had oral sex say they know an STD can be spread through oral sex, but only 3 in 10 always use protection when they have oral sex
Nearly 3 in 10 young teens ‘sexually active.’ NBC News, PEOPLE Magazine Poll, 19 January 2005.
•Roughly half of young teens who have had oral sex or sexual intercourse have been involved in a casual relationship; 67 percent of those that have engaged in casual relationships often do so “to satisfy a sexual desire”
Nearly 3 in 10 young teens ‘sexually active.’ NBC News, PEOPLE Magazine Poll, 19 January 2005.


Miscarriage is a common event in many women's lives. Those of us who have had miscarriages know how difficult the experience can be. Miscarriage can leave ...


Initially, breast cancer may not cause any symptoms. A lump may be too small for you to feel or to cause any unusual changes you can notice on your own. Often, an abnormal area turns up on a screening mammogram (x-ray of the breast), which leads to further testing.

In some cases, however, the first sign of breast cancer is a new lump or mass in the breast that you or your doctor can feel. A lump that is painless, hard, and has uneven edges is more likely to be cancer. But sometimes cancers can be tender, soft, and rounded. So it's important to have anything unusual checked by your doctor.

According to the American Cancer Society, any of the following unusual changes in the breast can be a symptom of breast cancer:

swelling of all or part of the breast
skin irritation or dimpling
breast pain
nipple pain or the nipple turning inward
redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin
a nipple discharge other than breast milk
a lump in the underarm area

A breast is there to give a baby the milk it needs. This special milk has things like Antibodys, that can help this baby, and for the rest of it's life, have less allergy's, have it's brain devoloped more properly, and other good things. Breast feeding is much healthier for the baby than formula, or regular milk.
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