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Artificial Sweetner Group Project

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Joanna Wirkus

on 14 January 2014

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Transcript of Artificial Sweetner Group Project

the FDA conducts strict premarket safety evaluations for new artificial sweeteners How are artificial sweeteners approved for use? Non-nutritive Sweeteners INTRODUCTION Aspartame * FDA Approval
* Acesulfame K
* Neotame
* Sucralose
* Stevia
* Saccharin
* Aspartame
* Long term use
* Food industry
implications inputs outputs Organoleptic Properties

- 180-200 times the sweetness of sucrose
-Onset time of aspartame is longer than that of sucrosed.
-Has a lingering aftertaste, which is distasteful to consumers.
-This is being treated by naringin or aluminum potassium sulfate chemical structure of naringin Presented By:
Stephanie Puccinelli (997785056),
Jason Tien (996676205),
Calvin Wang (996500481),
Joanna Wirkus (997722116),
and Noel Zeng (996898876) Appeared in the US market in 1981 under the name: Nutrasweet, later being called Equal

Comprised of L phenylalanine and L-aspartic acid
Can be coupled either enzymatically or chemically The full chemical name is :
L aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester

Discovered by J.D. Schaltter while
synthesizing ulcer medication in 1965 by
G.D. Searle which is known today as Monsanto Aspartame breaks down into Aspartate, Phenylalanine and Methanol

Aspartate turns into OAA which turns into Glucose
Phenylalanine breaks down into tyrosine and gets oxidized to fumarated.

Methanol becomes formaldehyde and gets expelled from body

Suitable for diabetics
Does not contribute to teeth degradation Some people are diagnosed with PKU or phenylketonuria, which inhibits the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine

Enzyme deficiency

Accumulation of phenylalanine
can cause brain damage or retardation LONG TERM EFFECTS OF ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS When looking at the long term effects, we researched effectiveness as well as negative health related concerns New age sweeteners
-Stevia
-Sucralose
-Neotame Old age sweeteners
-Saccharin
-Acesulfame K
-Aspartame
-Cyclamates Long term (>3 years) studies have not been released yet, however many studies regarding Stevia and Neotame are currently underway. LONG TERM STUDIES OF NEW AGE SWEETENERS The effects Old age sweeteners -Saccharin, Acesulfame K, Aspartame, Cyclamates

The FDA SCF (EU scientific committee on Food) cannot conclusively determine a relationship between increased risk of death and saccharine/acesulfame K consumption

However, Cyclamates were GRAS in 1958, however further research proved it to increase risk of bladder cancer, leading to its ban in 1969 Stevia rebaudiana Saccharin and Asculfame Potassium Used medicinally
by indigenous people
for over 1,500 years Fukushima S, A. M. (1968). Cytogenetic effects of cyclamates. US National Library of Medicine NIH. Steviol Glycosides Chemical Structure Diterpene steviol backbone with different carbohydrate moieties attached.
Example: Rebadioside A has B D Glucose
tri-saccharide and one B linked D glucose The effectiveness of Artificial Sweeteners Aqueous and polar extraction Isolation and purification of isomers
De-colorization
crystallization Stevia sweeteners: Natural source yet highly
processed! Rebaudioside A Stevioside Studies Examining the Long Term Effects of Artificial Sweeteners A study conducted at The San Antonio Heart Study examined 3,682 adults over the course of nine years (1979-1988) concluded with a positive correlation between the development of adipose and the consumption of diet beverages.

“The use of artificial sweeteners may be indirectly related to weight gain. Sugar consumption induces a sense of satiety and in its absence fat and protein intake typically increase” (PJ Rogers, 1988).

The examiners also concluded that users of artificial sweeteners may also have overcompensated for the caloric savings (Mattes, 1990).

The American Heart Association (AHA) and The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) also caveat consumers, releasing this statement,



The subjects within the San Antonio Heart Study saw an average increase of 1.01kg/m2 in the control over nine years while users of artificial sweeteners saw an average increase of 1.78kg/m2. (Fowler SP, 2008). Rebaudioside A Stevioside Organoleptc Properties Clear bitter flavor 300 x 250-450x Superior flavor profile
less bitter flavor Take longer to stimulate sweet receptor and last longer more polar molecule Neotame -Chemical Name:
N-[N-(3,3-dimethyl)-L-alpha-aspartyl]-L- phenylalanine 1-methyl ester Neotame Why Does it Matter? Future Industry Leaders:
Dietetics, Food Science Innovators -Discovered in 1990 by Jean-Marie Tinti and Claude Nofre for the Monsanto Corporation
-Increasing safety of Aspartame fueled Monsanto's research to find a better product -Derivative of aspartame
-Contains dipeptide bond aspartic acid and phenylalanine
with a dimethyl-butylaldehyde group attached Neotame Chemical Properties: Organoleptic
Properties: The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
The American Heart Association
The American Diabetes Association
American Dental Association - 8000x's as sweet as sucrose
-clean sweet taste with no bitter aftertaste Food Properties -increased heat tolerance and low pH tolerance make it useful in baked goods and beverages * there are not any food products in the U.S. containing neotame to date Neotame Metabolism : -De-esterified by esterases in the body producing small amounts of methanol
-Dimethyl butyl group inhibits peptidases from degrading dipeptide bond.*
-Excreted from the body in waste products
-non-cariogenic Neotame Safety: Metabolism -Approved by the FDA in 2002 as a safe food additive.
-Safe for those with PKU
-safe for diabetics Sucralose Saccharin Co-discovered by Constatine Fahlberg and Ira Remsen in 1879 Artificial Sweetener Craze President Theodore Roosevelt became so fascinated with saccharin that he formed the Remsen Board of Consulting Scientific Experts to become more involved in the regulation. Taste, Metabolism, and Absorption Goes through slow absorption and is not excreted as bile. Anywhere from 56-87 percent of saccharin is excreted in the urine, and anywhere from 10-40 percent is excreted in the feces during the first 7 days Distributed among kidney and bladder. Food Safety Regulation and Controversy One of the most thoroughly researched of all food additives 1960s, saccharin was thought of as a potential animal carcinogen.
In 1977, studies indicated bladder cancer in mice Sucralose Sucralose Sucralose Today sucralose is available on the market popularly known as Splenda. Chemical Properties: -1,6-Dichloro-1,6 deoxy-beta-fructofuranosyl-4-chlor-deoxy-alpha-D galactopyranoside
-Chlorinated sucrose
-Bond is highly resistant to heat and acid hydrolysis -can be found in wide variety of foods today. Metabolism: -Not readily metabolized
-Excreted
-Of absorbed sucralose, 2-3% undergoes conjugation, and leaves the body in the urine. Sucralose Food Safety: Sucralose -Approved by the FDA in 1999 as a safe food additive.
-More than 110 human and animal studies have been performed
-results maintain it is a safe sugar alternative
-Safe for people with genetic disorders (PKU), & diabetics Controversy: "it's made from sugar, so it tastes like sugar" -In 2005, Merisant, owner of Equal, sued McNeil Nutritionals for false advertisement.
-Splenda appeared to be more natural and healthier than other nonnutritive sweeteners to consumers. Examples of Stevia Extracts and Foods Containing Stevia Extracts -Discovery made by sugar company Tate & Lyle in 1978
- Their research was aimed at finding ways to increase the value of the cane sugar cane commodity.
-Discovered by accident!!! FDA Banned! 1991 1. submit a petition for the marketing of a new artificial sweetener
- includes relevant safety data about the new artificial sweetener
* measure the Estimated Daily Intake and determine the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of the additive.
2. Evaluated by teams of scientist assembled by the FDA from within the Office of Food Additive Safety (OFAS)
3. Once approved:
- must be safe for everyone
- specification about the type of foods in which it can be used, the maximum amounts to be used and how it should be identified on food labels. New Artificial Sweetener
Approval Process Acesulfame
Neotame
Sucralose
Stevia
Saccharin
Aspartame FDA approved artificial sweeteners Cyclamate Artificial Sweetener banned by FDA - Chemical name: 6-Methyl-1,2,3-oxathiazin-4(3H)-one-2,2-dioxide
- heat stable
- good solubility
- not affected by sterilization and pasteurization Acesulfame Potassium "People who use artificial sweeteners may replace the lost calories through other sources, possibly offsetting weight loss or health benefits" Organoleptic Properties -600 x's sweeter than sucrose
-no bitter after taste -Sucralose can be used in baked goods and in beverages as well Who is responsible? What are they responsible for? by Karl Clauss and Herald Jensen in 1967 DISCOVERY: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AKA: Acesulfame K or Ace K trade names: Sunett and Sweet One AND PROPERTIES ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES - colorless to white
- odorless
- 200x sweeter than sucrose
- no aftertaste
- synergistic effects when combined with aspartame or sodium cyclamate Acesulfame Potassium METABOLISM and ABSORPTION - non-caloric sweetener
- not metabolized
- excreted in urine, unchanged Acesulfame Potassium FOOD SAFETY - first approved in 1988 for specific uses (including as a table top sweetener)
- in 1998 approved for use in beverages
- in 2003 approved for general uses in food (except in meat and poultry)
- nontoxic and nonirritant material
- NOT mutagenic or carcinogenic Acesulfame Potassium CONTROVERSY - carcinogen?
- but studies reviewed by FDA show no association with cancer -> 200-700 times sweeter than sucrose
->Has an unpleasant bitter/metallic aftertaste at high concentrations Saccharin Table Top sweeteners
- Sweet n' Low
-Sugartwin -Instant beverages
-Juices
-Iced Teas -Jams
-Marmalades -Chapstick
-Toothpaste -Cider
-Pickles
-Sauces -HFCS possibly linked to diabetes -VOGUE and body image “Use of this product may be hazardous to your health. This product contains saccharin, which has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals.” -Led to ban of saccharin in Canada and in U.S In 1991, the FDA removed the ban on saccharin Artificial Sweeteners in our Everyday Lives and in the Food Industry Why is there a market for them? How does the food industry play a role in artificial sweeteners? INPUTS Processes OUTPUTS Agricultural Commodities -Crop Productivity and Selection -Safety -Composition Food Industrial Manufacturing -Safety -Cost -Stability THE PRODUCT -Cost -Convenience -Delight -Marketing -Nutrition Problems Associated with the Metabolism of Aspartame Metabolism of Aspartame Aspartame
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