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Transcript of Ocean Curent
David, Joseph, and Matthew Ocean What Makes Surface Currents Move? What Makes Deep Currents Move? Tides Notes Ocean Waves and Their Effect on Shaping Land Not Surprise Quiz The daily cycle of rising and falling ocean water is called the tide. It is caused by the gravitational attraction between Earth and the moon. The earth and moon are close to each other in space they have a gravitational effect on each other, the pull is strongest on the side of earth closest to the moon. Water on that side of earth pulled away from earth and towards the moon causing a bulge in the water thus creating a high tide. At the same time on the opposite side the water is now farther than the mass of the earth from the moon which means the earth is being pulled away from the water and is being pulled towards the moon, which causes a bulge experienced as high tide. Ocean current The class will be separated into 2 teams. There will be 11 questions. If you got the answer wrong you will be punish. The will be no prize. The prize will be a bag of candies. Good luck. The effect of wind The effect of spin The effect of continent shape Water temperature Ocean Current Water salinity Ocean currents are large amount of water that in a particular and unchanging direction. There are more that 20 major currents around the world the world, and they carry vast amount of dissolved minerals, solar energy, oxygen, carbon dioxide, fish and plankton. Winds are the results of masses of air moving rapidly from one area to
another because of temperature differences. As air becomes heated by the Sun, the particles became less dense and so they rise. When that happens, cooler, denser air quickly replace the area left by the rising air. As this moving air crosses over the ocean’s surface, its energy is transferred to the water molecules, causing the ocean water to move. The direction and speed of the current depends on the direction and speed of the wind Earth spins from west to east (counter clockwise). As winds and currents move over this spinning body, their path gets redirected depending on what side of the equator they are on. For an observer standing on the surface of Earth in the northern hemisphere, the winds and currents would be deflected to the right (east). For an observer standing on Earth’s surface in the southern hemisphere, the winds and currents would be deflected to the left (west). This alteration of direction is called the Coriolis effect. Just like large rocks in a stream affect the path of water in a stream, so continents affect how and where surface currents will move. Even though the world’s ocean water is connected, we treat it as five different ocean basins separated by the natural barriers of the continents. Temperature affects the density of ocean water. The colder the water, the greater the density tends to be. Cold water will tend to sink beneath warmer water. The water will then move along the ocean floor. This sinking and movement of dense water beneath surface water is called a density current.
There are three different layers to ocean water: the surface (or mixed layer), the thermocline, and deep water. Water with high salinity is denser than water with low salinity. Just like the effect of the wind, the water with higher salinity will sink and water with lower salinity will rice and replace the empty space. There are several ways for the salinity of ocean water change from one place to another. Like Ch10, adding fresh water to ocean water will decreases the salinity. This happens when rivers carry fresh water into the ocean and the melting of ice near the North and South poles. Increases in salinity occur through the processes of evaporation and freezing. For example when the water evaporate near tropical areas or the freezing water near the North and South poles. Water salinity 2 This rising of water from the deep is called upwelling. Upwelling brings nutrient-rich waters to the surface, which feeds plankton, one of the main food sources for fish and other organisms in the ocean. Upwelling keeps an almost constant supply of nutrients coming to the surface waters from
deeper water. Headlands Plankton Wind action Density current Thermocline Upwelling Tsunami Headlands Bays Tide Much of how waves behave when they reach a coastline depends on the shape of the coastline. Headlands are sections of the coastline that extend out into the ocean. They are composed of harder rock than the surrounding land, which is why they have not been eroded back as much. Because headlands reach farther out into the water incoming waves hit them before reaching the rest of the shoreline on either side. As a result, headlands receive the main force of the waves, which creates interesting features such as sea stacks. The remaining waves will spread out and lose most of their power. Bays are areas in the coastline where the ocean reaches into the land. By the time waves reach a bay, the waves are not traveling with the same amount of energy as when they hit the headlands. Once the waves slow down, they also deposit some of the sediments they have eroded from the headlands and elsewhere which sometime creates a beach. Bays Ocean waves are large ripples caused by wind passing over the surface of the water. Large rolling waves that formed in open ocean are call swell. The largest waves are not created by wind. They can be set into motion by earthquakes. landslides, and volcanic eruption near the coastline which create tsunami. Waves have the power to erode the hardest rocky coast that deposit grate amount of sediment on shore. As result erosion and deposition, some coastlines developed sandy beaches, and some developed steep cliffs. Tides 2 The water in between the 2 high tides are being pulled towards the bulges causing low tides. The areas difference between high and low tide is called tidal range. The sun also plays a role in the tides as well when the moon and sun are aligned the combined gravitational pull is stronger which creates much more exaggerated tidal ranges. When this occurs it's called a spring tide however it has nothing to do with the season. When moon and sun not aligned the pull is less extreme, these tides are called neap tides. 1. How many major currents are there? 20 2. How are headlands form? Erosion of the wave 3. What is tide? 4.What effect the surface currents? 5. What effect the deep ocean currents? 6. How is a bay formed? 7. When does spring tides happen? 8. How are sea stacks created. 9.Why is upwelling important? Upwelling brings nutrient-rich waters to the surface, which feeds plankton, one of the main food sources for fish and other organisms in the ocean. Erosion on the headlands When moon and sun are aligned the combined gravitational pull is stronger Deposition of the waves Water temperature and salinity Wind, the Earth's spin, and the shape of the continents The daily rising and falling of the ocean water due to the gravitational attraction between earth and moon 1000m or higher 1000m to seafloor 2°C above freezing Warmest layer of the ocean 10. Which layer is the warmest layer of the ocean water? The surface (mixed layer) 11. Why are current important? They carry vast amount of dissolved minerals, solar energy, oxygen, carbon dioxide, fish and plankton which are very important the other ocean living creatures.